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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
13 31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
37
38<license/>
39
14<version>1.1.2</version> 40<version>2.1</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 41<date>March 20, 2004</date>
16 42
17<chapter> 43<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body>
19 48
20 <section> 49<ul>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 50 <li>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body>
23 </section> 60</section>
24
25 <section> 61<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 63<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 64
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 65<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 66 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 69 gives?</uri>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 70 </li>
35 versions. 71 <li>
36 </p> 72 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96</ul>
97
37 </body> 98</body>
38 </section> 99</section>
100<section>
101<title>Package Management</title>
102<body>
103
104<ul>
105 <li>
106 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
110 Can I?</uri>
111 </li>
112 <li>
113 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I use emerge from behind a
117 firewall?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">Can I rsync from another operating
121 system?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
125 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
126 </li>
127 <li>
128 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
129 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
130 delete there files?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
134 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
135 </li>
136</ul>
137
138</body>
139</section>
140<section>
141<title>Usage</title>
142<body>
143
144<ul>
145 <li>
146 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
147 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
148 </li>
149 <li>
150 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
154 Layout?</uri>
155 </li>
156 <li>
157 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
167 out?</uri>
168 </li>
169</ul>
170
171</body>
172</section>
173<section>
174<title>Maintenance</title>
175<body>
176
177<ul>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
180 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
181 </li>
182 <li>
183 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
184 </li>
185</ul>
186
187</body>
188</section>
189<section>
190<title>Development</title>
191<body>
192
193<ul>
194 <li>
195 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 </li>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">How can I add a question or answer to this
202 FAQ?</uri>
203 </li>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
206 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
207 </li>
208</ul>
209
210</body>
211</section>
212<section>
213<title>Resources</title>
214<body>
215
216<ul>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
219 Linux?</uri>
220 </li>
221 <li>
222 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
226 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
227 entire list?</uri>
228 </li>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 do now?</uri>
232 </li>
233</ul>
234
235</body>
236</section>
39</chapter> 237</chapter>
40 238
41<chapter> 239<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 240<title>Getting Started</title>
43 241
44 <section> 242<section>
243<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244<body>
45 245
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 246<p>
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 247A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
48 </warn> 248"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
49 249penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 250penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 251</p>
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 252
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 253</body>
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 254</section>
66
67 <section> 255<section>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 256<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
69 <body><p> 257<body>
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 258
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 259<p>
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 260Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 261link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 262that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 263Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
76 stabilise anytime soon. 264link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
265conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
266sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
77 </p> 270</p>
271
272<p>
273With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277<e>meta-distribution</e>.
278</p>
279
280<p>
281Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
286</p>
287
78 </body> 288</body>
79 </section> 289</section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
135 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
136 command as root:</p>
137 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
142 <body>
143 <p>
144 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
145 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
146 kernel, didn't you?).
147 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
148 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
149 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
150 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 <section>
155 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
158 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
163 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
164 <body>
165 <p>
166 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
167 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
168 it will be preserved between reboots.
169 </p>
170 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
171 and add these lines:</p>
172<pre>
173REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
174UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
175</pre>
176 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
177 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
178 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
179 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
184 <body><p>
185 During installation the grub boot files are copied
186 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
187 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
188 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
189 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
190 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
191 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
192 unpacking the build snapshot or running
193 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201
202 <section>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title>
205 <body>
206 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212</chapter> 290</chapter>
213 291
214<chapter> 292<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 293<title>Installation</title>
216 <section> 294<section>
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 295<title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 296 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 297 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 298</title>
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 299<body>
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 300
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 301<p>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 302Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by
303current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
304compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
305do the same thing anymore.
306</p>
307
308<p>
309Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
310bug.
311</p>
312
225 </body> 313</body>
226 </section> 314</section>
227
228 <section> 315<section>
229 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title> 316<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
230 <body> 317<body>
231 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 318
232 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 319<p>
233 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 320You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
234 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 321into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
235 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 322completed the install.
323</p>
324
236 </body> 325</body>
237 </section> 326</section>
238
239 <section> 327<section>
240 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 328<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
241 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 329<body>
242 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 330
243 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 331<p>
244 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 332The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
333is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
334</p>
335
336<p>
337Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
338</p>
339
340<pre caption="Using useradd">
341# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
342</pre>
343
344<p>
345This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
346devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
347root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
348</p>
349
350<p>
351You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
352then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
353the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
354</p>
355
356</body>
245 </section> 357</section>
246
247 <section> 358<section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 359<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
249 <body> 360<body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 361
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 362<p>
252 </body> 363For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
364<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
365the following command as root:
366</p>
367
368<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
369# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
370</pre>
371
372</body>
253 </section> 373</section>
254
255 <section> 374<section>
256 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 375<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
257 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 376<body>
258 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 377
259 are as follows:</p> 378<p>
260 <table> 379If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
261 <tr> 380can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
262 <th>Flag</th> 381other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
263 <th>Description</th> 382kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
264 </tr> 383to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
265 <tr> 384link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
266 <ti>CHOST</ti> 385</p>
267 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti> 386
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
271 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
275 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
276 files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>USE</ti>
280 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
281 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
282 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
283 also USE-aware.</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
287 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
288 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
289 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
290 </tr>
291 </table>
292 </body> 387</body>
293 </section> 388</section>
294
295 <section> 389<section>
296 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 390<title>
391 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
392</title>
297 <body> 393<body>
298 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 394
299 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 395<p>
300 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 396In fact there is no difference between the various releases
301 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 397<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
302 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 398<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
303 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 399will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
304 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 400The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
305 <ol> 401</p>
306 <li>Environment variables</li> 402
307 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 403</body>
308 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
309 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
310 any other place come from here)</li>
311 </ol></p></body>
312 </section> 404</section>
313
314 <section> 405<section>
315 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 406<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
316 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title> 407<body>
317 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
318 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
319 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
320 408
409<p>
410You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
411kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
412on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
413<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
414</p>
321 415
322 </p></body> 416<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
417<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
418<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
419# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
420# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
421# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
422# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
423<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
424# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
425# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
426# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
427# <i>make menuconfig</i>
428<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
429<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
430# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
431<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
432# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
433<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
434# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
435<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
436# <i>exit</i>
437# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
438# <i>reboot</i>
439</pre>
440
441<p>
442If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
443follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
444should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
445</p>
446
447</body>
323 </section> 448</section>
324
325 <section> 449<section>
326 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 450<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
327 clobbering my config files?</title> 451<body>
328 <body><p> 452
329 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 453<p>
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 454When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 455following syntax to authenticate yourself:
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 456</p>
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 457
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 458<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 459# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
336 </p></body> 460</pre>
461
462<p>
463To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
464<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
465</p>
466
467<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
468FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
469RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
474authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
475if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
476handle this situation.
477</p>
478
479</body>
337 </section> 480</section>
338
339 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
341 <body><p>
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
352 </p></body>
353 </section>
354
355 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
360 /usr/portage snapshots from
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
364 </p></body>
365 </section>
366
367 <section>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
369 <body><p>
370 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
371 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
372 appropriately.
373 </p></body>
374 </section>
375
376 <section>
377 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
378 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
379 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
380 </section>
381
382 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body>
391 </section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
395 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
398 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
399 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
400 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
401 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
402 again.
403 </p></body>
404 </section>
405
406 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433
434 <body>
435 <p>Solution: </p>
436 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443</chapter> 481</chapter>
444 482
445<chapter> 483<chapter>
446 <title>Usage</title> 484<title>Package Management</title>
447 <section> 485<section>
448 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 486<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
449 account doesn't work. </title> 487<body>
450 <body> 488
451 <p> 489<p>
452 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 490They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
453 for your user entry in 491primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
454 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 492(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
455 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 493apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
494The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
495contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
496create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
497(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
498file).
456 </p> 499</p>
457 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 500
458 </body> 501</body>
459 </section> 502</section>
460
461 <section> 503<section>
462 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 504<title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
463 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 505<body>
464 set). Type the following as root:</p> 506
465 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 507<p>
508Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
509ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
510Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
515/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
516</p>
517
518<p>
519Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
520Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
521perform to configure and compile the package.
522</p>
523
524<p>
525When finished, execute <c>touch
526/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
527into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
528<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
529merge</c>.
530</p>
531
466 </body> 532</body>
467 </section> 533</section>
468
469 <section> 534<section>
470 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 535<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
471 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 536<body>
472 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 537
473 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 538<p>
539If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
540<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
541through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
542proxy is fully supported.
543</p>
544
545<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
546# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
547</pre>
548
474 </body> 549</body>
475 </section> 550</section>
476
477 <section> 551<section>
478 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 552<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
479 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 553<body>
554
555<p>
556Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
557edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
558appropriately.
480 </p> 559</p>
481 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 560
482 </body> 561</body>
483 </section> 562</section>
484
485 <section> 563<section>
486 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 564<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
487 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 565<body>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 566
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 567<p>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 568There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
569from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
570</p>
571
491 </body> 572</body>
492 </section> 573</section>
574<section>
575<title>
576 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
577 else and add them to my system?
578</title>
579<body>
580
581<p>
582Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
583are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
584to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
585sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
586<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
587picking up the sources you just brought in!
588</p>
589
590</body>
591</section>
592<section>
593<title>
594 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
595 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
596 files?
597</title>
598<body>
599
600<p>
601Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
602connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
603possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
604a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
605upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
606again.
607</p>
608
609</body>
610</section>
611<section>
612<title>
613 What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and
614 directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?
615</title>
616<body>
617
618<p>
619During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
620<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
621directory.
622</p>
623
624</body>
625</section>
493</chapter> 626</chapter>
494 627
495<chapter> 628<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 629<title>Usage</title>
497 <section> 630<section>
498 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 631<title>
632 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
633 user account doesn't work.
634</title>
499 <body> 635<body>
636
500 <p> 637<p>
501 If your 638This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
502 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 639specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
503 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 640ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
504 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 641the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
505 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
506 to the corruption.
507 </p> 642</p>
643
644<pre caption="Using usermod">
645# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
646</pre>
647
508 </body> 648</body>
509 </section> 649</section>
510<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
511 <section> 650<section>
512 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo 651<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
513 system?</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517
518<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
520</pre>
521
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523
524<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre>
527
528</body> 652<body>
653
654<p>
655Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
656sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
657</p>
658
659<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
660# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
661</pre>
662
663</body>
529 </section> 664</section>
665<section>
666<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
667<body>
668
669<p>
670Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
673</p>
674
675</body>
676</section>
677<section>
678<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
679<body>
680
681<p>
682<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
683follows:
684</p>
685
686<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
687# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
688</pre>
689
690</body>
691</section>
692<section>
693<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
694<body>
695
696<p>
697You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
698</p>
699
700</body>
701</section>
702<section>
703<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
704<body>
705
706<p>
707If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
708you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
709add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
710<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
711<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
712as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
713</p>
714
715<p>
716If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
717numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
718reboot.
719</p>
720
721</body>
722</section>
723<section>
724<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
725<body>
726
727<p>
728To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
729<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
730</p>
731
732<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
733$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
734</pre>
735
736<p>
737If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
738user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
739</p>
740
741<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
742# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
743</body>
744
745</section>
530</chapter> 746</chapter>
531 747
532<chapter> 748<chapter>
749<title>Maintenance</title>
750<section>
751<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
752<body>
753
754<p>
755If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
756Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
757the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
758again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
759to the corruption.
760</p>
761
762</body>
763</section>
764<section>
765<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
766<body>
767
768<p>
769Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
770recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
771performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
772system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
773turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
774<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
775expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
776disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
777METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
778</p>
779
780<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
781<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
782# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
783<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
784# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
785</pre>
786
787</body>
788</section>
789</chapter>
790
791<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 792<title>Development</title>
534 <section> 793<section>
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 794<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
795<body>
796
797<p>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 798For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 799use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 800also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
539 </p></body> 801link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
802</p>
803
804</body>
540 </section> 805</section>
541
542 <section> 806<section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 807<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 808<body>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 809
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 810<p>
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 811New releases are announced on the <uri
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 812link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
813mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
814main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
815<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
816</p>
817
818</body>
549 </section> 819</section>
550
551 <section> 820<section>
552 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
553 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
554 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
555 </section>
556
557 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 821<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 825Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 826"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
827</p>
828
829</body>
561 </section> 830</section>
562
563 <section> 831<section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 832<title>
565 <body><p> 833 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
566 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 834 beeps?
567 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 835</title>
568 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 836<body>
569 </p></body> 837
838<p>
839Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
840</p>
841
842<pre caption="Using setterm">
843# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
844</pre>
845
846<p>
847If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
848you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
849this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
850beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
851target terminal, like this:
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
855# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
856</pre>
857
858<p>
859You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
860console beeps for.
861</p>
862
863</body>
570 </section> 864</section>
571
572
573 <section>
574 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
575 </title>
576 <body>
577 <p>
578 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
579
580 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
581
582 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
583 you need to put this command in
584 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
585 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
586 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
587 target terminal, like this ;
588
589 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
590
591 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
592 you would like to disable console beeps for.
593 </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596</chapter> 865</chapter>
597 866
598<chapter> 867<chapter>
599<title>Resources</title> 868<title>Resources</title>
600 <section> 869<section>
601 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section>
604
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 870<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 871<body>
872
873<p>
874The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
875<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
876<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
877</p>
878
879</body>
608 </section> 880</section>
609
610 <section> 881<section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 882<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 883<body>
884
885<p>
886Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
887our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
888purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
889So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
890</p>
891
892<p>
893You can also find fresh CDs from
613 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 894<uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
614 </p>
615 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 895</uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
616 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 896tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
617 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 897portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
898</p>
899
618 </body> 900</body>
619 </section> 901</section>
620
621 <section> 902<section>
903<title>
622 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 904 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
623 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 905 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
906</title>
624 <body> 907<body>
908
909<p>
625 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 910The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
626 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 911(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
627 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 912altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
628 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 913reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
629 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 914entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
915</p>
630 916
917<p>
631 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 918Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
632 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 919your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
633 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 920users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
634 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 921don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
635 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 922the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
636 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 923<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
924</p>
637 925
926<p>
638 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 927Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
639 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 928discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
640 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 929Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
641 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 930it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
642 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 931times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
643 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 932administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
644 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 933felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
645 reasons, many of these covered 934reasons, many of these covered
646 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 935<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
936</p>
647 937
938<p>
648 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 939(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
649 administrators have seen them.) </p> 940administrators have seen them).
941</p>
942
650 </body> 943</body>
651 </section> 944</section>
652
653 <section> 945<section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 946<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 947<body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 948
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 949<p>
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 950A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 951link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 952the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
953link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
954mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
955else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
956<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
661 </p> 957</p>
958
662 </body> 959</body>
663 </section> 960</section>
664</chapter> 961</chapter>
962
665</guide> 963</guide>

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