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2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.46 2003/11/15 00:35:18 neysx Exp $ -->
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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 10<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
14<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 15<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13 16
17<license/>
18
14<version>1.1.2</version> 19<version>1.1.10</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 20<date>November 7, 2003</date>
21
22<chapter>
23<title>Featured Questions</title>
24<section>
25<title>Getting Started</title>
26<body>
27<ul>
28<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
29<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
30</ul>
31</body>
32</section>
33<section>
34<title>Installation</title>
35<body>
36<ul>
37<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
38<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
39<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
40<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
41<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
42<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
43<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
44<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
45<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
46<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
47<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
48<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
49<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
50<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
51<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
52</ul>
53</body>
54</section>
55<section>
56<title>Package Management</title>
57<body>
58<ul>
59<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
60<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
61<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
62<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
63<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
64<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
65<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
66<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
67<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
68<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
69<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
70<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
71<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
72<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
73<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
74<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
75</ul>
76</body>
77</section>
78<section>
79<title>Usage</title>
80<body>
81<ul>
82<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
83<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
84<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
85<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
86<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
87<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
88<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
89<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
90I log out?</uri></li>
91</ul>
92</body>
93</section>
94<section>
95<title>Maintenance</title>
96<body>
97<ul>
98<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
99<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
100<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
101</ul>
102</body>
103</section>
104<section>
105<title>Development</title>
106<body>
107<ul>
108<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
109<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
110<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
111<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
112<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
113<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
114</ul>
115</body>
116</section>
117<section>
118<title>Resources</title>
119<body>
120<ul>
121<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
122<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
123<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
124<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
125<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
126</ul>
127</body>
128</section>
129</chapter>
130
16 131
17<chapter> 132<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 133 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 134
20 <section> 135 <section>
77 </p> 192 </p>
78 </body> 193 </body>
79 </section> 194 </section>
80 195
81 <section> 196 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 197 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title> 198 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body> 199 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of 200 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code 201 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC) 202 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops 203 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about 204 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use 205 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, 206 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package 207 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p> 208 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p> 209 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install. 221 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body> 222 </p></body>
123 </section> 223 </section>
124 <section> 224 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 225 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 226 <body>
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 227 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 228 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
229 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
230 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
231 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
232 </p>
233 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
234 </p>
130 </body> 235 </body>
131 </section> 236 </section>
132 <section> 237 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 238 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 239 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 312 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 313 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body> 314 </body>
210 </section> 315 </section>
211 316
317 <section>
318 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
319 <body>
320 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
321 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
322 </body>
323 </section>
324 <section>
325 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
326 <body>
327 <p>
328 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
329 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
330 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
331 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
332 </p>
333 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
334<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
335<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
336# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
337# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
338# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
339# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
340<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
341# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
342# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
343# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
344# <i>make menuconfig</i>
345<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
346<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
347# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
348<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
349# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
350<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
351# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
352<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
353# <i>exit</i>
354# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
355# <i>reboot</i>
356 </pre>
357 <p>
358 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
359 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
360 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
361 </p>
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section>
365 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
370 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
371 </p>
372<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
373# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
374</pre>
375 <p>
376 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
377 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
378 </p>
379<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
380FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
381RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
382</pre>
383 <p>
384 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
385 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
386 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
387 handle this situation.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392
212</chapter> 393</chapter>
213 394
214<chapter> 395<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 396 <title>Package Management</title>
216 <section> 397 <section>
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 398 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 399 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 400 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 401 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 402 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 403 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 404 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 405 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
225 </body> 406 </body>
226 </section> 407 </section>
245 </section> 426 </section>
246 427
247 <section> 428 <section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 429 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
249 <body> 430 <body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 431 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 432 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
252 </body> 433 </body>
253 </section> 434 </section>
254 435
255 <section> 436 <section>
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 511 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 512 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 513 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 514 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 515 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 516 which is now part of Portage.
336 </p></body> 517 </p></body>
337 </section> 518 </section>
338 519
339 <section> 520 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 521 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
341 <body><p> 522 <body>
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 523<p>
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 524Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 525ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 526Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 527</p>
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 528
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 529<p>
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 530Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 531/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 532</p>
352 </p></body> 533
534<p>
535Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
536Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
537perform to configure and compile the package.
538</p>
539
540<p>
541When finished, execute <c>touch
542/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
543into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
544<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
545merge</c>.
546</p>
547
548 </body>
353 </section> 549 </section>
354 550
355 <section> 551 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 552 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p> 553 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 554 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 555 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 556 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 557 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 558 supported.
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 559 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
560~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
561 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
562 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
563 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
564 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
565 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
566 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
567 lose all your sourcecode.
568 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
569<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
570~# <c>cd /usr</c>
571~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
572~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
573~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
574~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
364 </p></body> 575 </p></body>
365 </section> 576 </section>
366 577
367 <section> 578 <section>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 579 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
382 <section> 593 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 594 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title> 595 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p> 596 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 597 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
598 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
599 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 600 Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 601 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 602 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body> 603 </p></body>
391 </section> 604 </section>
392 605
402 again. 615 again.
403 </p></body> 616 </p></body>
404 </section> 617 </section>
405 618
406 <section> 619 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 620 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 621 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 622 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433 623
434 <body> 624 <body>
436 <pre caption = "Solution"> 626 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 627# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 628# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre> 629 </pre>
440 630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section>
634 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
635 <body>
636 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
441 </body> 637 </body>
442 </section> 638 </section>
443</chapter> 639</chapter>
444 640
445<chapter> 641<chapter>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 684 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 685 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 686 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 687 </body>
492 </section> 688 </section>
689
690 <section>
691 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
692 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
693 </p>
694 </body>
695 </section>
696
697 <section>
698 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
699 <body>
700 <p>
701 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
702 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
703 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
704 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
705 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
706 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
707 </p>
708 <p>
709 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
710 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
711 reboot.
712 </p>
713 </body>
714 </section>
715 <section>
716 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
717 <body>
718 <p>
719 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
720 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
721 </p>
722 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
723$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
724 <p>
725 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
726 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
727 </p>
728 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
729# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
730 </body>
731 </section>
732
733
493</chapter> 734</chapter>
494 735
495<chapter> 736<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 737 <title>Maintenance</title>
497 <section> 738 <section>
514 <body> 755 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 756 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 757 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517 758
518<pre> 759<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i> 760# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
520</pre> 761</pre>
521 762
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 763<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523 764
524<pre> 765<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i> 766# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre> 767</pre>
527 768
528</body> 769</body>
529 </section> 770 </section>
771 <section>
772 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
773 <body>
774
775<p>
776Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
777recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
778performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
779system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
780turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
781<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
782expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
783disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
784METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
785</p>
786
787<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
788<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
789# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
790<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
791# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
792</pre>
793
794 </body>
795 </section>
530</chapter> 796</chapter>
531 797
532<chapter> 798<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 799 <title>Development</title>
534 <section> 800 <section>
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 801 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 802 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 803 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 804 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
539 </p></body> 805 </p></body>
540 </section> 806 </section>
541 807
542 <section> 808 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 809 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 810 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 811 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 812 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 813 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 814 new modules get added.</p></body>
549 </section> 815 </section>
555 </section> 821 </section>
556 822
557 <section> 823 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 824 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 825 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 826 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
561 </section> 827 </section>
562 828
563 <section> 829 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 830 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p> 831 <body><p>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body> 868 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section> 869 </section>
604 870
605 <section> 871 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 872 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 873 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
608 </section> 874 </section>
609 875
610 <section> 876 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 877 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 878 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
651 </section> 917 </section>
652 918
653 <section> 919 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 920 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 921 <body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 922 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 923 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 924 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
925 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 926 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 927 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
661 </p> 928 </p>
662 </body> 929 </body>
663 </section> 930 </section>

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