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2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.49 2003/12/05 20:25:38 vapier Exp $ -->
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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 10<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 11<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
14<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15<abstract>
16This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list
17and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author
18or a member of the documentation team.
19</abstract>
13 20
21<license/>
22
14<version>1.1.2</version> 23<version>1.1.11</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 24<date>December 3, 2003</date>
25
26<chapter>
27<title>Featured Questions</title>
28<section>
29<title>Getting Started</title>
30<body>
31<ul>
32<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</uri></li>
33<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
34</ul>
35</body>
36</section>
37<section>
38<title>Installation</title>
39<body>
40<ul>
41<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
42<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
43<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
44<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
45<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
46<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
47<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
48<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
49<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
50<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri></li>
51<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
52<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
53<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri></li>
54<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
55<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
56</ul>
57</body>
58</section>
59<section>
60<title>Package Management</title>
61<body>
62<ul>
63<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
64<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
65<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
66<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
67<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
68<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
69<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
70<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
71<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
72<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
73<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
74<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
75<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
76<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
77<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri></li>
78<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri></li>
79</ul>
80</body>
81</section>
82<section>
83<title>Usage</title>
84<body>
85<ul>
86<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
87<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri></li>
88<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
89<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri></li>
90<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri></li>
91<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri></li>
92<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
93<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</uri></li>
94</ul>
95</body>
96</section>
97<section>
98<title>Maintenance</title>
99<body>
100<ul>
101<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc...</uri></li>
102<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri></li>
103<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
104</ul>
105</body>
106</section>
107<section>
108<title>Development</title>
109<body>
110<ul>
111<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
112<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
113<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
114<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
115<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri></li>
116<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri></li>
117</ul>
118</body>
119</section>
120<section>
121<title>Resources</title>
122<body>
123<ul>
124<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri></li>
125<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
126<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
127<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
128<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</uri></li>
129</ul>
130</body>
131</section>
132</chapter>
133
16 134
17<chapter> 135<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 136 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 137
20 <section> 138 <section>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 139 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 140 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").</p></body>
23 </section> 141 </section>
24 142
25 <section> 143 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 144 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body> 145 <body>
146 <p>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 147 Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 148 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 149 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 150 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 151 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 152 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 153 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35 versions. 154 versions.
36 </p> 155 </p>
37 </body> 156 </body>
38 </section> 157 </section>
39</chapter> 158</chapter>
40 159
41<chapter> 160<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 161 <title>Installation</title>
43 162
44 <section> 163 <section>
45 164
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 165 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 166 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
48 </warn> 167 </warn>
49 168
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 169 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 170 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
77 </p> 196 </p>
78 </body> 197 </body>
79 </section> 198 </section>
80 199
81 <section> 200 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 201 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title> 202 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body> 203 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of 204 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code 205 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC) 206 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops 207 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about 208 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use 209 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, 210 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package 211 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p> 212 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p> 213 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install. 225 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body> 226 </p></body>
123 </section> 227 </section>
124 <section> 228 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 229 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 230 <body>
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 231 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 232 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
233 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
234 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
235 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
236 </p>
237 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.</p>
130 </body> 238 </body>
131 </section> 239 </section>
132 <section> 240 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 241 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 242 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition. 302 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to 303 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the 304 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>. 305 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p> 306 </p>
199 </body> 307 </body>
200 </section> 308 </section>
201 309
202 <section> 310 <section>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware 311 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title> 312 detection. </title>
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 315 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 316 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body> 317 </body>
210 </section> 318 </section>
211 319
320 <section>
321 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
322 <body>
323 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
324 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
325 </body>
326 </section>
327
328 <section>
329 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
330 <body>
331 <p>
332 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
333 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
334 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
335 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
336 </p>
337 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
338<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
339<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
340# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
341# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
342# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
343# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
344<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
345# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
346# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
347# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
348# <i>make menuconfig</i>
349<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
350<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
351# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
352<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
353# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
354<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
355# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
356<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
357# <i>exit</i>
358# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
359# <i>reboot</i>
360 </pre>
361 <p>
362 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
363 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
364 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
365 </p>
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section>
369 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
374 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
375 </p>
376<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
377# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
378</pre>
379 <p>
380 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
381 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
382 </p>
383<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
384FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
385RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
386</pre>
387 <p>
388 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
389 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
390 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
391 handle this situation.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </section>
396
212</chapter> 397</chapter>
213 398
214<chapter> 399<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 400 <title>Package Management</title>
216 <section> 401 <section>
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 402 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 403 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 404 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 405 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 406 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 407 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 408 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 409 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
225 </body> 410 </body>
226 </section> 411 </section>
245 </section> 430 </section>
246 431
247 <section> 432 <section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 433 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
249 <body> 434 <body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 435 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 436 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
252 </body> 437 </body>
253 </section> 438 </section>
254 439
255 <section> 440 <section>
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 515 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 516 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 517 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 518 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 519 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 520 which is now part of Portage.
336 </p></body> 521 </p></body>
337 </section> 522 </section>
338 523
339 <section> 524 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 525 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
341 <body><p> 526 <body>
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 527<p>
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 528Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 529ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 530Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 531</p>
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 532
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 533<p>
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 534Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 535/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 536</p>
352 </p></body> 537
538<p>
539Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
540Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
541perform to configure and compile the package.
542</p>
543
544<p>
545When finished, execute <c>touch
546/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
547into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
548<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
549merge</c>.
550</p>
551
552 </body>
353 </section> 553 </section>
354 554
355 <section> 555 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 556 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p> 557 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 558 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 559 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 560 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 561 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 562 supported.
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 563 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
564~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
565 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
566 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
567 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
568 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
569 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
570 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
571 lose all your sourcecode.
572 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
573<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
574~# <c>cd /usr</c>
575~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
576~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
577~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
578~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
364 </p></body> 579 </p></body>
365 </section> 580 </section>
366 581
367 <section> 582 <section>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 583 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
382 <section> 597 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 598 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title> 599 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p> 600 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 601 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
602 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
603 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 604 Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 605 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 606 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body> 607 </p></body>
391 </section> 608 </section>
392 609
402 again. 619 again.
403 </p></body> 620 </p></body>
404 </section> 621 </section>
405 622
406 <section> 623 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 624 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 625 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 626 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433 627
434 <body> 628 <body>
436 <pre caption = "Solution"> 630 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 631# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 632# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre> 633 </pre>
440 634
635 </body>
636 </section>
637 <section>
638 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
639 <body>
640 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
441 </body> 641 </body>
442 </section> 642 </section>
443</chapter> 643</chapter>
444 644
445<chapter> 645<chapter>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 688 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 689 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 690 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 691 </body>
492 </section> 692 </section>
693
694 <section>
695 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
696 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
697 </p>
698 </body>
699 </section>
700
701 <section>
702 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
703 <body>
704 <p>
705 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
706 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
707 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
708 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
709 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
710 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
711 </p>
712 <p>
713 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
714 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
715 reboot.
716 </p>
717 </body>
718 </section>
719 <section>
720 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
721 <body>
722 <p>
723 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
724 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
725 </p>
726 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
727$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
728 <p>
729 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
730 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
731 </p>
732 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
733# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
734 </body>
735 </section>
736
737
493</chapter> 738</chapter>
494 739
495<chapter> 740<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 741 <title>Maintenance</title>
497 <section> 742 <section>
514 <body> 759 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 760 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 761 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517 762
518<pre> 763<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i> 764# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
520</pre> 765</pre>
521 766
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 767<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523 768
524<pre> 769<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i> 770# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre> 771</pre>
527 772
528</body> 773</body>
529 </section> 774 </section>
775 <section>
776 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
777 <body>
778
779<p>
780Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
781recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
782performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
783system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
784turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
785<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
786expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
787disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
788METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
789</p>
790
791<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
792<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
793# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
794<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
795# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
796</pre>
797
798 </body>
799 </section>
530</chapter> 800</chapter>
531 801
532<chapter> 802<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 803 <title>Development</title>
534 <section> 804 <section>
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 805 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 806 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 807 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 808 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
539 </p></body> 809 </p></body>
540 </section> 810 </section>
541 811
542 <section> 812 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 813 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 814 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 815 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 816 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 817 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 818 new modules get added.</p></body>
549 </section> 819 </section>
555 </section> 825 </section>
556 826
557 <section> 827 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 828 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 829 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 830 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
561 </section> 831 </section>
562 832
563 <section> 833 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 834 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p> 835 <body><p>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body> 872 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section> 873 </section>
604 874
605 <section> 875 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 876 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 877 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
608 </section> 878 </section>
609 879
610 <section> 880 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 881 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 882 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
651 </section> 921 </section>
652 922
653 <section> 923 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 924 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 925 <body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 926 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>,
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 927 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 928 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
929 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 930 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 931 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
661 </p> 932 </p>
662 </body> 933 </body>
663 </section> 934 </section>

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