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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 3
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 6<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 8</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 9<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 10 Colin Morey
12</author> 11</author>
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 25 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author> 26</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 27<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 28 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 29</author>
30<author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32</author>
33<author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35</author>
31 36
32<abstract> 37<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 38This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 39mailing list and from IRC.
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 40</abstract>
37 41
42<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
38<license/> 44<license/>
39 45
40<version>2.8</version> 46<version>3.6</version>
41<date>July 04, 2004</date> 47<date>2006-02-13</date>
42 48
43<chapter> 49<faqindex>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 50<title>Questions</title>
45<section> 51<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 52<title>Introduction</title>
47<body>
48
49<ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body> 53<body>
60</section> 54
55<p>
56Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60answered here.
61</p>
62
63</body>
61<section> 64</section>
62<title>Installation</title> 65</faqindex>
63<body>
64
65<ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99</ul>
100
101</body>
102</section>
103<section>
104<title>Package Management</title>
105<body>
106
107<ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139</ul>
140
141</body>
142</section>
143<section>
144<title>Usage</title>
145<body>
146
147<ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172</ul>
173
174</body>
175</section>
176<section>
177<title>Maintenance</title>
178<body>
179
180<ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Development</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211</ul>
212
213</body>
214</section>
215<section>
216<title>Resources</title>
217<body>
218
219<ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236</ul>
237
238</body>
239</section>
240</chapter>
241 66
242<chapter> 67<chapter>
243<title>Getting Started</title> 68<title>Getting Started</title>
244 69
245<section id="pronunciation"> 70<section id="pronunciation">
246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 71<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247<body> 72<body>
248 73
249<p> 74<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the 75A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo 76"g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the 77penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands. 78penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254</p> 79</p>
255 80
256</body> 81</body>
257</section> 82</section>
258<section id="differences"> 83<section id="differences">
262<p> 87<p>
263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 88Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 89link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 90that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 91Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>), 92link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 93conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 94(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration 95link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 96file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>. 97link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p> 98</p>
99
100<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your 101With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or 102optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install 103installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a 104to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p> 105</p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the 106
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace 107<p>
108Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the 109development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are 110mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ... 111added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
289</p> 112</p>
290 113
291</body> 114</body>
292</section> 115</section>
293</chapter> 116</chapter>
294 117
295<chapter> 118<chapter>
296<title>Installation</title> 119<title>Installation</title>
297<section id="optimizations"> 120<section id="optimizations">
298<title> 121<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 122 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 123 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
301</title> 124</title>
302<body> 125<body>
303 126
304<p> 127<p>
305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by 128Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 130compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore. 131do the same thing anymore.
309</p> 132</p>
310 133
311<p> 134<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a 135Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
313bug. 136reporting a bug.
314</p> 137</p>
315 138
316</body> 139</body>
317</section> 140</section>
318<section id="password"> 141<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title> 142<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body> 143<body>
321 144
322<p> 145<p>
323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 146You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've 147into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
325completed the install. 148<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
326</p> 149</p>
327 150
328</body> 151</body>
329</section> 152</section>
330<section id="useradd"> 153<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 154<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
332<body> 155<body>
333 156
334<p>
335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p> 157<p>
338 158The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
339<p> 159this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 160him, so the following command is preferred:
341</p> 161</p>
342 162
343<pre caption="Using useradd"> 163<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i> 164# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
345</pre> 165</pre>
346 166
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p> 167<p>
352 168This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
353<p> 169<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 170<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow 171execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 172privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
357</p> 173</p>
358 174
359</body> 175</body>
360</section> 176</section>
361<section id="su"> 177<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 178<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body> 179<body>
364 180
365<p> 181<p>
366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 182For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue 183wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
368the following command as root: 184as root:
369</p> 185</p>
370 186
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group"> 187<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i> 188# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre> 189</pre>
374 190
375</body> 191</body>
376</section> 192</section>
377<section id="devfs"> 193<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 194<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
379<body> 195<body>
380 196
197<p>
198Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
199<path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
200archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
201link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
202udev.
381<p> 203</p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you 204
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the 205<p>
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6 206If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option 207<c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388</p> 208</p>
389 209
390</body> 210</body>
391</section> 211</section>
392<section id="upgrade"> 212<section id="upgrade">
394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling? 214 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title> 215</title>
396<body> 216<body>
397 217
398<p> 218<p>
399In fact there is no difference between the various releases 219In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 220been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> 221running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 222entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 223individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
404</p> 224See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
405 225for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
406<p>
407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409</p> 226</p>
410 227
411</body> 228</body>
412</section> 229</section>
413<section id="bootrescue"> 230<section id="bootrescue">
414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 231<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415<body> 232<body>
416 233
417<p> 234<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 235You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 236kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 237on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 238<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p> 239</p>
423 240
424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 241<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 242<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 243<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 244# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 245# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 246# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i> 247# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i> 250# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 251# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i> 252# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment> 253<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment> 254<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i> 255# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment> 256<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i> 257# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment> 258<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 259# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 260<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i> 261# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 262# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i> 263# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre> 264</pre>
448 265
449<p> 266<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 267If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 268follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 269should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p> 270</p>
454 271
455</body> 272</body>
456</section> 273</section>
457<section id="proxy"> 274<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 275<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body> 276<body>
460 277
461<p> 278<p>
462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468</pre>
469
470<p>
471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 279To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 280<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p> 281</p>
474 282
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 283<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 284HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 285FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
478</pre> 286RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p> 287</pre>
486 288
487</body> 289</body>
488</section> 290</section>
489<section id="isoburning"> 291<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title> 292<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body> 293<body>
492 294
493<p> 295<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you 296You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an 297just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
496entire CD.
497</p> 298</p>
498 299
499<p> 300<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a 301There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :) 302Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
502</p> 303</p>
503 304
504<ul> 305<ul>
505 <li> 306 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD 307 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on 309 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R. 310 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li> 311 </li>
511 <li> 312 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and 313 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you 314 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch 315 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt. 316 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li> 317 </li>
517 <li> 318 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 319 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed 320 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :) 321 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li> 322 </li>
522 <li> 323 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 324 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 325 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
525 <c>Start</c>. 326 click <c>Start</c>.
526 </li> 327 </li>
527 <li> 328 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from 329 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the 330 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and 331 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538</ul> 339</ul>
539 340
540 341
541</body> 342</body>
542</section> 343</section>
344<section id="cpus">
345<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
346<body>
347
348<p>
349First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
350need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
351need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
352link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
353</p>
354
355<p>
356If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
357generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
358will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
359</p>
360
361<p>
362Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
363binary stages. Please see the <uri
364link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
365guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
366</p>
367
368</body>
369</section>
370<section id="dhcp">
371<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
372<body>
373
374<p>
375First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
376kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
377certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
378for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
379sure that these kernel modules are listed in
380<path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
381you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
382</p>
383
384<p>
385If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
386you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
387</p>
388
389<p>
390If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
391configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
392<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
393install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
394</p>
395
396<p>
397Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
398link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
399</p>
400
401</body>
402</section>
403<section id="dualboot">
404<title>
405I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
406should I do?
407</title>
408<body>
409
410<p>
411This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
412first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
413to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
414with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
415below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
416on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
417</p>
418
419<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
420title Windows XP
421 map (hd1) (hd0)
422 map (hd0) (hd1)
423 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
424 chainloader +1
425</pre>
426
427<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
428other=/dev/hdb1
429 label=WindowsXP
430 table=/dev/hdb
431 map-drive = 0x80
432 to = 0x81
433 map-drive = 0x81
434 to = 0x80
435</pre>
436
437<p>
438This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
439without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
440link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
441documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
442you're using.
443</p>
444
445</body>
446</section>
447<section id="stage12">
448<title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
449<body>
450
451<p>
452The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
453However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
454development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
455to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
456well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
457</p>
458
459<p>
460Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
461your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
462system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
463<e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
464suit your needs and then run it:
465</p>
466
467<pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
468# <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
469# <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
470
471# <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
476to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
480# <i>emerge -e system</i>
481</pre>
482
483<p>
484Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
485prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
486</p>
487
488</body>
489</section>
543</chapter> 490</chapter>
544 491
545<chapter> 492<chapter>
546<title>Package Management</title> 493<title>Package Management</title>
547<section id="ebuilds"> 494<section id="ebuilds">
548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 495<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
549<body> 496<body>
550 497
498<p>
499Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
500which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
501package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
502releases and snapshots. The <uri
503link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
504HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
551<p> 505</p>
552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 506
553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 507<p>
554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 508For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 509<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 510attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 511not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format 512</p>
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the 513
560file). 514<p>
515It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
516Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
517install packages.
561</p> 518</p>
562 519
563</body> 520</body>
564</section> 521</section>
565<section id="configure"> 522<section id="configure">
566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title> 523<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
524<body>
525
526<p>
527Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
528requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
529recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
530place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
531better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
532link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
533HOWTO</uri> for more information.
534</p>
535
567<body> 536</body>
537</section>
538<section id="firewall">
539<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
540<body>
568 541
569<p>
570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p> 542<p>
574 543See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
575<p> 544link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 545files manually</uri>.
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p> 546</p>
593 547
594</body> 548</body>
595</section> 549</section>
596<section id="norsync"> 550<section id="norsync">
598<body> 552<body>
599 553
600<p> 554<p>
601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use 555If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you 556<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so 557through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
604proxy is fully supported. 558document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
605</p> 559a proxy.
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
611</body>
612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
616
617<p>
618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
621</p>
622
623</body>
624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p> 560</p>
633 561
634</body> 562</body>
635</section> 563</section>
636<section id="manualdownload"> 564<section id="manualdownload">
643<p> 571<p>
644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 572Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where 573are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download 574to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into 575sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it 576<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
649picking up the sources you just brought in! 577Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
650</p> 578</p>
651 579
652</body> 580</body>
653</section> 581</section>
654<section id="distfiles"> 582<section id="distfiles">
655<title> 583<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in 584 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these 585 delete these files?
658 files?
659</title> 586</title>
660<body> 587<body>
661 588
662<p> 589<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 590Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 591However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 592several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 593software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 594be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
668again. 595<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
596developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
597Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
598at your own risk.
669</p> 599</p>
670 600
671</body> 601</body>
672</section> 602</section>
673<section id="tmpportage"> 603<section id="tmpportage">
677</title> 607</title>
678<body> 608<body>
679 609
680<p> 610<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in 611During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this 612<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
683directory. 613a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
614contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
615always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
684</p> 616</p>
685 617
686</body> 618</body>
687</section> 619</section>
688</chapter> 620</chapter>
689 621
690<chapter> 622<chapter>
691<title>Usage</title> 623<title>Usage</title>
692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
697<body>
698
699<p>
700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
710</body>
711</section>
712<section id="rootX">
713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard"> 624<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 625<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body> 626<body>
730 627
731<p> 628<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 629Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
630console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
631also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
632in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
633localising your environment, refer to <uri
634link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 635Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>. 639# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
640# <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
735</p> 641</pre>
736 642
737</body> 643</body>
738</section> 644</section>
739<section id="rootdns"> 645<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 646<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
741<body> 647<body>
742 648
743<p> 649<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as 650<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows: 651follows:
764<section id="numlock"> 670<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 671<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body> 672<body>
767 673
768<p> 674<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 675If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 676numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
788reboot. 677</p>
678
679<p>
680Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
681section or online manuals for assistance.
789</p> 682</p>
790 683
791</body> 684</body>
792</section> 685</section>
793<section id="clear"> 686<section id="clear">
810 703
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 704<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 705# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body> 706</body>
814 707
708</section>
709<section id="suinx">
710<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
711<body>
712
713<p>
714This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
715don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
716link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
717the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
718<path>/etc/profile</path>.
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
722export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
723</pre>
724
725</body>
815</section> 726</section>
816</chapter> 727</chapter>
817 728
818<chapter> 729<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title> 730<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption"> 731<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 732<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body> 733<body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837 734
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p> 735<p>
849 736If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off"> 737run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote> 738make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 739directories due to the corruption.
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre> 740</p>
856 741
857</body> 742</body>
858</section> 743</section>
859</chapter> 744</chapter>
860 745
863<section id="reportbugs"> 748<section id="reportbugs">
864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 749<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body> 750<body>
866 751
867<p> 752<p>
868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, 753Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can 754your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 755link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p> 756</p>
873 757
874</body> 758</body>
875</section> 759</section>
876<section id="releases"> 760<section id="releases">
877<title>How often are new releases made?</title> 761<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878<body> 762<body>
879 763
880<p> 764<p>
881New releases are announced on the <uri 765Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 766new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. 767our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
886</p> 768releases are announced on the <uri
887 769link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
888</body> 770on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
889</section>
890<section id="addfaq">
891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p> 771</p>
898 772
899</body> 773</body>
900</section> 774</section>
901<section id="beeping"> 775<section id="beeping">
902<title> 776<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console 777 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
904 beeps?
905</title> 778</title>
906<body> 779<body>
907 780
908<p> 781<p>
909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this: 782Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
912<pre caption="Using setterm"> 785<pre caption="Using setterm">
913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i> 786# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914</pre> 787</pre>
915 788
916<p> 789<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 790If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, 791command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 792beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 793command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923 794
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)"> 795<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i> 796# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre> 797</pre>
927 798
939<section id="resources"> 810<section id="resources">
940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 811<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941<body> 812<body>
942 813
943<p> 814<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on 815The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>. 816<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
947</p> 817</p>
948 818
949</body> 819</body>
950</section> 820</section>
951<section id="buycd"> 821<section id="buycd">
952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 822<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953<body> 823<body>
954 824
955<p> 825<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 826Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 827link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 828purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 829please consider buying from our store if possible.
960</p>
961
962<p> 830</p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from 831
964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p> 832<p>
968 833You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
969</body> 834link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
970</section>
971<section id="mailinglist">
972<title>
973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
976<body>
977
978<p>
979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
985
986<p>
987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
994
995<p>
996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003reasons, many of these covered
1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
1006
1007<p>
1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p> 835</p>
1011 836
1012</body> 837</body>
1013</section> 838</section>
1014<section id="help"> 839<section id="help">
1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 840<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016<body> 841<body>
1017 842
1018<p> 843<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri 844A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, 845link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri 846Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo 847To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all 848to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: 849Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026</p> 850</p>
1027 851
1028</body> 852</body>
1029</section> 853</section>
1030</chapter> 854</chapter>

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