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1<?xml version='1.0'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 3
6<guide link="/doc/faq.html"> 4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 14<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13 15
14<version>1.1.2</version> 16<version>1.1.4</version>
15<date>08 October 2002</date> 17<date>5 May 2003</date>
16 18
17<chapter> 19<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 20 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 21
20 <section> 22 <section>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 23 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "jen-two".</p></body> 24 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
23 </section> 25 </section>
24 26
25 <section> 27 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 28 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body> 29 <body>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 33 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 34 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 35 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 36 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35 versions. 37 versions.
36 </p></body> </section> </chapter> 38 </p>
39 </body>
40 </section>
41</chapter>
37 42
38<chapter> 43<chapter>
39 <title>Installation</title> 44 <title>Installation</title>
40 45
41 <section> 46 <section>
47
48 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
49 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
50 </warn>
51
42 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 52 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
43 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 53 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
44 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 54 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
45 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 55 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
46 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 56 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
96 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about 106 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
97 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use 107 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
98 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, 108 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
99 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package 109 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
100 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p> 110 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
111 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
101 </body> 112 </body>
102 </section> 113 </section>
103 114
104 <section> 115 <section>
105 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title> 116 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
116 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 127 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
117 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 128 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
118 how can i add another user?</p> 129 how can i add another user?</p>
119 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 130 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
120 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 131 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
132 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
133 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
134 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
135 </p>
121 </body> 136 </body>
122 </section> 137 </section>
123 <section> 138 <section>
124 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 139 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
125 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 140 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
198 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 213 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
199 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 214 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
200 </body> 215 </body>
201 </section> 216 </section>
202 217
218 <section>
219 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
220 <body>
221 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
222 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
223 </body>
224 </section>
203</chapter> 225</chapter>
204 226
205<chapter> 227<chapter>
206 <title>Package Management</title> 228 <title>Package Management</title>
207 <section> 229 <section>
208 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 230 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
209 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 231 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
210 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 232 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
211 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 233 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
212 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 234 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
213 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 235 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
214 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 236 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
215 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 237 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
216 </body> 238 </body>
217 </section> 239 </section>
236 </section> 258 </section>
237 259
238 <section> 260 <section>
239 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 261 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
240 <body> 262 <body>
241 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 263 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
242 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 264 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
243 </body> 265 </body>
244 </section> 266 </section>
245 267
246 <section> 268 <section>
321 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 343 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
322 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 344 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
323 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 345 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
324 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 346 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
325 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 347 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
326 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 348 which is now part of Portage.
327 </p></body> 349 </p></body>
328 </section> 350 </section>
329 351
330 <section> 352 <section>
331 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 353 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
345 367
346 <section> 368 <section>
347 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 369 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
348 <body><p> 370 <body><p>
349 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 371 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
350 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 372 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
351 /usr/portage snapshot from 373 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
352 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots</uri>. Just unpack 374 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
353 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 375 supported.
354 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 376 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
377~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
378 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
379 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
380 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
381 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
382 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
383 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
384 lose all your sourcecode.
385 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
386<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
387~# <c>cd /usr</c>
388~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
389~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
390~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
391~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
355 </p></body> 392 </p></body>
356 </section> 393 </section>
357 394
358 <section> 395 <section>
359 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 396 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
373 <section> 410 <section>
374 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 411 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
375 add them to my system?</title> 412 add them to my system?</title>
376 <body><p> 413 <body><p>
377 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 414 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
415 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
416 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
378 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 417 Download sources and bring them on any media
379 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 418 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
380 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 419 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
381 </p></body> 420 </p></body>
382 </section> 421 </section>
383 422
393 again. 432 again.
394 </p></body> 433 </p></body>
395 </section> 434 </section>
396 435
397 <section> 436 <section>
398 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title> 437 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
438 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
439 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
440
399 <body> 441 <body>
400 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and 442 <p>Solution: </p>
401 maintain your local 443 <pre caption = "Solution">
402 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p> 444# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
403 <pre> 445# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
404# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
405# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
406# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
407# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
408# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
409# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
410# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
411# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
412# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
413# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
414# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
415# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
416 </pre> 446 </pre>
447
448 </body>
449 </section>
450 <section>
451 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
452 <body>
453 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
417 </body> 454 </body>
418 </section> 455 </section>
419</chapter> 456</chapter>
420 457
421<chapter> 458<chapter>
464 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 501 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
465 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 502 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
466 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 503 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
467 </body> 504 </body>
468 </section> 505 </section>
506
507 <section>
508 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
509 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
510 </p>
511 </body>
512 </section>
469</chapter> 513</chapter>
470 514
471<chapter> 515<chapter>
472 <title>Maintenance</title> 516 <title>Maintenance</title>
473 <section> 517 <section>
490 <body> 534 <body>
491 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 535 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
492 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 536 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
493 537
494<pre> 538<pre>
495# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i> 539# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
496</pre> 540</pre>
497 541
498<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 542<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
499 543
500<pre> 544<pre>
509 <title>Development</title> 553 <title>Development</title>
510 <section> 554 <section>
511 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 555 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
512 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 556 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
513 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 557 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
514 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 558 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
515 </p></body> 559 </p></body>
516 </section> 560 </section>
517 561
518 <section> 562 <section>
519 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 563 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
520 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 564 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
521 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 565 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
522 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 566 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
523 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 567 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
524 new modules get added.</p></body> 568 new modules get added.</p></body>
525 </section> 569 </section>
531 </section> 575 </section>
532 576
533 <section> 577 <section>
534 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 578 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
535 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 579 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
536 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 580 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
537 </section> 581 </section>
538 582
539 <section> 583 <section>
540 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 584 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
541 <body><p> 585 <body><p>
627 </section> 671 </section>
628 672
629 <section> 673 <section>
630 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 674 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
631 <body> 675 <body>
632 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 676 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
633 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 677 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
634 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 678 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
679 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
635 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 680 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
636 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 681 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
637 </p> 682 </p>
638 </body> 683 </body>
639 </section> 684 </section>

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