/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.21 Revision 1.68
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author> 20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author> 21</author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
13 31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
37
38<license/>
39
14<version>1.1.3</version> 40<version>2.8</version>
15<date>21 March 2003</date> 41<date>July 04, 2004</date>
16 42
17<chapter> 43<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body>
19 48
20 <section> 49<ul>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 50 <li>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body>
23 </section> 60</section>
24
25 <section> 61<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 63<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 64
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 65<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 66 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 69 gives?</uri>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 70 </li>
35 versions. 71 <li>
36 </p> 72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99</ul>
100
37 </body> 101</body>
38 </section> 102</section>
103<section>
104<title>Package Management</title>
105<body>
106
107<ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139</ul>
140
141</body>
142</section>
143<section>
144<title>Usage</title>
145<body>
146
147<ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172</ul>
173
174</body>
175</section>
176<section>
177<title>Maintenance</title>
178<body>
179
180<ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Development</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211</ul>
212
213</body>
214</section>
215<section>
216<title>Resources</title>
217<body>
218
219<ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236</ul>
237
238</body>
239</section>
39</chapter> 240</chapter>
40 241
41<chapter> 242<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 243<title>Getting Started</title>
43
44 <section>
45 244
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 245<section id="pronunciation">
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
48 </warn> 247<body>
49 248
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 249<p>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 254</p>
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 255
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 256</body>
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 257</section>
258<section id="differences">
259<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260<body>
66 261
67 <section> 262<p>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
69 <body><p> 264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
76 stabilise anytime soon. 271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
77 </p> 273</p>
274
275<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289</p>
290
78 </body> 291</body>
79 </section> 292</section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
131 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
132 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
133 </p>
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
138 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
139 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
140 command as root:</p>
141 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
142 </body>
143 </section>
144 <section>
145 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
146 <body>
147 <p>
148 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
149 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
150 kernel, didn't you?).
151 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
152 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
153 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
154 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
155 </p>
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 <section>
159 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
160 <body>
161 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
162 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
163 </body>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
167 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
168 <body>
169 <p>
170 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
171 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
172 it will be preserved between reboots.
173 </p>
174 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
175 and add these lines:</p>
176<pre>
177REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
178UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
179</pre>
180 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
181 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
182 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
183 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 <section>
187 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
188 <body><p>
189 During installation the grub boot files are copied
190 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
191 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
192 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
193 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
194 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
195 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
196 unpacking the build snapshot or running
197 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
198 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
199 You can get more information on grub, including how to
200 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
201 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
202 </p>
203 </body>
204 </section>
205
206 <section>
207 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
208 detection. </title>
209 <body>
210 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
211 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
212 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
213 </body>
214 </section>
215
216 <section>
217 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
218 <body>
219 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
220 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
221 </body>
222 </section>
223</chapter> 293</chapter>
224 294
225<chapter> 295<chapter>
226 <title>Package Management</title> 296<title>Installation</title>
227 <section> 297<section id="optimizations">
228 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 298<title>
229 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
230 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
231 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 301</title>
232 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO 302<body>
233 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 303
234 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 304<p>
235 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore.
309</p>
310
311<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313bug.
314</p>
315
236 </body> 316</body>
237 </section> 317</section>
238 318<section id="password">
239 <section> 319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
240 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
241 <body> 320<body>
242 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 321
243 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 322<p>
244 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
245 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
246 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 325completed the install.
326</p>
327
247 </body> 328</body>
248 </section> 329</section>
330<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332<body>
249 333
250 <section> 334<p>
251 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
252 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
253 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 337</p>
254 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 338
255 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 339<p>
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345</pre>
346
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p>
352
353<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357</p>
358
359</body>
256 </section> 360</section>
361<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body>
257 364
258 <section> 365<p>
259 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
260 <body> 367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
261 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 368the following command as root:
262 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 369</p>
263 </body> 370
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre>
374
375</body>
264 </section> 376</section>
377<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379<body>
265 380
266 <section> 381<p>
267 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
268 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
269 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
270 are as follows:</p> 385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
271 <table> 386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
272 <tr> 387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
273 <th>Flag</th> 388</p>
274 <th>Description</th> 389
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <ti>CHOST</ti>
278 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
279 </tr>
280 <tr>
281 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
282 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
283 </tr>
284 <tr>
285 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
286 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
287 files)</ti>
288 </tr>
289 <tr>
290 <ti>USE</ti>
291 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
292 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
293 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
294 also USE-aware.</ti>
295 </tr>
296 <tr>
297 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
298 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
299 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
300 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
301 </tr>
302 </table>
303 </body> 390</body>
304 </section> 391</section>
305 392<section id="upgrade">
306 <section> 393<title>
307 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title>
308 <body> 396<body>
309 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 397
310 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 398<p>
311 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 399In fact there is no difference between the various releases
312 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
313 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
314 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
315 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
316 <ol> 404</p>
317 <li>Environment variables</li> 405
318 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 406<p>
319 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
320 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
321 any other place come from here)</li> 409</p>
322 </ol></p></body> 410
411</body>
323 </section> 412</section>
324 413<section id="bootrescue">
325 <section> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
326 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 415<body>
327 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
328 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
329 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
330 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
331 416
417<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p>
332 423
333 </p></body> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p>
454
455</body>
334 </section> 456</section>
457<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body>
335 460
336 <section> 461<p>
337 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
338 clobbering my config files?</title> 463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
339 <body><p> 464</p>
340 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 465
341 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
342 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
343 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 468</pre>
344 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 469
345 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 470<p>
346 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
347 </p></body> 472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p>
474
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478</pre>
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p>
486
487</body>
348 </section> 488</section>
489<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body>
349 492
350 <section> 493<p>
351 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
352 <body><p> 495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
353 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 496entire CD.
354 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 497</p>
355 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 498
356 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 499<p>
357 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
358 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
359 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 502</p>
360 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 503
361 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 504<ul>
362 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 505 <li>
363 </p></body> 506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538</ul>
539
540
541</body>
364 </section> 542</section>
365
366 <section>
367 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
368 <body><p>
369 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
370 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
371 /usr/portage snapshots from
372 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
373 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
374 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
375 </p></body>
376 </section>
377
378 <section>
379 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
380 <body><p>
381 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
382 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
383 appropriately.
384 </p></body>
385 </section>
386
387 <section>
388 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
389 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
390 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
391 </section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
395 add them to my system?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
398 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
399 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
400 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
401 </p></body>
402 </section>
403
404 <section>
405 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
406 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
407 <body><p>
408 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
409 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
410 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
411 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
412 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
413 again.
414 </p></body>
415 </section>
416
417 <section>
418 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
419 <body>
420 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
421 maintain your local
422 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
423 <pre>
424# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
425# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
426# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
427# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
428# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
429# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
430# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
431# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
432# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
433# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
434# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
435# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
436 </pre>
437 </body>
438 </section>
439
440 <section>
441 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
442 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
443 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
444
445 <body>
446 <p>Solution: </p>
447 <pre caption = "Solution">
448# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
449# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
450 </pre>
451
452 </body>
453 </section>
454 <section>
455 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
456 <body>
457 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
458 </body>
459 </section>
460</chapter> 543</chapter>
461 544
462<chapter> 545<chapter>
463 <title>Usage</title> 546<title>Package Management</title>
464 <section> 547<section id="ebuilds">
465 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
466 account doesn't work. </title> 549<body>
467 <body> 550
468 <p> 551<p>
469 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
470 for your user entry in 553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
471 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
472 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file).
473 </p> 561</p>
474 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 562
475 </body> 563</body>
476 </section> 564</section>
477 565<section id="configure">
478 <section> 566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
479 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 567<body>
480 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 568
481 set). Type the following as root:</p> 569<p>
482 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p>
574
575<p>
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p>
593
483 </body> 594</body>
484 </section> 595</section>
596<section id="norsync">
597<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
598<body>
485 599
486 <section> 600<p>
487 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
488 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
489 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
490 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 604proxy is fully supported.
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
491 </body> 611</body>
492 </section> 612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
493 616
494 <section> 617<p>
495 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
496 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
497 </p> 621</p>
498 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 622
499 </body> 623</body>
500 </section> 624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
501 628
502 <section> 629<p>
503 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
504 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
505 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 632</p>
506 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 633
507 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
508 </body> 634</body>
509 </section> 635</section>
636<section id="manualdownload">
637<title>
638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
639 else and add them to my system?
640</title>
641<body>
510 642
511 <section> 643<p>
512 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
513 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group. 645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
649picking up the sources you just brought in!
514 </p> 650</p>
651
515 </body> 652</body>
516 </section> 653</section>
654<section id="distfiles">
655<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659</title>
660<body>
661
662<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
668again.
669</p>
670
671</body>
672</section>
673<section id="tmpportage">
674<title>
675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
677</title>
678<body>
679
680<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
683directory.
684</p>
685
686</body>
687</section>
517</chapter> 688</chapter>
518 689
519<chapter> 690<chapter>
520 <title>Maintenance</title> 691<title>Usage</title>
521 <section> 692<section id="rootssh">
522 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
523 <body> 697<body>
698
524 <p> 699<p>
525 If your 700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
526 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
527 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
528 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
529 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
530 to the corruption.
531 </p> 704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
532 </body> 710</body>
533 </section> 711</section>
534<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 712<section id="rootX">
535 <section> 713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
536 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
537 system?</title>
538 <body>
539 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
540 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
541
542<pre>
543# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
544</pre>
545
546<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
547
548<pre>
549# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
550</pre>
551
552</body> 714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
553 </section> 726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body>
730
731<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735</p>
736
737</body>
738</section>
739<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741<body>
742
743<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows:
746</p>
747
748<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
749# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750</pre>
751
752</body>
753</section>
754<section id="crontab">
755<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756<body>
757
758<p>
759You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
760</p>
761
762</body>
763</section>
764<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body>
767
768<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
788reboot.
789</p>
790
791</body>
792</section>
793<section id="clear">
794<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
795<body>
796
797<p>
798To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
799<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
800</p>
801
802<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
803$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
804</pre>
805
806<p>
807If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
808user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
809</p>
810
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body>
814
815</section>
554</chapter> 816</chapter>
555 817
556<chapter> 818<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre>
856
857</body>
858</section>
859</chapter>
860
861<chapter>
557 <title>Development</title> 862<title>Development</title>
558 <section> 863<section id="reportbugs">
559 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body>
866
867<p>
560 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
561 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
562 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
563 </p></body> 871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p>
873
874</body>
564 </section> 875</section>
565 876<section id="releases">
566 <section>
567 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 877<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
568 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 878<body>
569 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 879
570 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 880<p>
571 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 881New releases are announced on the <uri
572 new modules get added.</p></body> 882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886</p>
887
888</body>
573 </section> 889</section>
574 890<section id="addfaq">
575 <section>
576 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
577 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
578 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
579 </section>
580
581 <section>
582 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
583 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
584 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p>
898
899</body>
585 </section> 900</section>
901<section id="beeping">
902<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905</title>
906<body>
586 907
587 <section> 908<p>
588 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
589 <body><p> 910</p>
590 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 911
591 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 912<pre caption="Using setterm">
592 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
593 </p></body> 914</pre>
915
916<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre>
927
928<p>
929You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930console beeps for.
931</p>
932
933</body>
594 </section> 934</section>
595
596
597 <section>
598 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
599 </title>
600 <body>
601 <p>
602 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
603
604 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
605
606 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
607 you need to put this command in
608 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
609 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
610 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
611 target terminal, like this ;
612
613 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
614
615 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
616 you would like to disable console beeps for.
617 </p>
618 </body>
619 </section>
620</chapter> 935</chapter>
621 936
622<chapter> 937<chapter>
623<title>Resources</title> 938<title>Resources</title>
624 <section> 939<section id="resources">
625 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
626 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
627 </section>
628
629 <section>
630 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
631 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 941<body>
942
943<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947</p>
948
949</body>
632 </section> 950</section>
633 951<section id="buycd">
634 <section>
635 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
636 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 953<body>
637 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 954
955<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
638 </p> 960</p>
961
962<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from
639 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
640 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
641 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p>
968
642 </body> 969</body>
643 </section> 970</section>
644 971<section id="mailinglist">
645 <section> 972<title>
646 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
647 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
648 <body> 976<body>
977
978<p>
649 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
650 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
651 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
652 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
653 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
654 985
986<p>
655 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
656 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
657 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
658 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
659 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
660 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
661 994
995<p>
662 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
663 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
664 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
665 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
666 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
667 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
668 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
669 reasons, many of these covered 1003reasons, many of these covered
670 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
671 1006
1007<p>
672 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
673 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p>
1011
674 </body> 1012</body>
675 </section>
676
677 <section> 1013</section>
1014<section id="help">
678 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
679 <body> 1016<body>
680 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 1017
681 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1018<p>
682 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
683 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
684 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
685 </p> 1026</p>
1027
686 </body> 1028</body>
687 </section> 1029</section>
688</chapter> 1030</chapter>
1031
689</guide> 1032</guide>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.21  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.68

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20