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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author> 20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author> 21</author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 30</author>
15 31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
37
38<license/>
39
16<version>1.1.6</version> 40<version>2.8</version>
17<date>September 23, 2003</date> 41<date>July 04, 2004</date>
18 42
19<chapter> 43<chapter>
20<title>Featured Questions</title> 44<title>Featured Questions</title>
21<section> 45<section>
22<title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
23<body> 47<body>
48
24<ul> 49<ul>
25<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li> 50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
26<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li> 55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
27</ul> 57</ul>
58
28</body> 59</body>
29</section> 60</section>
30<section> 61<section>
31<title>Installation</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
32<body> 63<body>
64
33<ul> 65<ul>
34<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li> 66 <li>
35<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li> 67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
36<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li> 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
37<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li> 69 gives?</uri>
38<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li> 70 </li>
39<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li> 71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
40<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li> 79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
41<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li> 80 </li>
42<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li> 81 <li>
43<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li> 82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
44<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li> 83 </li>
45<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li> 84 <li>
46<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li> 85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
47<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li> 86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
48<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</uri></li> 87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
49</ul> 99</ul>
100
50</body> 101</body>
51</section> 102</section>
52<section> 103<section>
53<title>Package Management</title> 104<title>Package Management</title>
54<body> 105<body>
106
55<ul> 107<ul>
108 <li>
56<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li> 109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
57<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li> 110 </li>
58<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li> 111 <li>
59<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li> 112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
60<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li> 113 Can I?</uri>
61<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li> 114 </li>
62<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li> 115 <li>
63<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
64<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
65<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li> 116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
66<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li> 117 </li>
67<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li> 118 <li>
68<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li> 119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
69<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li> 120 firewall?</uri>
70<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li> 121 </li>
71<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li> 122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
72</ul> 139</ul>
140
73</body> 141</body>
74</section> 142</section>
75<section> 143<section>
76<title>Usage</title> 144<title>Usage</title>
77<body> 145<body>
146
78<ul> 147<ul>
79<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li> 148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
80<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li> 153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
81<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li> 154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
82<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li> 160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
83<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li> 161 </li>
162 <li>
84<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li> 163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
85<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li> 164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
86<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when 169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
87I log out?</uri></li> 170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
88</ul> 172</ul>
173
89</body> 174</body>
90</section> 175</section>
91<section> 176<section>
92<title>Maintenance</title> 177<title>Maintenance</title>
93<body> 178<body>
179
94<ul> 180<ul>
95<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li> 181 <li>
96<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li> 182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
97</ul> 188</ul>
189
98</body> 190</body>
99</section> 191</section>
100<section> 192<section>
101<title>Development</title> 193<title>Development</title>
102<body> 194<body>
195
103<ul> 196<ul>
104<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li> 197 <li>
105<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li> 198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
106<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li> 199 </li>
107<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li> 200 <li>
108<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li> 201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
109<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li> 202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
110</ul> 211</ul>
212
111</body> 213</body>
112</section> 214</section>
113<section> 215<section>
114<title>Resources</title> 216<title>Resources</title>
115<body> 217<body>
218
116<ul> 219<ul>
117<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li> 220 <li>
118<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li> 221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
119<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li> 225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
120<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li> 226 </li>
121<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li> 227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
122</ul> 236</ul>
237
123</body> 238</body>
124</section> 239</section>
125</chapter> 240</chapter>
126 241
127
128<chapter> 242<chapter>
129 <title>Getting Started</title> 243<title>Getting Started</title>
130 244
131 <section> 245<section id="pronunciation">
132 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
133 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 247<body>
248
249<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
254</p>
255
256</body>
134 </section> 257</section>
135 258<section id="differences">
136 <section>
137 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 259<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
138 <body> 260<body>
139 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 261
140 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 262<p>
141 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
142 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
143 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
144 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
145 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
146 versions. 268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
147 </p> 269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289</p>
290
148 </body> 291</body>
149 </section> 292</section>
150</chapter> 293</chapter>
151 294
152<chapter> 295<chapter>
153 <title>Installation</title> 296<title>Installation</title>
154 297<section id="optimizations">
155 <section> 298<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
301</title>
302<body>
156 303
157 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 304<p>
158 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
159 </warn> 306current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
160 307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
161 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 308do the same thing anymore.
162 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 309</p>
163 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 310
164 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 311<p>
165 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
166 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 313bug.
167 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 314</p>
168 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 315
169 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by 316</body>
170 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
171 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
172 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
173 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
174 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
175 </body>
176 </section> 317</section>
318<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body>
177 321
178 <section> 322<p>
179 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
180 <body><p> 324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
181 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 325completed the install.
182 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
183 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
184 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
185 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
186 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
187 stabilise anytime soon.
188 </p> 326</p>
327
189 </body> 328</body>
190 </section> 329</section>
191 330<section id="useradd">
192 <section>
193 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
194 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
195 <body>
196 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
197 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
198 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
199 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
200 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
201 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
202 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
203 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
204 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
205 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
206 </body>
207 </section>
208
209 <section>
210 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
211 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
212 </section>
213
214 <section>
215 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
216 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
217 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
218 </p></body>
219 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
222 <body> 332<body>
333
334<p>
223 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
224 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p>
338
339<p>
225 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Using useradd">
226 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre> 344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
227 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell. 345</pre>
346
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
228 </p> 351</p>
229 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 352
230 </p> 353<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357</p>
358
231 </body> 359</body>
232 </section> 360</section>
233 <section> 361<section id="su">
234 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body>
364
365<p>
235 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
236 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following 367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
237 command as root:</p> 368the following command as root:
238 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre> 369</p>
370
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre>
374
239 </body> 375</body>
240 </section> 376</section>
241 <section> 377<section id="devfs">
242 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
243 <body>
244 <p>
245 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
246 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
247 kernel, didn't you?).
248 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
249 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
250 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
251 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
252 </p>
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
257 <body> 379<body>
258 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the 380
259 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p> 381<p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388</p>
389
260 </body> 390</body>
261 </section> 391</section>
262 <section> 392<section id="upgrade">
263 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that 393<title>
264 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title> 394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title>
265 <body> 396<body>
397
266 <p> 398<p>
267 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c> 399In fact there is no difference between the various releases
268 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and 400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
269 it will be preserved between reboots. 401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
270 </p> 404</p>
271 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> 405
272 and add these lines:</p>
273<pre> 406<p>
274REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse 407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
275UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse 408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
276</pre> 409</p>
277 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device, 410
278 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
279 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
280 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
281 </body> 411</body>
282 </section> 412</section>
283 <section> 413<section id="bootrescue">
284 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
285 <body><p>
286 During installation the grub boot files are copied
287 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
288 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
289 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
290 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
291 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
292 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
293 unpacking the build snapshot or running
294 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
295 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
296 You can get more information on grub, including how to
297 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
298 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
299 </p>
300 </body>
301 </section>
302
303 <section>
304 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
305 detection. </title>
306 <body>
307 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
308 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
309 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
310 </body>
311 </section>
312
313 <section>
314 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
315 <body>
316 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
317 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
318 </body>
319 </section>
320 <section>
321 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
322 <body> 415<body>
323 <p> 416
417<p>
324 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
325 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
326 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
327 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
328 </p> 422</p>
423
329 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
330<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
331<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
332# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
333# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
334# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
347# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
348<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
349# <i>exit</i> 444# <i>exit</i>
350# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
351# <i>reboot</i> 446# <i>reboot</i>
352 </pre> 447</pre>
353 <p> 448
449<p>
354 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
355 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
356 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
357 </p> 453</p>
454
358 </body> 455</body>
359 </section> 456</section>
360 <section> 457<section id="proxy">
361 <title>My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</title> 458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
362 <body> 459<body>
363 460
364 <p> 461<p>
365 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the 462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
366 following syntax to authenticate yourself: 463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
367 </p> 464</p>
465
368<pre caption = "Proxy-authentification using wget"> 466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
369# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i> 467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
370</pre> 468</pre>
371 <p> 469
470<p>
372 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
373 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
374 </p> 473</p>
474
375<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
376FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
377RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
378</pre> 478</pre>
379 <p> 479
480<p>
380 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password 481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
381 authentification for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What 482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
382 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to 483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
383 handle this situation. 484handle this situation.
384 </p> 485</p>
385 486
386 </body> 487</body>
387 </section> 488</section>
388 489<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body>
492
493<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
496entire CD.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
502</p>
503
504<ul>
505 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538</ul>
539
540
541</body>
542</section>
389</chapter> 543</chapter>
390 544
391<chapter> 545<chapter>
392 <title>Package Management</title> 546<title>Package Management</title>
393 <section> 547<section id="ebuilds">
394 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
549<body>
550
551<p>
395 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
396 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
397 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
398 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO 555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
399 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
400 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
401 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file).
561</p>
562
402 </body> 563</body>
403 </section> 564</section>
404 565<section id="configure">
405 <section> 566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
406 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
407 <body> 567<body>
408 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 568
409 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 569<p>
410 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
411 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
412 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p>
574
575<p>
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p>
593
413 </body> 594</body>
414 </section> 595</section>
415 596<section id="norsync">
416 <section>
417 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
418 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
419 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
420 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
421 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
422 </section>
423
424 <section>
425 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
426 <body>
427 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
428 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
429 </body>
430 </section>
431
432 <section>
433 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
434 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
435 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
436 are as follows:</p>
437 <table>
438 <tr>
439 <th>Flag</th>
440 <th>Description</th>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <ti>CHOST</ti>
444 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
448 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
452 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
453 files)</ti>
454 </tr>
455 <tr>
456 <ti>USE</ti>
457 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
458 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
459 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
460 also USE-aware.</ti>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
464 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
465 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
466 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
467 </tr>
468 </table>
469 </body>
470 </section>
471
472 <section>
473 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
474 <body>
475 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
476 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
477 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
478 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
479 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
480 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
481 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
482 <ol>
483 <li>Environment variables</li>
484 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
485 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
486 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
487 any other place come from here)</li>
488 </ol></p></body>
489 </section>
490
491 <section>
492 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
493 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
494 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
495 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
496 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
497
498
499 </p></body>
500 </section>
501
502 <section>
503 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
504 clobbering my config files?</title>
505 <body><p>
506 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
507 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
508 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
509 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
510 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
511 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
512 which is now part of Portage.
513 </p></body>
514 </section>
515
516 <section>
517 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
518 <body><p>
519 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
520 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
521 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
522 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
523 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
524 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
525 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
526 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
527 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
528 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
529 </p></body>
530 </section>
531
532 <section>
533 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 597<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
534 <body><p> 598<body>
535 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 599
536 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch 600<p>
537 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP. 601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
538 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully 602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
539 supported. 603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
604proxy is fully supported.
605</p>
606
540 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync"> 607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
541~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre> 608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
542 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot 609</pre>
543 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>. 610
544 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove 611</body>
545 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
546 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
547 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
548 lose all your sourcecode.
549 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
550<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
551~# <c>cd /usr</c>
552~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
553~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
554~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
555~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
556 </p></body>
557 </section> 612</section>
558 613<section id="firewall">
559 <section>
560 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
561 <body><p> 615<body>
616
617<p>
562 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work, 618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
563 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy 619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
564 appropriately. 620appropriately.
565 </p></body> 621</p>
622
623</body>
566 </section> 624</section>
567 625<section id="unison">
568 <section>
569 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title> 626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
570 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from 630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
571 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body> 631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p>
633
634</body>
572 </section> 635</section>
573 636<section id="manualdownload">
574 <section> 637<title>
575 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
576 add them to my system?</title> 639 else and add them to my system?
577 <body><p> 640</title>
641<body>
642
643<p>
578 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
579 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to 645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
580 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. 646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
581 Download sources and bring them on any media 647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
582 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
583 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 649picking up the sources you just brought in!
584 </p></body> 650</p>
651
652</body>
585 </section> 653</section>
654<section id="distfiles">
655<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659</title>
660<body>
586 661
587 <section> 662<p>
588 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
589 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
590 <body><p>
591 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
592 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
593 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
594 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
595 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
596 again. 668again.
597 </p></body> 669</p>
670
671</body>
598 </section> 672</section>
599 673<section id="tmpportage">
600 <section> 674<title>
601 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
602 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
603 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 677</title>
604
605 <body> 678<body>
606 <p>Solution: </p> 679
607 <pre caption = "Solution"> 680<p>
608# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
609# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
610 </pre> 683directory.
611 684</p>
685
612 </body> 686</body>
613 </section> 687</section>
614 <section>
615 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
616 <body>
617 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
618 </body>
619 </section>
620</chapter> 688</chapter>
621 689
622<chapter> 690<chapter>
623 <title>Usage</title> 691<title>Usage</title>
624 <section> 692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
625 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
626 account doesn't work. </title> 695 user account doesn't work.
627 <body> 696</title>
697<body>
698
628 <p> 699<p>
629 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
630 for your user entry in 701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
631 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
632 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
633 </p> 704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
634 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
635 </body> 710</body>
636 </section> 711</section>
637 712<section id="rootX">
638 <section>
639 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
640 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
641 set). Type the following as root:</p> 718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
642 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
643 </body> 725</body>
644 </section> 726</section>
645 727<section id="intkeyboard">
646 <section>
647 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body>
730
731<p>
648 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
649 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
650 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735</p>
736
651 </body> 737</body>
652 </section> 738</section>
653 739<section id="rootdns">
654 <section>
655 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741<body>
742
743<p>
656 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows:
657 </p> 746</p>
747
748<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
658 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 749# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750</pre>
751
659 </body> 752</body>
660 </section> 753</section>
661 754<section id="crontab">
662 <section>
663 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
664 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
665 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
666 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
667 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
668 </body>
669 </section>
670
671 <section>
672 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 755<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756<body>
757
758<p>
673 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group. 759You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
674 </p> 760</p>
761
675 </body> 762</body>
676 </section> 763</section>
677 764<section id="numlock">
678 <section>
679 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
680 <body> 766<body>
681 <p> 767
768<p>
682 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when 769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
683 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and 770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
684 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to 771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
685 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or 772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
686 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such 773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
687 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM. 774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
688 </p> 775</p>
689 <p> 776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
690 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
691 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
692 reboot. 788reboot.
693 </p> 789</p>
694 </body> 790
791</body>
695 </section> 792</section>
696 <section> 793<section id="clear">
697 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title> 794<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
698 <body> 795<body>
699 <p> 796
797<p>
700 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your 798To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
701 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script: 799<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
702 </p> 800</p>
801
703 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout"> 802<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
704$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre> 803$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
705 <p> 804</pre>
805
806<p>
706 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new 807If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
707 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>: 808user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
708 </p> 809</p>
810
709 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
710# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
711 </body> 813</body>
814
712 </section> 815</section>
713
714
715</chapter> 816</chapter>
716 817
717<chapter> 818<chapter>
718 <title>Maintenance</title> 819<title>Maintenance</title>
719 <section> 820<section id="filecorruption">
720 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
721 <body> 822<body>
823
722 <p> 824<p>
723 If your
724 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
725 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
726 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
727 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
728 to the corruption. 829to the corruption.
729 </p> 830</p>
831
730 </body> 832</body>
731 </section> 833</section>
732<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 834<section id="metalogd">
733 <section> 835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
734 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
735 system?</title>
736 <body>
737 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
738 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
739
740<pre>
741# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
742</pre>
743
744<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
745
746<pre>
747# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
748</pre>
749
750</body> 836<body>
837
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre>
856
857</body>
751 </section> 858</section>
752</chapter> 859</chapter>
753 860
754<chapter> 861<chapter>
755 <title>Development</title> 862<title>Development</title>
756 <section> 863<section id="reportbugs">
757 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body>
866
867<p>
758 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
759 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
760 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
761 </p></body> 872</p>
873
874</body>
762 </section> 875</section>
763 876<section id="releases">
764 <section>
765 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 877<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
766 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 878<body>
767 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 879
768 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 880<p>
769 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 881New releases are announced on the <uri
770 new modules get added.</p></body> 882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886</p>
887
888</body>
771 </section> 889</section>
772 890<section id="addfaq">
773 <section>
774 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
775 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
776 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
777 </section>
778
779 <section>
780 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
781 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
782 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body> 896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p>
898
899</body>
783 </section> 900</section>
901<section id="beeping">
902<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905</title>
906<body>
784 907
785 <section> 908<p>
786 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
787 <body><p> 910</p>
788 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 911
789 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 912<pre caption="Using setterm">
790 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
791 </p></body> 914</pre>
915
916<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre>
927
928<p>
929You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930console beeps for.
931</p>
932
933</body>
792 </section> 934</section>
793
794
795 <section>
796 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
797 </title>
798 <body>
799 <p>
800 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
801
802 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
803
804 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
805 you need to put this command in
806 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
807 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
808 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
809 target terminal, like this ;
810
811 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
812
813 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
814 you would like to disable console beeps for.
815 </p>
816 </body>
817 </section>
818</chapter> 935</chapter>
819 936
820<chapter> 937<chapter>
821<title>Resources</title> 938<title>Resources</title>
822 <section> 939<section id="resources">
823 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
824 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
825 </section>
826
827 <section>
828 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
829 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 941<body>
942
943<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947</p>
948
949</body>
830 </section> 950</section>
831 951<section id="buycd">
832 <section>
833 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
834 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 953<body>
835 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 954
955<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
836 </p> 960</p>
961
962<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from
837 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
838 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
839 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p>
968
840 </body> 969</body>
841 </section> 970</section>
842 971<section id="mailinglist">
843 <section> 972<title>
844 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
845 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
846 <body> 976<body>
977
978<p>
847 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
848 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
849 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
850 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
851 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
852 985
986<p>
853 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
854 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
855 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
856 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
857 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
858 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
859 994
995<p>
860 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
861 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
862 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
863 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
864 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
865 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
866 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
867 reasons, many of these covered 1003reasons, many of these covered
868 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
869 1006
1007<p>
870 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
871 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p>
1011
872 </body> 1012</body>
873 </section>
874
875 <section> 1013</section>
1014<section id="help">
876 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
877 <body> 1016<body>
878 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>, 1017
879 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1018<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
880 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, 1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
881 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
882 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
883 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
884 </p> 1026</p>
1027
885 </body> 1028</body>
886 </section> 1029</section>
887</chapter> 1030</chapter>
1031
888</guide> 1032</guide>

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