/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.68 Revision 1.116
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.116 2010/07/16 23:18:31 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 11 Colin Morey
12</author> 12</author>
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
37<author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39</author>
31 40
32<abstract> 41<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 42This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 43mailing list and from IRC.
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 44</abstract>
37 45
46<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
38<license/> 48<license/>
39 49
40<version>2.8</version> 50<version>3.14</version>
41<date>July 04, 2004</date> 51<date>2010-07-16</date>
42 52
43<chapter> 53<faqindex>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 54<title>Questions</title>
45<section> 55<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 56<title>Introduction</title>
47<body>
48
49<ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body> 57<body>
60</section> 58
59<p>
60Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64answered here.
65</p>
66
67</body>
61<section> 68</section>
62<title>Installation</title> 69</faqindex>
63<body>
64
65<ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99</ul>
100
101</body>
102</section>
103<section>
104<title>Package Management</title>
105<body>
106
107<ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139</ul>
140
141</body>
142</section>
143<section>
144<title>Usage</title>
145<body>
146
147<ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172</ul>
173
174</body>
175</section>
176<section>
177<title>Maintenance</title>
178<body>
179
180<ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Development</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211</ul>
212
213</body>
214</section>
215<section>
216<title>Resources</title>
217<body>
218
219<ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236</ul>
237
238</body>
239</section>
240</chapter>
241 70
242<chapter> 71<chapter>
243<title>Getting Started</title> 72<title>Getting Started</title>
244 73
245<section id="pronunciation"> 74<section id="pronunciation">
246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 75<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247<body> 76<body>
248 77
249<p> 78<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the 79<e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo 80"gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the 82<e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands. 83by the inhabitants of the <uri
84link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
254</p> 85</p>
255 86
256</body> 87</body>
257</section> 88</section>
258<section id="differences"> 89<section id="differences">
262<p> 93<p>
263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 94Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 95link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 96that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 97Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>), 98link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 99conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 100(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration 101link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 102file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>. 103link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p> 104</p>
105
106<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your 107With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or 108optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install 109installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a 110to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p> 111</p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the 112
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace 113<p>
114Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the 115development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are 116mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ... 117added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
289</p> 118</p>
290 119
291</body> 120</body>
292</section> 121</section>
293</chapter> 122</chapter>
294 123
295<chapter> 124<chapter>
296<title>Installation</title> 125<title>Installation</title>
297<section id="optimizations"> 126<section id="optimizations">
298<title> 127<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 128 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 129 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
301</title> 130</title>
302<body> 131<body>
303 132
304<p> 133<p>
305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by 134Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 136compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore. 137do the same thing anymore.
309</p> 138</p>
310 139
311<p> 140<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a 141Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
313bug. 142reporting a bug.
314</p> 143</p>
315 144
316</body> 145</body>
317</section> 146</section>
318<section id="password"> 147<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title> 148<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body> 149<body>
321 150
322<p> 151<p>
323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 152You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've 153into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
325completed the install. 154<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
326</p> 155</p>
327 156
328</body> 157</body>
329</section> 158</section>
330<section id="useradd"> 159<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 160<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
332<body> 161<body>
333 162
334<p>
335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p> 163<p>
338 164The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
339<p> 165this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 166him, so the following command is preferred:
341</p> 167</p>
342 168
343<pre caption="Using useradd"> 169<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i> 170# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
345</pre> 171</pre>
346 172
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p> 173<p>
352 174This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
353<p> 175<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 176<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow 177execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 178privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
357</p> 179</p>
358 180
359</body> 181</body>
360</section> 182</section>
361<section id="su"> 183<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 184<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body> 185<body>
364 186
365<p> 187<p>
366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 188For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue 189wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
368the following command as root: 190as root:
369</p> 191</p>
370 192
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group"> 193<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i> 194# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre> 195</pre>
374
375</body>
376</section>
377<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379<body>
380
381<p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388</p>
389 196
390</body> 197</body>
391</section> 198</section>
392<section id="upgrade"> 199<section id="upgrade">
393<title> 200<title>
394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling? 201 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title> 202</title>
396<body> 203<body>
397 204
398<p> 205<p>
399In fact there is no difference between the various releases 206In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 207been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> 208running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 209entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 210individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
404</p> 211See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
405 212for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
406<p>
407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409</p> 213</p>
410 214
411</body> 215</body>
412</section> 216</section>
413<section id="bootrescue"> 217<section id="bootrescue">
414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 218<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415<body> 219<body>
416 220
417<p> 221<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 222You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 223kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 224on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 225<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p> 226</p>
423 227
424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 228<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 229<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 230<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 231# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 232# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 233# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i> 234# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i> 237# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 238# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i> 239# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment> 240<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment> 241<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i> 242# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment> 243<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i> 244# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment> 245<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 246# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 247<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i> 248# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 249# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i> 250# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre> 251</pre>
448 252
449<p> 253<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 254If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 255follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 256should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p> 257</p>
454 258
455</body> 259</body>
456</section> 260</section>
457<section id="proxy"> 261<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 262<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body> 263<body>
460 264
461<p> 265<p>
462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468</pre>
469
470<p>
471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 266To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 267<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p> 268</p>
474 269
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 270<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 271http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 272ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
478</pre> 273RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p> 274</pre>
486 275
487</body> 276</body>
488</section> 277</section>
489<section id="isoburning"> 278<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title> 279<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body> 280<body>
492 281
493<p> 282<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you 283You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an 284just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
496entire CD.
497</p> 285</p>
498 286
499<p> 287<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a 288There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :) 289Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
502</p> 290</p>
503 291
504<ul> 292<ul>
505 <li> 293 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD 294 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on 296 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R. 297 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li> 298 </li>
511 <li> 299 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and 300 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you 301 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch 302 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt. 303 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li> 304 </li>
517 <li> 305 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 306 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed 307 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :) 308 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li> 309 </li>
522 <li> 310 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 311 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 312 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
525 <c>Start</c>. 313 click <c>Start</c>.
526 </li> 314 </li>
527 <li> 315 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from 316 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the 317 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and 318 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538</ul> 326</ul>
539 327
540 328
541</body> 329</body>
542</section> 330</section>
331<section id="cpus">
332<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
333<body>
334
335<p>
336First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
337need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
338need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
339link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
340</p>
341
342<p>
343If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
344generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
345will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
346</p>
347
348<p>
349Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
350binary stages. Please see the <uri
351link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
352guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
353</p>
354
355</body>
356</section>
357<section id="dhcp">
358<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
359<body>
360
361<p>
362First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
363kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
364certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
365for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
366sure that these kernel modules are listed in
367<path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
368you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
369</p>
370
371<p>
372If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
373you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
378configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
379<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
380install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
381</p>
382
383<p>
384Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
385link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
386</p>
387
388</body>
389</section>
390<section id="dualboot">
391<title>
392I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
393should I do?
394</title>
395<body>
396
397<p>
398This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
399first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
400to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
401with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
402below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
403on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
404</p>
405
406<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
407title Windows XP
408 map (hd1) (hd0)
409 map (hd0) (hd1)
410 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
411 chainloader +1
412</pre>
413
414<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
415other=/dev/hdb1
416 label=WindowsXP
417 table=/dev/hdb
418 map-drive = 0x80
419 to = 0x81
420 map-drive = 0x81
421 to = 0x80
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
426without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
427link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
428lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
429</p>
430
431</body>
432</section>
433<section id="stage12">
434<title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
435<body>
436
437<p>
438The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
439However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
440development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
441to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
442well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
443</p>
444
445<p>
446Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
447your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
448system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
449<e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
450suit your needs and then run it:
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
454# <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
455# <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
456
457# <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
458</pre>
459
460<p>
461Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
462to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
463</p>
464
465<pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
466# <i>emerge -e system</i>
467</pre>
468
469<p>
470Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
471prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
472</p>
473
474</body>
475</section>
543</chapter> 476</chapter>
544 477
545<chapter> 478<chapter>
546<title>Package Management</title> 479<title>Package Management</title>
547<section id="ebuilds"> 480<section id="ebuilds">
548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 481<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
549<body> 482<body>
550 483
484<p>
485Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
486which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
487package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
488releases and snapshots. The <uri
489link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
490HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
551<p> 491</p>
552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 492
553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 493<p>
554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 494For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 495<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 496attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 497not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format 498</p>
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the 499
560file). 500<p>
501It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
502Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
503install packages.
561</p> 504</p>
562 505
563</body> 506</body>
564</section> 507</section>
565<section id="configure"> 508<section id="configure">
566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title> 509<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510<body>
511
512<p>
513Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
514requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
515recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
516place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
517better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
518link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
519HOWTO</uri> for more information.
520</p>
521
567<body> 522</body>
523</section>
524<section id="firewall">
525<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
526<body>
568 527
569<p>
570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p> 528<p>
574 529See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
575<p> 530link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 531files manually</uri>.
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p> 532</p>
593 533
594</body> 534</body>
595</section> 535</section>
596<section id="norsync"> 536<section id="norsync">
598<body> 538<body>
599 539
600<p> 540<p>
601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use 541If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you 542<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so 543through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
604proxy is fully supported. 544document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
605</p> 545a proxy.
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
611</body>
612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
616
617<p>
618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
621</p>
622
623</body>
624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p> 546</p>
633 547
634</body> 548</body>
635</section> 549</section>
636<section id="manualdownload"> 550<section id="manualdownload">
643<p> 557<p>
644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 558Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where 559are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download 560to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into 561sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it 562<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
649picking up the sources you just brought in! 563Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
650</p> 564</p>
651 565
652</body> 566</body>
653</section> 567</section>
654<section id="distfiles"> 568<section id="distfiles">
655<title> 569<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in 570 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these 571 delete these files?
658 files?
659</title> 572</title>
660<body> 573<body>
661 574
662<p> 575<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 576Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 577However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 578several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 579software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 580be necessary to download them from the internet again.
668again. 581</p>
582
583<p>
584You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
585manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
586locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage.
669</p> 587</p>
670 588
671</body> 589</body>
672</section> 590</section>
673<section id="tmpportage"> 591<section id="tmpportage">
677</title> 595</title>
678<body> 596<body>
679 597
680<p> 598<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in 599During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this 600<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
683directory. 601a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
602contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
603always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
684</p> 604</p>
685 605
686</body> 606</body>
687</section> 607</section>
688</chapter> 608</chapter>
689 609
690<chapter> 610<chapter>
691<title>Usage</title> 611<title>Usage</title>
692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
697<body>
698
699<p>
700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
710</body>
711</section>
712<section id="rootX">
713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard"> 612<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 613<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body> 614<body>
730 615
731<p> 616<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 617Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
618console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
619also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
620in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
621localising your environment, refer to <uri
622link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 623Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
624</p>
625
626<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>. 627# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
628# <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
735</p> 629</pre>
736 630
737</body> 631</body>
738</section> 632</section>
739<section id="rootdns"> 633<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 634<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
741<body> 635<body>
742 636
743<p> 637<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as 638<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows: 639follows:
764<section id="numlock"> 658<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 659<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body> 660<body>
767 661
768<p> 662<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 663If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 664numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
788reboot. 665</p>
666
667<p>
668Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
669section or online manuals for assistance.
789</p> 670</p>
790 671
791</body> 672</body>
792</section> 673</section>
793<section id="clear"> 674<section id="clear">
816</chapter> 697</chapter>
817 698
818<chapter> 699<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title> 700<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption"> 701<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 702<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body> 703<body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837 704
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p> 705<p>
849 706If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off"> 707run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote> 708make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 709directories due to the corruption.
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre> 710</p>
856 711
857</body> 712</body>
858</section> 713</section>
859</chapter> 714</chapter>
860 715
863<section id="reportbugs"> 718<section id="reportbugs">
864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 719<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body> 720<body>
866 721
867<p> 722<p>
868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, 723Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can 724your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri 725link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p> 726</p>
873 727
874</body> 728</body>
875</section> 729</section>
876<section id="releases"> 730<section id="releases">
877<title>How often are new releases made?</title> 731<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878<body> 732<body>
879 733
880<p> 734<p>
881New releases are announced on the <uri 735Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 736new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. 737our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
886</p> 738releases are announced on the <uri
887 739link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
888</body> 740on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
889</section>
890<section id="addfaq">
891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p> 741</p>
898 742
899</body> 743</body>
900</section> 744</section>
901<section id="beeping"> 745<section id="beeping">
902<title> 746<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console 747 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
904 beeps?
905</title> 748</title>
906<body> 749<body>
907 750
908<p> 751<p>
909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this: 752Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
912<pre caption="Using setterm"> 755<pre caption="Using setterm">
913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i> 756# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914</pre> 757</pre>
915 758
916<p> 759<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 760If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, 761command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 762beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 763command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923 764
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)"> 765<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i> 766# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre> 767</pre>
927 768
939<section id="resources"> 780<section id="resources">
940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 781<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941<body> 782<body>
942 783
943<p> 784<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on 785The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>. 786<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
947</p> 787</p>
948 788
949</body> 789</body>
950</section> 790</section>
951<section id="buycd"> 791<section id="buycd">
952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 792<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953<body> 793<body>
954 794
955<p> 795<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 796Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 797link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 798purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 799please consider buying from our store if possible.
960</p>
961
962<p> 800</p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from 801
964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p> 802<p>
968 803You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
969</body> 804link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
970</section>
971<section id="mailinglist">
972<title>
973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
976<body>
977
978<p>
979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
985
986<p>
987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
994
995<p>
996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003reasons, many of these covered
1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
1006
1007<p>
1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p> 805</p>
1011 806
1012</body> 807</body>
1013</section> 808</section>
1014<section id="help"> 809<section id="help">
1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 810<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016<body> 811<body>
1017 812
1018<p> 813<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri 814A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, 815link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri 816Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo 817To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all 818search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: 819folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026</p> 820</p>
1027 821
1028</body> 822</body>
1029</section> 823</section>
1030</chapter> 824</chapter>
1031
1032</guide> 825</guide>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.68  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.116

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20