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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Author">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
13 37
38<abstract>
39This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40mailing list and from IRC.
41</abstract>
42
43<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45<license/>
46
14<version>1.1.2</version> 47<version>3.0.9</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 48<date>2005-09-09</date>
16 49
17<chapter> 50<chapter>
51<title>Questions:</title>
52<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 53<title>Getting Started</title>
54<body>
19 55
20 <section> 56<p>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 57Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 58Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61answered here.
62</p>
63
64<ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72</ul>
73
74</body>
23 </section> 75</section>
24
25 <section> 76<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 77<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 78<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 79
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 80<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 81 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 84 </li>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 85 <li>
35 versions. 86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
36 </p> 87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123</ul>
124
37 </body> 125</body>
38 </section> 126</section>
127<section>
128<title>Package Management</title>
129<body>
130
131<ul>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
137 Can I?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
141 firewall?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
148 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
152 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
156 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
157 </li>
158</ul>
159
160</body>
161</section>
162<section>
163<title>Usage</title>
164<body>
165
166<ul>
167 <li>
168 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
169 Layout?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
176 </li>
177 <li>
178 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
179 </li>
180 <li>
181 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
182 out?</uri>
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
186 su'ing</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Maintenance</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
199 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
200 </li>
201</ul>
202
203</body>
204</section>
205<section>
206<title>Development</title>
207<body>
208
209<ul>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
212 </li>
213 <li>
214 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
215 </li>
216 <li>
217 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
218 beeps?</uri>
219 </li>
220</ul>
221
222</body>
223</section>
224<section>
225<title>Resources</title>
226<body>
227
228<ul>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
231 Linux?</uri>
232 </li>
233 <li>
234 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
235 </li>
236 <li>
237 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
238 do now?</uri>
239 </li>
240</ul>
241
242</body>
243</section>
39</chapter> 244</chapter>
40 245
41<chapter> 246<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 247<title>Getting Started</title>
43
44 <section>
45 248
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 249<section id="pronunciation">
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 250<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
48 </warn> 251<body>
49 252
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 253<p>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 254A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 255"g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 256penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 257penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 258</p>
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 259
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 260</body>
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 261</section>
262<section id="differences">
263<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
264<body>
66 265
67 <section> 266<p>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 267Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
69 <body><p> 268link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 269that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 270Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 271link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 272conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 273(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 274link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
76 stabilise anytime soon. 275file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
276link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
77 </p> 277</p>
278
279<p>
280With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
281optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
282installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
283to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
288development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
289mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
290added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
291</p>
292
78 </body> 293</body>
79 </section> 294</section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
135 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
136 command as root:</p>
137 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
142 <body>
143 <p>
144 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
145 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
146 kernel, didn't you?).
147 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
148 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
149 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
150 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 <section>
155 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
158 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
163 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
164 <body>
165 <p>
166 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
167 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
168 it will be preserved between reboots.
169 </p>
170 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
171 and add these lines:</p>
172<pre>
173REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
174UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
175</pre>
176 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
177 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
178 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
179 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
184 <body><p>
185 During installation the grub boot files are copied
186 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
187 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
188 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
189 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
190 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
191 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
192 unpacking the build snapshot or running
193 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201
202 <section>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title>
205 <body>
206 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212</chapter> 295</chapter>
213 296
214<chapter> 297<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 298<title>Installation</title>
216 <section> 299<section id="optimizations">
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 300<title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 301 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 302 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 303</title>
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 304<body>
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 305
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 306<p>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 307Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
308current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
309compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
310do the same thing anymore.
311</p>
312
313<p>
314Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
315reporting a bug.
316</p>
317
225 </body> 318</body>
226 </section> 319</section>
227 320<section id="password">
228 <section> 321<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
229 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
230 <body> 322<body>
231 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 323
232 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 324<p>
233 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 325You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
234 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 326into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
235 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 327<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
328</p>
329
236 </body> 330</body>
237 </section> 331</section>
332<section id="useradd">
333<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
334<body>
238 335
239 <section> 336<p>
240 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 337The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
241 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 338this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
242 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 339him, so the following command is preferred:
243 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 340</p>
244 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 341
342<pre caption="Using useradd">
343# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
344</pre>
345
346<p>
347This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
348<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
349<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
350execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
351privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
352</p>
353
354</body>
245 </section> 355</section>
356<section id="su">
357<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
358<body>
246 359
247 <section> 360<p>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 361For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
249 <body> 362wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 363as root:
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 364</p>
252 </body> 365
366<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
367# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
368</pre>
369
370</body>
253 </section> 371</section>
372<section id="devfs">
373<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
374<body>
254 375
255 <section> 376<p>
256 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 377Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
257 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 378function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
258 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 379archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
259 are as follows:</p> 380link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
260 <table> 381udev.
261 <tr> 382</p>
262 <th>Flag</th> 383
263 <th>Description</th>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>CHOST</ti>
267 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
271 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
275 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
276 files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>USE</ti>
280 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
281 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
282 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
283 also USE-aware.</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
287 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
288 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
289 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
290 </tr>
291 </table>
292 </body> 384</body>
293 </section> 385</section>
294 386<section id="upgrade">
295 <section> 387<title>
296 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 388 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
389</title>
297 <body> 390<body>
298 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 391
299 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 392<p>
300 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 393In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
301 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 394been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
302 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 395running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
303 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 396entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
304 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 397individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
305 <ol> 398See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
306 <li>Environment variables</li> 399for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
307 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 400</p>
308 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 401
309 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 402</body>
310 any other place come from here)</li>
311 </ol></p></body>
312 </section> 403</section>
313 404<section id="bootrescue">
314 <section> 405<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
315 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 406<body>
316 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
317 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
318 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
319 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
320 407
408<p>
409You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
410kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
411on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
412<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
413</p>
321 414
322 </p></body> 415<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
416<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
417<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
418# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
419# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
420# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
421# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
422<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
423# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
424# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
425# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
426# <i>make menuconfig</i>
427<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
428<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
429# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
430<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
431# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
432<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
433# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
434<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
435# <i>exit</i>
436# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
437# <i>reboot</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
442follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
443should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
444</p>
445
446</body>
323 </section> 447</section>
448<section id="proxy">
449<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
450<body>
324 451
325 <section> 452<p>
326 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 453To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
327 clobbering my config files?</title> 454<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
328 <body><p> 455</p>
329 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 456
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 457<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 458HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 459FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 460RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 461</pre>
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 462
336 </p></body> 463</body>
337 </section> 464</section>
465<section id="isoburning">
466<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
467<body>
338 468
339 <section> 469<p>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 470You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
341 <body><p> 471just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 472</p>
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 473
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 474<p>
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 475There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 476Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 477</p>
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 478
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 479<ul>
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 480 <li>
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 481 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
352 </p></body> 482 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
483 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
484 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
485 </li>
486 <li>
487 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
488 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
489 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
490 your brand new CD being burnt.
491 </li>
492 <li>
493 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
494 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
495 by the path to the ISO file :)
496 </li>
497 <li>
498 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
499 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
500 click <c>Start</c>.
501 </li>
502 <li>
503 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
504 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
505 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
506 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
507 </li>
508 <li>
509 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
510 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
511 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
512 </li>
513</ul>
514
515
516</body>
353 </section> 517</section>
518<section id="cpus">
519<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
520<body>
354 521
355 <section> 522<p>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 523First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
357 <body><p> 524need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 525need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 526link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 527</p>
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 528
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 529<p>
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 530If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
364 </p></body> 531generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
532will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
533</p>
534
535<p>
536If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
537than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
538link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
539guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
540</p>
541
542</body>
365 </section> 543</section>
544<section id="dhcp">
545<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
546<body>
366 547
367 <section> 548<p>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 549First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
369 <body><p> 550kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
370 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work, 551certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
371 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy 552for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
372 appropriately. 553sure that these kernel modules are listed in
373 </p></body> 554<path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
555you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
556</p>
557
558<p>
559If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
560you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
561</p>
562
563<p>
564If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
565configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
566<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
567install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
568</p>
569
570<p>
571Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
572link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
573</p>
574
575</body>
374 </section> 576</section>
577<section id="dualboot">
578<title>
579I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
580should I do?
581</title>
582<body>
375 583
376 <section> 584<p>
377 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title> 585This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
378 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from 586first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
379 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body> 587to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
588with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
589below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
590on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
591</p>
592
593<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
594title Windows XP
595 map (hd1) (hd0)
596 map (hd0) (hd1)
597 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
598 chainloader +1
599</pre>
600
601<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
602other=/dev/hdb1
603 label=WindowsXP
604 table=/dev/hdb
605 map-drive = 0x80
606 to = 0x81
607 map-drive = 0x81
608 to = 0x80
609</pre>
610
611<p>
612This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
613without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
614link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
615documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
616you're using.
617</p>
618
619</body>
380 </section> 620</section>
381
382 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body>
391 </section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
395 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
398 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
399 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
400 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
401 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
402 again.
403 </p></body>
404 </section>
405
406 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433
434 <body>
435 <p>Solution: </p>
436 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443</chapter> 621</chapter>
444 622
445<chapter> 623<chapter>
446 <title>Usage</title> 624<title>Package Management</title>
447 <section> 625<section id="ebuilds">
448 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 626<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
449 account doesn't work. </title> 627<body>
450 <body> 628
451 <p> 629<p>
452 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 630Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
453 for your user entry in 631which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
454 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 632package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
455 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 633releases and snapshots. The <uri
634link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
635HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
456 </p> 636</p>
457 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 637
638<p>
639For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
640<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
641attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
642not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
643</p>
644
645<p>
646It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
647Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
648install packages.
649</p>
650
458 </body> 651</body>
459 </section> 652</section>
460 653<section id="configure">
461 <section> 654<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
462 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 655<body>
463 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 656
464 set). Type the following as root:</p> 657<p>
465 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 658Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
659requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
660recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
661place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
662better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
663link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
664HOWTO</uri> for more information.
665</p>
666
466 </body> 667</body>
467 </section> 668</section>
669<section id="firewall">
670<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
671<body>
468 672
469 <section> 673<p>
470 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 674See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
471 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 675link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
472 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 676files manually</uri>.
473 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 677</p>
678
474 </body> 679</body>
475 </section> 680</section>
681<section id="norsync">
682<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
683<body>
476 684
477 <section> 685<p>
478 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 686If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
479 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 687<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
688through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
689document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
690a proxy.
480 </p> 691</p>
481 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 692
482 </body> 693</body>
483 </section> 694</section>
695<section id="manualdownload">
696<title>
697 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
698 else and add them to my system?
699</title>
700<body>
484 701
485 <section> 702<p>
486 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 703Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
487 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 704are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 705to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 706sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 707<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
708Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
709</p>
710
491 </body> 711</body>
492 </section> 712</section>
713<section id="distfiles">
714<title>
715 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
716 delete these files?
717</title>
718<body>
719
720<p>
721Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
722However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
723several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
724software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
725be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
726<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
727developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
728Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
729at your own risk.
730</p>
731
732</body>
733</section>
734<section id="tmpportage">
735<title>
736 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
737 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
738</title>
739<body>
740
741<p>
742During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
743<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
744a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
745contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
746always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
747</p>
748
749</body>
750</section>
493</chapter> 751</chapter>
494 752
495<chapter> 753<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 754<title>Usage</title>
497 <section> 755<section id="intkeyboard">
498 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 756<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
499 <body> 757<body>
758
500 <p> 759<p>
501 If your 760Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
502 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 761either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
503 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
504 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
505 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
506 to the corruption.
507 </p> 762</p>
763
764<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
765# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
766</pre>
767
508 </body> 768</body>
509 </section> 769</section>
510<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 770<section id="rootdns">
511 <section> 771<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
512 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
513 system?</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517
518<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
520</pre>
521
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523
524<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre>
527
528</body> 772<body>
773
774<p>
775<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
776follows:
777</p>
778
779<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
780# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
781</pre>
782
783</body>
529 </section> 784</section>
785<section id="crontab">
786<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
787<body>
788
789<p>
790You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
791</p>
792
793</body>
794</section>
795<section id="numlock">
796<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
797<body>
798
799<p>
800If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
801numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
802</p>
803
804<p>
805Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
806section or online manuals for assistance.
807</p>
808
809</body>
810</section>
811<section id="clear">
812<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
813<body>
814
815<p>
816To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
817<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
818</p>
819
820<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
821$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
826user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
827</p>
828
829<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
830# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
831</body>
832
833</section>
834<section id="suinx">
835<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
836<body>
837
838<p>
839This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
840don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
841link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
842the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
843<path>/etc/profile</path>.
844</p>
845
846<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
847export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
848</pre>
849
850</body>
851</section>
530</chapter> 852</chapter>
531 853
532<chapter> 854<chapter>
855<title>Maintenance</title>
856<section id="filecorruption">
857<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
858<body>
859
860<p>
861If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
862run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
863make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
864directories due to the corruption.
865</p>
866
867</body>
868</section>
869</chapter>
870
871<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 872<title>Development</title>
534 <section> 873<section id="reportbugs">
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 874<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 875<body>
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 876
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 877<p>
539 </p></body> 878Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
879your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
880link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
881</p>
882
883</body>
540 </section> 884</section>
541 885<section id="releases">
542 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 886<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 887<body>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 888
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 889<p>
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 890Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 891new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
892our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
893releases are announced on the <uri
894link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
895on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
896</p>
897
898</body>
549 </section> 899</section>
900<section id="beeping">
901<title>
902 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
903</title>
904<body>
550 905
551 <section> 906<p>
552 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title> 907Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
553 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type 908</p>
554 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body> 909
910<pre caption="Using setterm">
911# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
912</pre>
913
914<p>
915If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
916command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
917beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
918command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
919
920<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
921# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
922</pre>
923
924<p>
925You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
926console beeps for.
927</p>
928
929</body>
555 </section> 930</section>
556
557 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
561 </section>
562
563 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p>
566 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
567 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
568 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
569 </p></body>
570 </section>
571
572
573 <section>
574 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
575 </title>
576 <body>
577 <p>
578 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
579
580 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
581
582 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
583 you need to put this command in
584 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
585 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
586 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
587 target terminal, like this ;
588
589 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
590
591 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
592 you would like to disable console beeps for.
593 </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596</chapter> 931</chapter>
597 932
598<chapter> 933<chapter>
599<title>Resources</title> 934<title>Resources</title>
600 <section> 935<section id="resources">
601 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section>
604
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 936<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 937<body>
938
939<p>
940The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
941<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
942</p>
943
944</body>
608 </section> 945</section>
609 946<section id="buycd">
610 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 947<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 948<body>
613 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 949
950<p>
951Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
952link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
953purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
954please consider buying from our store if possible.
614 </p> 955</p>
615 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 956
616 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 957<p>
617 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 958You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
959link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
960</p>
961
618 </body> 962</body>
619 </section> 963</section>
620 964<section id="help">
621 <section>
622 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
623 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
624 <body>
625 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
626 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
627 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
628 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
629 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
630
631 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
632 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
633 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
634 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
635 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
636 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
637
638 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
639 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
640 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
641 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
642 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
643 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
644 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
645 reasons, many of these covered
646 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
647
648 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
649 administrators have seen them.) </p>
650 </body>
651 </section>
652
653 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 965<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 966<body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 967
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 968<p>
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 969A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 970link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 971Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
972To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
973to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
974Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
661 </p> 975</p>
976
662 </body> 977</body>
663 </section> 978</section>
664</chapter> 979</chapter>
980
665</guide> 981</guide>

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