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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/faq.html"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
13 31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
37
38<license/>
39
14<version>1.1.2</version> 40<version>2.8</version>
15<date>08 October 2002</date> 41<date>July 04, 2004</date>
16 42
17<chapter> 43<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body>
19 48
20 <section> 49<ul>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 50 <li>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "jen-two".</p></body> 51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body>
23 </section> 60</section>
24
25 <section> 61<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 63<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 64
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 65<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 66 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 69 gives?</uri>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 70 </li>
35 versions. 71 <li>
36 </p></body> </section> </chapter> 72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99</ul>
100
101</body>
102</section>
103<section>
104<title>Package Management</title>
105<body>
106
107<ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139</ul>
140
141</body>
142</section>
143<section>
144<title>Usage</title>
145<body>
146
147<ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172</ul>
173
174</body>
175</section>
176<section>
177<title>Maintenance</title>
178<body>
179
180<ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Development</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211</ul>
212
213</body>
214</section>
215<section>
216<title>Resources</title>
217<body>
218
219<ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236</ul>
237
238</body>
239</section>
240</chapter>
37 241
38<chapter> 242<chapter>
39 <title>Installation</title> 243<title>Getting Started</title>
40 244
41 <section> 245<section id="pronunciation">
42 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
43 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 247<body>
44 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 248
45 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 249<p>
46 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
47 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
48 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
49 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
50 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by 254</p>
51 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install 255
52 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution. 256</body>
53 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
54 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
55 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
56 </body>
57 </section> 257</section>
258<section id="differences">
259<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260<body>
58 261
59 <section> 262<p>
60 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
61 <body><p> 264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
62 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
63 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
64 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
65 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
66 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
67 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
68 stabilise anytime soon. 271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
69 </p> 273</p>
274
275<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289</p>
290
70 </body> 291</body>
71 </section> 292</section>
72
73 <section>
74 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
75 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
76 <body>
77 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
78 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
79<pre>
80boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
81</pre>
82<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
83type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
84</body>
85
86</section>
87 <section>
88 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
89 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
90 <body>
91 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
92 having broken packages.
93 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
94 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
95 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
96 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
97 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
98 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
99 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
100 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
101 </body>
102 </section>
103
104 <section>
105 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
106 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
107 </section>
108
109 <section>
110 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
111 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
112 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
113 </p></body>
114 </section>
115 <section>
116 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
117 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
118 how can i add another user?</p>
119 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
120 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
121 </body>
122 </section>
123 <section>
124 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
125 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
126 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
127 command as root:</p>
128 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
133 <body>
134 <p>
135 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
136 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
137 kernel, didn't you?).
138 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
139 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
140 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
141 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
142 </p>
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
147 <body>
148 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
149 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
150 </body>
151 </section>
152 <section>
153 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
154 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
155 <body>
156 <p>
157 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
158 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
159 it will be preserved between reboots.
160 </p>
161 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
162 and add these lines:</p>
163<pre>
164REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
165UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
166</pre>
167 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
168 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
169 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
170 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
175 <body><p>
176 During installation the grub boot files are copied
177 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
178 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
179 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
180 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
181 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
182 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
183 unpacking the build snapshot or running
184 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
185 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
186 You can get more information on grub, including how to
187 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
188 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
189 </p>
190 </body>
191 </section>
192
193 <section>
194 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
195 detection. </title>
196 <body>
197 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
198 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
199 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
200 </body>
201 </section>
202
203</chapter> 293</chapter>
204 294
205<chapter> 295<chapter>
206 <title>Package Management</title> 296<title>Installation</title>
207 <section> 297<section id="optimizations">
208 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 298<title>
209 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
210 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
211 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 301</title>
212 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 302<body>
213 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 303
214 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 304<p>
215 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore.
309</p>
310
311<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313bug.
314</p>
315
216 </body> 316</body>
217 </section> 317</section>
218 318<section id="password">
219 <section> 319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
220 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
221 <body> 320<body>
222 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 321
223 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 322<p>
224 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
225 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
226 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 325completed the install.
326</p>
327
227 </body> 328</body>
228 </section> 329</section>
330<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332<body>
229 333
230 <section> 334<p>
231 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
232 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
233 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 337</p>
234 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 338
235 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 339<p>
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345</pre>
346
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p>
352
353<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357</p>
358
359</body>
236 </section> 360</section>
361<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body>
237 364
238 <section> 365<p>
239 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
240 <body> 367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
241 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 368the following command as root:
242 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 369</p>
243 </body> 370
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre>
374
375</body>
244 </section> 376</section>
377<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379<body>
245 380
246 <section> 381<p>
247 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
248 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
249 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
250 are as follows:</p> 385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
251 <table> 386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
252 <tr> 387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
253 <th>Flag</th> 388</p>
254 <th>Description</th> 389
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <ti>CHOST</ti>
258 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
259 </tr>
260 <tr>
261 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
262 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
263 </tr>
264 <tr>
265 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
266 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
267 files)</ti>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>USE</ti>
271 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
272 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
273 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
274 also USE-aware.</ti>
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
278 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
279 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
280 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
281 </tr>
282 </table>
283 </body> 390</body>
284 </section> 391</section>
285 392<section id="upgrade">
286 <section> 393<title>
287 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title>
288 <body> 396<body>
289 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 397
290 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 398<p>
291 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 399In fact there is no difference between the various releases
292 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
293 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
294 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
295 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
296 <ol> 404</p>
297 <li>Environment variables</li> 405
298 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 406<p>
299 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
300 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
301 any other place come from here)</li> 409</p>
302 </ol></p></body> 410
411</body>
303 </section> 412</section>
304 413<section id="bootrescue">
305 <section> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
306 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 415<body>
307 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
308 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
309 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
310 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
311 416
417<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p>
312 423
313 </p></body> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p>
454
455</body>
314 </section> 456</section>
457<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body>
315 460
316 <section> 461<p>
317 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
318 clobbering my config files?</title> 463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
319 <body><p> 464</p>
320 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 465
321 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
322 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
323 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 468</pre>
324 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 469
325 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 470<p>
326 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
327 </p></body> 472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p>
474
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478</pre>
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p>
486
487</body>
328 </section> 488</section>
489<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body>
329 492
330 <section> 493<p>
331 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
332 <body><p> 495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
333 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 496entire CD.
334 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 497</p>
335 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 498
336 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 499<p>
337 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
338 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
339 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 502</p>
340 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 503
341 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 504<ul>
342 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 505 <li>
343 </p></body> 506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538</ul>
539
540
541</body>
344 </section> 542</section>
345
346 <section>
347 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
348 <body><p>
349 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
350 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
351 /usr/portage snapshot from
352 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots</uri>. Just unpack
353 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
354 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
355 </p></body>
356 </section>
357
358 <section>
359 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
360 <body><p>
361 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
362 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
363 appropriately.
364 </p></body>
365 </section>
366
367 <section>
368 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
369 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
370 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
371 </section>
372
373 <section>
374 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
375 add them to my system?</title>
376 <body><p>
377 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
378 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
379 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
380 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
381 </p></body>
382 </section>
383
384 <section>
385 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
386 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
387 <body><p>
388 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
389 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
390 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
391 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
392 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
393 again.
394 </p></body>
395 </section>
396
397 <section>
398 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
399 <body>
400 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
401 maintain your local
402 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
403 <pre>
404# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
405# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
406# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
407# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
408# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
409# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
410# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
411# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
412# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
413# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
414# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
415# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
416 </pre>
417 </body>
418 </section>
419</chapter> 543</chapter>
420 544
421<chapter> 545<chapter>
422 <title>Usage</title> 546<title>Package Management</title>
423 <section> 547<section id="ebuilds">
424 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
425 account doesn't work. </title> 549<body>
426 <body> 550
427 <p> 551<p>
428 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
429 for your user entry in 553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
430 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
431 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file).
432 </p> 561</p>
433 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 562
434 </body> 563</body>
435 </section> 564</section>
436 565<section id="configure">
437 <section> 566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
438 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 567<body>
439 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 568
440 set). Type the following as root:</p> 569<p>
441 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p>
574
575<p>
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p>
593
442 </body> 594</body>
443 </section> 595</section>
596<section id="norsync">
597<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
598<body>
444 599
445 <section> 600<p>
446 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
447 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
448 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
449 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 604proxy is fully supported.
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
450 </body> 611</body>
451 </section> 612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
452 616
453 <section> 617<p>
454 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
455 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
456 </p> 621</p>
457 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 622
458 </body> 623</body>
459 </section> 624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
460 628
461 <section> 629<p>
462 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
463 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
464 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 632</p>
465 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 633
466 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
467 </body> 634</body>
468 </section> 635</section>
636<section id="manualdownload">
637<title>
638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
639 else and add them to my system?
640</title>
641<body>
642
643<p>
644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
649picking up the sources you just brought in!
650</p>
651
652</body>
653</section>
654<section id="distfiles">
655<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659</title>
660<body>
661
662<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
668again.
669</p>
670
671</body>
672</section>
673<section id="tmpportage">
674<title>
675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
677</title>
678<body>
679
680<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
683directory.
684</p>
685
686</body>
687</section>
469</chapter> 688</chapter>
470 689
471<chapter> 690<chapter>
472 <title>Maintenance</title> 691<title>Usage</title>
473 <section> 692<section id="rootssh">
474 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
475 <body> 697<body>
698
476 <p> 699<p>
477 If your 700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
478 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
479 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
480 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
481 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
482 to the corruption.
483 </p> 704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
484 </body> 710</body>
485 </section> 711</section>
486<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 712<section id="rootX">
487 <section> 713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
488 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
489 system?</title>
490 <body>
491 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
492 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
493
494<pre>
495# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
496</pre>
497
498<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
499
500<pre>
501# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
502</pre>
503
504</body> 714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
505 </section> 726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body>
730
731<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735</p>
736
737</body>
738</section>
739<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741<body>
742
743<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows:
746</p>
747
748<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
749# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750</pre>
751
752</body>
753</section>
754<section id="crontab">
755<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756<body>
757
758<p>
759You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
760</p>
761
762</body>
763</section>
764<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body>
767
768<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
788reboot.
789</p>
790
791</body>
792</section>
793<section id="clear">
794<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
795<body>
796
797<p>
798To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
799<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
800</p>
801
802<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
803$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
804</pre>
805
806<p>
807If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
808user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
809</p>
810
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body>
814
815</section>
506</chapter> 816</chapter>
507 817
508<chapter> 818<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre>
856
857</body>
858</section>
859</chapter>
860
861<chapter>
509 <title>Development</title> 862<title>Development</title>
510 <section> 863<section id="reportbugs">
511 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body>
866
867<p>
512 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
513 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
514 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
515 </p></body> 871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p>
873
874</body>
516 </section> 875</section>
517 876<section id="releases">
518 <section>
519 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 877<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
520 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 878<body>
521 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 879
522 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 880<p>
523 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 881New releases are announced on the <uri
524 new modules get added.</p></body> 882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886</p>
887
888</body>
525 </section> 889</section>
526 890<section id="addfaq">
527 <section>
528 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
529 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
530 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
531 </section>
532
533 <section>
534 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
535 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
536 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p>
898
899</body>
537 </section> 900</section>
901<section id="beeping">
902<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905</title>
906<body>
538 907
539 <section> 908<p>
540 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
541 <body><p> 910</p>
542 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 911
543 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 912<pre caption="Using setterm">
544 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
545 </p></body> 914</pre>
915
916<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre>
927
928<p>
929You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930console beeps for.
931</p>
932
933</body>
546 </section> 934</section>
547
548
549 <section>
550 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
551 </title>
552 <body>
553 <p>
554 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
555
556 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
557
558 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
559 you need to put this command in
560 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
561 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
562 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
563 target terminal, like this ;
564
565 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
566
567 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
568 you would like to disable console beeps for.
569 </p>
570 </body>
571 </section>
572</chapter> 935</chapter>
573 936
574<chapter> 937<chapter>
575<title>Resources</title> 938<title>Resources</title>
576 <section> 939<section id="resources">
577 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
578 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
579 </section>
580
581 <section>
582 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
583 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 941<body>
942
943<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947</p>
948
949</body>
584 </section> 950</section>
585 951<section id="buycd">
586 <section>
587 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
588 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 953<body>
589 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 954
955<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
590 </p> 960</p>
961
962<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from
591 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
592 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
593 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p>
968
594 </body> 969</body>
595 </section> 970</section>
596 971<section id="mailinglist">
597 <section> 972<title>
598 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
599 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
600 <body> 976<body>
977
978<p>
601 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
602 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
603 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
604 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
605 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
606 985
986<p>
607 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
608 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
609 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
610 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
611 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
612 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
613 994
995<p>
614 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
615 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
616 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
617 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
618 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
619 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
620 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
621 reasons, many of these covered 1003reasons, many of these covered
622 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
623 1006
1007<p>
624 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
625 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p>
1011
626 </body> 1012</body>
627 </section>
628
629 <section> 1013</section>
1014<section id="help">
630 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
631 <body> 1016<body>
632 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 1017
633 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1018<p>
634 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
635 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
636 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
637 </p> 1026</p>
1027
638 </body> 1028</body>
639 </section> 1029</section>
640</chapter> 1030</chapter>
1031
641</guide> 1032</guide>

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