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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.102 2006/01/06 16:06:31 flammie Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 11 Colin Morey
12</author> 12</author>
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
31 37
32<abstract> 38<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 39This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 40mailing list and from IRC.
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 41</abstract>
37 42
43<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
38<license/> 45<license/>
39 46
40<version>2.8</version> 47<version>3.4</version>
41<date>July 04, 2004</date> 48<date>2006-01-06</date>
42 49
43<chapter> 50<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 51<title>Questions:</title>
45<section> 52<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 53<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body> 54<body>
48 55
56<p>
57Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61answered here.
62</p>
63
49<ul> 64<ul>
50 <li> 65 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it 66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri> 67 mean?</uri>
53 </li> 68 </li>
62<title>Installation</title> 77<title>Installation</title>
63<body> 78<body>
64 79
65<ul> 80<ul>
66 <li> 81 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and 82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What 83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li> 84 </li>
71 <li> 85 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's) 86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri> 87 password?</uri>
74 </li> 88 </li>
94 have to do?</uri> 108 have to do?</uri>
95 </li> 109 </li>
96 <li> 110 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri> 111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li> 112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125 Tarball?</uri>
126 </li>
99</ul> 127</ul>
100 128
101</body> 129</body>
102</section> 130</section>
103<section> 131<section>
111 <li> 139 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. 140 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri> 141 Can I?</uri>
114 </li> 142 </li>
115 <li> 143 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a 144 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri> 145 firewall?</uri>
121 </li> 146 </li>
122 <li> 147 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating 148 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
124 system?</uri>
125 </li> 149 </li>
126 <li> 150 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can 151 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri> 152 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li> 153 </li>
130 <li> 154 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are 155 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to 156 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li> 157 </li>
135 <li> 158 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to 159 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri> 160 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li> 161 </li>
144<title>Usage</title> 167<title>Usage</title>
145<body> 168<body>
146 169
147<ul> 170<ul>
148 <li> 171 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard 172 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri> 173 Layout?</uri>
158 </li> 174 </li>
159 <li> 175 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri> 176 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 </li> 183 </li>
168 <li> 184 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log 185 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri> 186 out?</uri>
171 </li> 187 </li>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190 su'ing</uri>
191 </li>
172</ul> 192</ul>
173 193
174</body> 194</body>
175</section> 195</section>
176<section> 196<section>
178<body> 198<body>
179 199
180<ul> 200<ul>
181 <li> 201 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- 202 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri> 203 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li> 204 </li>
188</ul> 205</ul>
189 206
190</body> 207</body>
191</section> 208</section>
199 </li> 216 </li>
200 <li> 217 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri> 218 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li> 219 </li>
203 <li> 220 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling 221 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri> 222 beeps?</uri>
210 </li> 223 </li>
211</ul> 224</ul>
212 225
213</body> 226</body>
214</section> 227</section>
223 </li> 236 </li>
224 <li> 237 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri> 238 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li> 239 </li>
227 <li> 240 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I 241 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri> 242 do now?</uri>
235 </li> 243 </li>
236</ul> 244</ul>
237 245
246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 254<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247<body> 255<body>
248 256
249<p> 257<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the 258A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo 259"g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the 260penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands. 261penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254</p> 262</p>
255 263
256</body> 264</body>
257</section> 265</section>
258<section id="differences"> 266<section id="differences">
262<p> 270<p>
263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 271Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 272link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 273that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 274Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>), 275link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 276conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 277(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration 278link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 279file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>. 280link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p> 281</p>
282
283<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your 284With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or 285optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install 286installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a 287to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p> 288</p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the 289
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace 290<p>
291Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the 292development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are 293mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ... 294added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
289</p> 295</p>
290 296
291</body> 297</body>
292</section> 298</section>
293</chapter> 299</chapter>
294 300
295<chapter> 301<chapter>
296<title>Installation</title> 302<title>Installation</title>
297<section id="optimizations"> 303<section id="optimizations">
298<title> 304<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 305 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 306 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
301</title> 307</title>
302<body> 308<body>
303 309
304<p> 310<p>
305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by 311Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 313compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore. 314do the same thing anymore.
309</p> 315</p>
310 316
311<p> 317<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a 318Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
313bug. 319reporting a bug.
314</p> 320</p>
315 321
316</body> 322</body>
317</section> 323</section>
318<section id="password"> 324<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title> 325<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body> 326<body>
321 327
322<p> 328<p>
323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 329You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've 330into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
325completed the install. 331<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
326</p> 332</p>
327 333
328</body> 334</body>
329</section> 335</section>
330<section id="useradd"> 336<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 337<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
332<body> 338<body>
333 339
334<p>
335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p> 340<p>
338 341The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
339<p> 342this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 343him, so the following command is preferred:
341</p> 344</p>
342 345
343<pre caption="Using useradd"> 346<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i> 347# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
345</pre> 348</pre>
346 349
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p> 350<p>
352 351This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
353<p> 352<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 353<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow 354execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 355privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
357</p> 356</p>
358 357
359</body> 358</body>
360</section> 359</section>
361<section id="su"> 360<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 361<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body> 362<body>
364 363
365<p> 364<p>
366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 365For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue 366wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
368the following command as root: 367as root:
369</p> 368</p>
370 369
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group"> 370<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i> 371# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre> 372</pre>
374 373
375</body> 374</body>
376</section> 375</section>
377<section id="devfs"> 376<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 377<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
379<body> 378<body>
380 379
380<p>
381Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
382<path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
383archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
384link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
385udev.
381<p> 386</p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you 387
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the 388<p>
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6 389If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option 390<c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388</p> 391</p>
389 392
390</body> 393</body>
391</section> 394</section>
392<section id="upgrade"> 395<section id="upgrade">
394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling? 397 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title> 398</title>
396<body> 399<body>
397 400
398<p> 401<p>
399In fact there is no difference between the various releases 402In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 403been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> 404running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 405entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 406individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
404</p> 407See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
405 408for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
406<p>
407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409</p> 409</p>
410 410
411</body> 411</body>
412</section> 412</section>
413<section id="bootrescue"> 413<section id="bootrescue">
414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415<body> 415<body>
416 416
417<p> 417<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 419kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p> 422</p>
423 423
424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 425<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i> 430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i> 433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i> 435# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment> 436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment> 437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i> 438# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment> 439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i> 440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment> 441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i> 446# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre> 447</pre>
448 448
449<p> 449<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 450If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p> 453</p>
454 454
455</body> 455</body>
456</section> 456</section>
457<section id="proxy"> 457<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body> 459<body>
460 460
461<p> 461<p>
462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468</pre>
469
470<p>
471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 462To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 463<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p> 464</p>
474 465
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 466<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 467HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 468FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
478</pre> 469RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p> 470</pre>
486 471
487</body> 472</body>
488</section> 473</section>
489<section id="isoburning"> 474<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title> 475<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body> 476<body>
492 477
493<p> 478<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you 479You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an 480just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
496entire CD.
497</p> 481</p>
498 482
499<p> 483<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a 484There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :) 485Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
502</p> 486</p>
503 487
504<ul> 488<ul>
505 <li> 489 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD 490 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on 492 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R. 493 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li> 494 </li>
511 <li> 495 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and 496 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you 497 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch 498 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt. 499 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li> 500 </li>
517 <li> 501 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 502 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed 503 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :) 504 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li> 505 </li>
522 <li> 506 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 507 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 508 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
525 <c>Start</c>. 509 click <c>Start</c>.
526 </li> 510 </li>
527 <li> 511 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from 512 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the 513 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and 514 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538</ul> 522</ul>
539 523
540 524
541</body> 525</body>
542</section> 526</section>
527<section id="cpus">
528<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
529<body>
530
531<p>
532First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
533need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
534need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
535link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
536</p>
537
538<p>
539If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
540generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
541will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
542</p>
543
544<p>
545Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
546binary stages. Please see the <uri
547link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
548guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
549</p>
550
551</body>
552</section>
553<section id="dhcp">
554<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
555<body>
556
557<p>
558First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
559kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
560certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
561for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
562sure that these kernel modules are listed in
563<path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
564you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
565</p>
566
567<p>
568If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
569you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
574configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
575<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
576install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
577</p>
578
579<p>
580Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
581link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
582</p>
583
584</body>
585</section>
586<section id="dualboot">
587<title>
588I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
589should I do?
590</title>
591<body>
592
593<p>
594This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
595first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
596to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
597with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
598below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
599on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
603title Windows XP
604 map (hd1) (hd0)
605 map (hd0) (hd1)
606 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
607 chainloader +1
608</pre>
609
610<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
611other=/dev/hdb1
612 label=WindowsXP
613 table=/dev/hdb
614 map-drive = 0x80
615 to = 0x81
616 map-drive = 0x81
617 to = 0x80
618</pre>
619
620<p>
621This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
622without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
623link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
624documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
625you're using.
626</p>
627
628</body>
629</section>
630<section id="stage12">
631<title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
632<body>
633
634<p>
635The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
636However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
637development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
638to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
639well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
640</p>
641
642<p>
643Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
644your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
645system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
646<e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
647suit your needs and then run it:
648</p>
649
650<pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
651# <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
652# <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
653
654# <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
655</pre>
656
657<p>
658Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
659to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
660</p>
661
662<pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
663# <i>emerge -e system</i>
664</pre>
665
666<p>
667Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
668prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
669</p>
670
671</body>
672</section>
543</chapter> 673</chapter>
544 674
545<chapter> 675<chapter>
546<title>Package Management</title> 676<title>Package Management</title>
547<section id="ebuilds"> 677<section id="ebuilds">
548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 678<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
549<body> 679<body>
550 680
681<p>
682Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
683which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
684package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
685releases and snapshots. The <uri
686link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
687HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
551<p> 688</p>
552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 689
553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 690<p>
554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 691For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 692<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 693attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 694not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format 695</p>
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the 696
560file). 697<p>
698It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
699Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
700install packages.
561</p> 701</p>
562 702
563</body> 703</body>
564</section> 704</section>
565<section id="configure"> 705<section id="configure">
566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title> 706<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
707<body>
708
709<p>
710Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
711requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
712recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
713place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
714better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
715link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
716HOWTO</uri> for more information.
717</p>
718
567<body> 719</body>
720</section>
721<section id="firewall">
722<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
723<body>
568 724
569<p>
570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p> 725<p>
574 726See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
575<p> 727link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 728files manually</uri>.
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p> 729</p>
593 730
594</body> 731</body>
595</section> 732</section>
596<section id="norsync"> 733<section id="norsync">
598<body> 735<body>
599 736
600<p> 737<p>
601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use 738If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you 739<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so 740through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
604proxy is fully supported. 741document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
605</p> 742a proxy.
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
611</body>
612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
616
617<p>
618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
621</p>
622
623</body>
624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p> 743</p>
633 744
634</body> 745</body>
635</section> 746</section>
636<section id="manualdownload"> 747<section id="manualdownload">
643<p> 754<p>
644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 755Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where 756are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download 757to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into 758sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it 759<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
649picking up the sources you just brought in! 760Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
650</p> 761</p>
651 762
652</body> 763</body>
653</section> 764</section>
654<section id="distfiles"> 765<section id="distfiles">
655<title> 766<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in 767 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these 768 delete these files?
658 files?
659</title> 769</title>
660<body> 770<body>
661 771
662<p> 772<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 773Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 774However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 775several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 776software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 777be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
668again. 778<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
779developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
780Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
781at your own risk.
669</p> 782</p>
670 783
671</body> 784</body>
672</section> 785</section>
673<section id="tmpportage"> 786<section id="tmpportage">
677</title> 790</title>
678<body> 791<body>
679 792
680<p> 793<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in 794During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this 795<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
683directory. 796a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
797contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
798always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
684</p> 799</p>
685 800
686</body> 801</body>
687</section> 802</section>
688</chapter> 803</chapter>
689 804
690<chapter> 805<chapter>
691<title>Usage</title> 806<title>Usage</title>
692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
697<body>
698
699<p>
700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
710</body>
711</section>
712<section id="rootX">
713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard"> 807<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 808<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body> 809<body>
730 810
731<p> 811<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 812Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
813console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
814also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
815in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
816localising your environment, refer to <uri link="/doc/en/guide-localization">
817our localisation guide</uri>.).
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 818Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
819</p>
820
821<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>. 822# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
823# <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
735</p> 824</pre>
736 825
737</body> 826</body>
738</section> 827</section>
739<section id="rootdns"> 828<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 829<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
741<body> 830<body>
742 831
743<p> 832<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as 833<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows: 834follows:
764<section id="numlock"> 853<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 854<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body> 855<body>
767 856
768<p> 857<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 858If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 859numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
788reboot. 860</p>
861
862<p>
863Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
864section or online manuals for assistance.
789</p> 865</p>
790 866
791</body> 867</body>
792</section> 868</section>
793<section id="clear"> 869<section id="clear">
810 886
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 887<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 888# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body> 889</body>
814 890
891</section>
892<section id="suinx">
893<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
894<body>
895
896<p>
897This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
898don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
899link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
900the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
901<path>/etc/profile</path>.
902</p>
903
904<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
905export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
906</pre>
907
908</body>
815</section> 909</section>
816</chapter> 910</chapter>
817 911
818<chapter> 912<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title> 913<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption"> 914<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 915<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body> 916<body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837 917
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p> 918<p>
849 919If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off"> 920run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote> 921make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 922directories due to the corruption.
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre> 923</p>
856 924
857</body> 925</body>
858</section> 926</section>
859</chapter> 927</chapter>
860 928
863<section id="reportbugs"> 931<section id="reportbugs">
864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 932<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body> 933<body>
866 934
867<p> 935<p>
868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, 936Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can 937your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 938link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p> 939</p>
873 940
874</body> 941</body>
875</section> 942</section>
876<section id="releases"> 943<section id="releases">
877<title>How often are new releases made?</title> 944<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878<body> 945<body>
879 946
880<p> 947<p>
881New releases are announced on the <uri 948Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 949new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. 950our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
886</p> 951releases are announced on the <uri
887 952link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
888</body> 953on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
889</section>
890<section id="addfaq">
891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p> 954</p>
898 955
899</body> 956</body>
900</section> 957</section>
901<section id="beeping"> 958<section id="beeping">
902<title> 959<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console 960 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
904 beeps?
905</title> 961</title>
906<body> 962<body>
907 963
908<p> 964<p>
909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this: 965Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
912<pre caption="Using setterm"> 968<pre caption="Using setterm">
913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i> 969# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914</pre> 970</pre>
915 971
916<p> 972<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 973If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, 974command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 975beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 976command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923 977
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)"> 978<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i> 979# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre> 980</pre>
927 981
939<section id="resources"> 993<section id="resources">
940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 994<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941<body> 995<body>
942 996
943<p> 997<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on 998The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>. 999<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
947</p> 1000</p>
948 1001
949</body> 1002</body>
950</section> 1003</section>
951<section id="buycd"> 1004<section id="buycd">
952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 1005<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953<body> 1006<body>
954 1007
955<p> 1008<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 1009Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 1010link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 1011purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 1012please consider buying from our store if possible.
960</p>
961
962<p> 1013</p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from 1014
964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p> 1015<p>
968 1016You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
969</body> 1017link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
970</section>
971<section id="mailinglist">
972<title>
973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
976<body>
977
978<p>
979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
985
986<p>
987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
994
995<p>
996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003reasons, many of these covered
1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
1006
1007<p>
1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p> 1018</p>
1011 1019
1012</body> 1020</body>
1013</section> 1021</section>
1014<section id="help"> 1022<section id="help">
1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1023<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016<body> 1024<body>
1017 1025
1018<p> 1026<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri 1027A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, 1028link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri 1029Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo 1030To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all 1031to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: 1032Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026</p> 1033</p>
1027 1034
1028</body> 1035</body>
1029</section> 1036</section>
1030</chapter> 1037</chapter>

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