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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Previous Chief Architect">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
13 34
35<abstract>
36This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39</abstract>
40
41<license/>
42
14<version>1.1.2</version> 43<version>2.11</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 44<date>2004-11-28</date>
16 45
17<chapter> 46<chapter>
47<title>Featured Questions</title>
48<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 49<title>Getting Started</title>
50<body>
19 51
20 <section> 52<ul>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 53 <li>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60</ul>
61
62</body>
23 </section> 63</section>
24
25 <section> 64<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 65<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 66<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 67
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 68<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 69 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 72 gives?</uri>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 73 </li>
35 versions. 74 <li>
36 </p> 75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102</ul>
103
37 </body> 104</body>
38 </section> 105</section>
106<section>
107<title>Package Management</title>
108<body>
109
110<ul>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
113 </li>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
116 Can I?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
123 firewall?</uri>
124 </li>
125 <li>
126 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
127 system?</uri>
128 </li>
129 <li>
130 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
131 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
135 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
136 delete there files?</uri>
137 </li>
138 <li>
139 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
140 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
141 </li>
142</ul>
143
144</body>
145</section>
146<section>
147<title>Usage</title>
148<body>
149
150<ul>
151 <li>
152 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
153 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
160 Layout?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
173 out?</uri>
174 </li>
175 <li>
176 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
177 su'ing</uri>
178 </li>
179</ul>
180
181</body>
182</section>
183<section>
184<title>Maintenance</title>
185<body>
186
187<ul>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
190 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
191 </li>
192 <li>
193 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
194 </li>
195</ul>
196
197</body>
198</section>
199<section>
200<title>Development</title>
201<body>
202
203<ul>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
212 FAQ?</uri>
213 </li>
214 <li>
215 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
216 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
217 </li>
218</ul>
219
220</body>
221</section>
222<section>
223<title>Resources</title>
224<body>
225
226<ul>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
229 Linux?</uri>
230 </li>
231 <li>
232 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
233 </li>
234 <li>
235 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
236 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
237 entire list?</uri>
238 </li>
239 <li>
240 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
241 do now?</uri>
242 </li>
243</ul>
244
245</body>
246</section>
39</chapter> 247</chapter>
40 248
41<chapter> 249<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 250<title>Getting Started</title>
43
44 <section>
45 251
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 252<section id="pronunciation">
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 253<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
48 </warn> 254<body>
49 255
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 256<p>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 257A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 258"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 259penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 260penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 261</p>
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 262
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 263</body>
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 264</section>
265<section id="differences">
266<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
267<body>
66 268
67 <section> 269<p>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 270Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
69 <body><p> 271link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 272that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 273Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 274link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 275conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 276sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 277link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
76 stabilise anytime soon. 278file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
279link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
77 </p> 280</p>
281
282<p>
283With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
284choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
285aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
286Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
287<e>meta-distribution</e>.
288</p>
289
290<p>
291Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
292package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
293development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
294mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
295added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
296</p>
297
78 </body> 298</body>
79 </section> 299</section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
135 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
136 command as root:</p>
137 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
142 <body>
143 <p>
144 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
145 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
146 kernel, didn't you?).
147 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
148 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
149 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
150 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 <section>
155 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
158 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
163 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
164 <body>
165 <p>
166 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
167 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
168 it will be preserved between reboots.
169 </p>
170 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
171 and add these lines:</p>
172<pre>
173REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
174UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
175</pre>
176 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
177 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
178 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
179 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
184 <body><p>
185 During installation the grub boot files are copied
186 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
187 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
188 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
189 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
190 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
191 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
192 unpacking the build snapshot or running
193 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201
202 <section>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title>
205 <body>
206 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212</chapter> 300</chapter>
213 301
214<chapter> 302<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 303<title>Installation</title>
216 <section> 304<section id="optimizations">
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 305<title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 306 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 307 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 308</title>
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 309<body>
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 310
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 311<p>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 312Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
313current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
314compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
315do the same thing anymore.
316</p>
317
318<p>
319Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
320bug.
321</p>
322
225 </body> 323</body>
226 </section> 324</section>
227 325<section id="password">
228 <section> 326<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
229 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
230 <body> 327<body>
231 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 328
232 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 329<p>
233 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 330You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
234 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 331into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
235 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 332completed the install.
333</p>
334
236 </body> 335</body>
237 </section> 336</section>
337<section id="useradd">
338<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
339<body>
238 340
239 <section> 341<p>
240 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 342The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
241 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 343is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
242 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 344</p>
243 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 345
244 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 346<p>
347Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
348</p>
349
350<pre caption="Using useradd">
351# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
352</pre>
353
354<p>
355This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
356devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
357root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
358</p>
359
360<p>
361You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
362then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
363the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
364</p>
365
366</body>
245 </section> 367</section>
368<section id="su">
369<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
370<body>
246 371
247 <section> 372<p>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 373For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
249 <body> 374<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 375the following command as root:
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 376</p>
252 </body> 377
378<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
379# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
380</pre>
381
382</body>
253 </section> 383</section>
384<section id="devfs">
385<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
386<body>
254 387
255 <section> 388<p>
256 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 389If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
257 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 390can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
258 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 391other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
259 are as follows:</p> 392kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
260 <table> 393to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
261 <tr> 394link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
262 <th>Flag</th> 395</p>
263 <th>Description</th> 396
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>CHOST</ti>
267 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
271 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
275 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
276 files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>USE</ti>
280 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
281 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
282 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
283 also USE-aware.</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
287 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
288 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
289 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
290 </tr>
291 </table>
292 </body> 397</body>
293 </section> 398</section>
294 399<section id="upgrade">
295 <section> 400<title>
296 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 401 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
402</title>
297 <body> 403<body>
298 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 404
299 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 405<p>
300 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 406In fact there is no difference between the various releases
301 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 407<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
302 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 408<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
303 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 409will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
304 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 410The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
305 <ol> 411</p>
306 <li>Environment variables</li> 412
307 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 413<p>
308 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 414More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
309 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 415Upgrading Guide</uri>.
310 any other place come from here)</li> 416</p>
311 </ol></p></body> 417
418</body>
312 </section> 419</section>
313 420<section id="bootrescue">
314 <section> 421<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
315 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 422<body>
316 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
317 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
318 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
319 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
320 423
424<p>
425You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
426kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
427on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
428<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
429</p>
321 430
322 </p></body> 431<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
432<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
433<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
434# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
435# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
436# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
437# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
438<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
439# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
440# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
441# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
442# <i>make menuconfig</i>
443<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
444<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
445# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
446<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
447# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
448<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
449# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
450<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
451# <i>exit</i>
452# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
453# <i>reboot</i>
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
458follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
459should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
460</p>
461
462</body>
323 </section> 463</section>
464<section id="proxy">
465<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
466<body>
324 467
325 <section> 468<p>
326 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 469When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
327 clobbering my config files?</title> 470following syntax to authenticate yourself:
328 <body><p> 471</p>
329 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 472
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 473<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 474# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 475</pre>
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 476
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 477<p>
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 478To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
336 </p></body> 479<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
480</p>
481
482<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
483FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
484RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
485</pre>
486
487<p>
488Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
489authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
490if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
491handle this situation.
492</p>
493
494</body>
337 </section> 495</section>
496<section id="isoburning">
497<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
498<body>
338 499
339 <section> 500<p>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 501You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
341 <body><p> 502should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 503entire CD.
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 504</p>
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 505
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 506<p>
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 507There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 508Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 509</p>
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 510
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 511<ul>
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 512 <li>
352 </p></body> 513 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
514 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
515 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
516 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
517 </li>
518 <li>
519 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
520 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
521 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
522 your brand new CD being burnt.
523 </li>
524 <li>
525 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
526 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
527 by the path to the ISO file :)
528 </li>
529 <li>
530 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
531 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
532 <c>Start</c>.
533 </li>
534 <li>
535 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
536 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
537 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
539 </li>
540 <li>
541 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
542 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
543 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
544 </li>
545</ul>
546
547
548</body>
353 </section> 549</section>
354
355 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
360 /usr/portage snapshots from
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
364 </p></body>
365 </section>
366
367 <section>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
369 <body><p>
370 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
371 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
372 appropriately.
373 </p></body>
374 </section>
375
376 <section>
377 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
378 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
379 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
380 </section>
381
382 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body>
391 </section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
395 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
398 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
399 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
400 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
401 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
402 again.
403 </p></body>
404 </section>
405
406 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433
434 <body>
435 <p>Solution: </p>
436 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443</chapter> 550</chapter>
444 551
445<chapter> 552<chapter>
446 <title>Usage</title> 553<title>Package Management</title>
447 <section> 554<section id="ebuilds">
448 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 555<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
449 account doesn't work. </title> 556<body>
450 <body> 557
451 <p> 558<p>
452 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 559They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
453 for your user entry in 560primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
454 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 561(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
455 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 562apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
563The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
564Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
565contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
566create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
567(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
568file).
456 </p> 569</p>
457 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 570
458 </body> 571</body>
459 </section> 572</section>
460 573<section id="configure">
461 <section> 574<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
462 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 575<body>
463 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 576
464 set). Type the following as root:</p> 577<p>
465 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 578Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
579ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
580Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
581</p>
582
583<p>
584Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
585/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
586</p>
587
588<p>
589Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
590Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
591perform to configure and compile the package.
592</p>
593
594<p>
595When finished, execute <c>touch
596/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
597into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
598<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
599merge</c>.
600</p>
601
466 </body> 602</body>
467 </section> 603</section>
604<section id="norsync">
605<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
606<body>
468 607
469 <section> 608<p>
470 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 609If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
471 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 610<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
472 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 611through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
473 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 612proxy is fully supported.
613</p>
614
615<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
616# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
617</pre>
618
474 </body> 619</body>
475 </section> 620</section>
621<section id="firewall">
622<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
623<body>
476 624
477 <section> 625<p>
478 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 626Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
479 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 627edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
628appropriately.
480 </p> 629</p>
481 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 630
482 </body> 631</body>
483 </section> 632</section>
633<section id="unison">
634<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
635<body>
484 636
485 <section> 637<p>
486 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 638There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
487 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 639from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 640</p>
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 641
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 642</body>
492 </section> 643</section>
644<section id="manualdownload">
645<title>
646 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
647 else and add them to my system?
648</title>
649<body>
650
651<p>
652Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
653are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
654to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
655sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
656<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
657picking up the sources you just brought in!
658</p>
659
660</body>
661</section>
662<section id="distfiles">
663<title>
664 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
665 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
666 files?
667</title>
668<body>
669
670<p>
671Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
672connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
673possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
674a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
675upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
676again.
677</p>
678
679</body>
680</section>
681<section id="tmpportage">
682<title>
683 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
684 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
685</title>
686<body>
687
688<p>
689During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
690<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
691directory.
692</p>
693
694</body>
695</section>
493</chapter> 696</chapter>
494 697
495<chapter> 698<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 699<title>Usage</title>
497 <section> 700<section id="rootssh">
498 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 701<title>
702 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
703 user account doesn't work.
704</title>
499 <body> 705<body>
706
500 <p> 707<p>
501 If your 708This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
502 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 709specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
503 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 710ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
504 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 711the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
505 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
506 to the corruption.
507 </p> 712</p>
713
714<pre caption="Using usermod">
715# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
716</pre>
717
508 </body> 718</body>
509 </section> 719</section>
510<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 720<section id="rootX">
511 <section> 721<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
512 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
513 system?</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517
518<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
520</pre>
521
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523
524<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre>
527
528</body> 722<body>
723
724<p>
725Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
726sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
727</p>
728
729<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
730# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
731</pre>
732
733</body>
529 </section> 734</section>
735<section id="intkeyboard">
736<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
737<body>
738
739<p>
740Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
741Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
742<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
743</p>
744
745</body>
746</section>
747<section id="rootdns">
748<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
749<body>
750
751<p>
752<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
753follows:
754</p>
755
756<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
757# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
758</pre>
759
760</body>
761</section>
762<section id="crontab">
763<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
764<body>
765
766<p>
767You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
768</p>
769
770</body>
771</section>
772<section id="numlock">
773<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
774<body>
775
776<p>
777If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
778you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
779add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
780<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
781<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
782as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
787need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
788Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
789insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
790<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
791</p>
792
793<p>
794If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
795numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
796reboot.
797</p>
798
799</body>
800</section>
801<section id="clear">
802<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
803<body>
804
805<p>
806To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
807<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
808</p>
809
810<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
811$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
812</pre>
813
814<p>
815If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
816user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
817</p>
818
819<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
820# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
821</body>
822
823</section>
824<section id="suinx">
825<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
826<body>
827
828<p>
829This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
830don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
831link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
832the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
833<path>/etc/profile</path>.
834</p>
835
836<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
837export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
838</pre>
839
840</body>
841</section>
842
530</chapter> 843</chapter>
531 844
532<chapter> 845<chapter>
846<title>Maintenance</title>
847<section id="filecorruption">
848<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
849<body>
850
851<p>
852If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
853Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
854the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
855again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
856to the corruption.
857</p>
858
859</body>
860</section>
861<section id="metalogd">
862<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
863<body>
864
865<p>
866Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
867recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
868performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
869system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
870turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
871<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
872expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
873disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
874METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
875</p>
876
877<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
878<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
879# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
880<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
881# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
882</pre>
883
884</body>
885</section>
886</chapter>
887
888<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 889<title>Development</title>
534 <section> 890<section id="reportbugs">
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 891<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 895For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 896use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 897also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
539 </p></body> 898link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
899</p>
900
901</body>
540 </section> 902</section>
541 903<section id="releases">
542 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 904<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 905<body>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 906
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 907<p>
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 908New releases are announced on the <uri
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 909link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
910mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
911main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
912<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
913</p>
914
915</body>
549 </section> 916</section>
550 917<section id="addfaq">
551 <section>
552 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
553 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
554 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
555 </section>
556
557 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 918<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
919<body>
920
921<p>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 922Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 923"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
924</p>
925
926</body>
561 </section> 927</section>
928<section id="beeping">
929<title>
930 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
931 beeps?
932</title>
933<body>
562 934
563 <section> 935<p>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 936Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
565 <body><p> 937</p>
566 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 938
567 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 939<pre caption="Using setterm">
568 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 940# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
569 </p></body> 941</pre>
942
943<p>
944If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
945you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
946this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
947beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
948target terminal, like this:
949</p>
950
951<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
952# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
953</pre>
954
955<p>
956You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
957console beeps for.
958</p>
959
960</body>
570 </section> 961</section>
571
572
573 <section>
574 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
575 </title>
576 <body>
577 <p>
578 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
579
580 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
581
582 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
583 you need to put this command in
584 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
585 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
586 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
587 target terminal, like this ;
588
589 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
590
591 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
592 you would like to disable console beeps for.
593 </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596</chapter> 962</chapter>
597 963
598<chapter> 964<chapter>
599<title>Resources</title> 965<title>Resources</title>
600 <section> 966<section id="resources">
601 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section>
604
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 967<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 968<body>
969
970<p>
971The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
972<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
973<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
974</p>
975
976</body>
608 </section> 977</section>
609 978<section id="buycd">
610 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 979<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 980<body>
613 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 981
982<p>
983Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
984our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
985purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
986So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
614 </p> 987</p>
988
989<p>
990You can also find fresh CDs from
615 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 991<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
616 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 992tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
617 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 993portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
994</p>
995
618 </body> 996</body>
619 </section> 997</section>
620 998<section id="mailinglist">
621 <section> 999<title>
622 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 1000 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
623 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 1001 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1002</title>
624 <body> 1003<body>
1004
1005<p>
625 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 1006The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
626 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 1007(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
627 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 1008altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
628 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 1009reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
629 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 1010entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1011</p>
630 1012
1013<p>
631 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 1014Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
632 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 1015your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
633 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 1016users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
634 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 1017don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
635 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 1018the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
636 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 1019<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1020</p>
637 1021
1022<p>
638 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 1023Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
639 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 1024discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
640 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 1025Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
641 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 1026it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
642 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1027times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
643 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1028administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
644 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1029felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
645 reasons, many of these covered 1030reasons, many of these covered
646 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1031<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1032</p>
647 1033
1034<p>
648 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1035(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
649 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1036administrators have seen them).
1037</p>
1038
650 </body> 1039</body>
651 </section>
652
653 <section> 1040</section>
1041<section id="help">
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1042<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 1043<body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 1044
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1045<p>
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1046A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1047link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1048the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1049link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1050mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1051else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1052<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
661 </p> 1053</p>
1054
662 </body> 1055</body>
663 </section> 1056</section>
664</chapter> 1057</chapter>
1058
665</guide> 1059</guide>

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