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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author> 20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author> 21</author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 30</author>
31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
15 37
16<license/> 38<license/>
17 39
18<version>1.1.8</version> 40<version>2.8</version>
19<date>September 30, 2003</date> 41<date>July 04, 2004</date>
20 42
21<chapter> 43<chapter>
22<title>Featured Questions</title> 44<title>Featured Questions</title>
23<section> 45<section>
24<title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
25<body> 47<body>
48
26<ul> 49<ul>
27<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li> 50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
28<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li> 55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
29</ul> 57</ul>
58
30</body> 59</body>
31</section> 60</section>
32<section> 61<section>
33<title>Installation</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
34<body> 63<body>
64
35<ul> 65<ul>
36<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li> 66 <li>
37<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li> 67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
38<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li> 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
39<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li> 69 gives?</uri>
40<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li> 70 </li>
41<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li> 71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
42<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li> 79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
43<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li> 80 </li>
44<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li> 81 <li>
45<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li> 82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
46<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li> 83 </li>
47<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li> 84 <li>
48<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li> 85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
49<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li> 86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
50<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li> 87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
51</ul> 99</ul>
100
52</body> 101</body>
53</section> 102</section>
54<section> 103<section>
55<title>Package Management</title> 104<title>Package Management</title>
56<body> 105<body>
106
57<ul> 107<ul>
108 <li>
58<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li> 109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
59<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li> 110 </li>
60<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li> 111 <li>
61<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li> 112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
62<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li> 113 Can I?</uri>
63<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li> 114 </li>
64<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li> 115 <li>
65<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
66<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
67<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li> 116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
68<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li> 117 </li>
69<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li> 118 <li>
70<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li> 119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
71<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li> 120 firewall?</uri>
72<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li> 121 </li>
73<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li> 122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
74</ul> 139</ul>
140
75</body> 141</body>
76</section> 142</section>
77<section> 143<section>
78<title>Usage</title> 144<title>Usage</title>
79<body> 145<body>
146
80<ul> 147<ul>
81<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li> 148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
82<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li> 153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
83<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li> 154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
84<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li> 160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
85<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li> 161 </li>
162 <li>
86<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li> 163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
87<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li> 164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
88<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when 169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
89I log out?</uri></li> 170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
90</ul> 172</ul>
173
91</body> 174</body>
92</section> 175</section>
93<section> 176<section>
94<title>Maintenance</title> 177<title>Maintenance</title>
95<body> 178<body>
179
96<ul> 180<ul>
97<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li> 181 <li>
98<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li> 182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
99<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li> 186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
100</ul> 188</ul>
189
101</body> 190</body>
102</section> 191</section>
103<section> 192<section>
104<title>Development</title> 193<title>Development</title>
105<body> 194<body>
195
106<ul> 196<ul>
107<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li> 197 <li>
108<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li> 198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
109<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li> 199 </li>
110<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li> 200 <li>
111<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li> 201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
112<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li> 202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
113</ul> 211</ul>
212
114</body> 213</body>
115</section> 214</section>
116<section> 215<section>
117<title>Resources</title> 216<title>Resources</title>
118<body> 217<body>
218
119<ul> 219<ul>
120<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li> 220 <li>
121<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li> 221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
122<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li> 225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
123<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li> 226 </li>
124<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li> 227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
125</ul> 236</ul>
237
126</body> 238</body>
127</section> 239</section>
128</chapter> 240</chapter>
129 241
130
131<chapter> 242<chapter>
132 <title>Getting Started</title> 243<title>Getting Started</title>
133 244
134 <section> 245<section id="pronunciation">
135 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
136 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 247<body>
248
249<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
254</p>
255
256</body>
137 </section> 257</section>
138 258<section id="differences">
139 <section>
140 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 259<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
141 <body> 260<body>
142 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 261
143 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 262<p>
144 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
145 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
146 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
147 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
148 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
149 versions. 268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
150 </p> 269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289</p>
290
151 </body> 291</body>
152 </section> 292</section>
153</chapter> 293</chapter>
154 294
155<chapter> 295<chapter>
156 <title>Installation</title> 296<title>Installation</title>
157 297<section id="optimizations">
158 <section> 298<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
301</title>
302<body>
159 303
160 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 304<p>
161 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
162 </warn> 306current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
163 307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
164 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 308do the same thing anymore.
165 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 309</p>
166 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 310
167 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 311<p>
168 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
169 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 313bug.
170 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 314</p>
171 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 315
172 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by 316</body>
173 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
178 </body>
179 </section> 317</section>
318<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body>
180 321
181 <section> 322<p>
182 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
183 <body><p> 324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
184 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 325completed the install.
185 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190 stabilise anytime soon.
191 </p> 326</p>
327
192 </body> 328</body>
193 </section> 329</section>
194 330<section id="useradd">
195 <section>
196 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
198 <body>
199 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
200 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
201 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
202 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
203 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
204 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
205 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
206 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
208 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212 <section>
213 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
214 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
215 </section>
216
217 <section>
218 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
219 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
220 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
221 </p></body>
222 </section>
223 <section>
224 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 <body> 332<body>
333
334<p>
226 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
227 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p>
338
339<p>
228 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Using useradd">
229 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre> 344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
230 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell. 345</pre>
346
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
231 </p> 351</p>
232 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 352
233 </p> 353<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357</p>
358
234 </body> 359</body>
235 </section> 360</section>
236 <section> 361<section id="su">
237 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body>
364
365<p>
238 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
239 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following 367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
240 command as root:</p> 368the following command as root:
241 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre> 369</p>
370
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre>
374
242 </body> 375</body>
243 </section> 376</section>
244 <section> 377<section id="devfs">
245 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
246 <body>
247 <p>
248 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
249 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
250 kernel, didn't you?).
251 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
252 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
253 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
254 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
255 </p>
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section>
259 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
260 <body> 379<body>
261 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the 380
262 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p> 381<p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388</p>
389
263 </body> 390</body>
264 </section> 391</section>
265 <section> 392<section id="upgrade">
266 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that 393<title>
267 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title> 394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title>
268 <body> 396<body>
397
269 <p> 398<p>
270 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c> 399In fact there is no difference between the various releases
271 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and 400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
272 it will be preserved between reboots. 401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
273 </p> 404</p>
274 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> 405
275 and add these lines:</p>
276<pre> 406<p>
277REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse 407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
278UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse 408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
279</pre> 409</p>
280 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device, 410
281 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
282 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
283 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
284 </body> 411</body>
285 </section> 412</section>
286 <section> 413<section id="bootrescue">
287 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
288 <body><p>
289 During installation the grub boot files are copied
290 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
291 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
292 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
293 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
294 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
295 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
296 unpacking the build snapshot or running
297 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
298 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
299 You can get more information on grub, including how to
300 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
301 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
302 </p>
303 </body>
304 </section>
305
306 <section>
307 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
308 detection. </title>
309 <body>
310 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
311 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
312 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
313 </body>
314 </section>
315
316 <section>
317 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
318 <body>
319 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
320 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 </body>
322 </section>
323 <section>
324 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
325 <body> 415<body>
326 <p> 416
417<p>
327 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
328 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
329 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
330 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
331 </p> 422</p>
423
332 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
333<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
334<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
335# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
336# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
337# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
350# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
351<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
352# <i>exit</i> 444# <i>exit</i>
353# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
354# <i>reboot</i> 446# <i>reboot</i>
355 </pre> 447</pre>
356 <p> 448
449<p>
357 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
358 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
359 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
360 </p> 453</p>
454
361 </body> 455</body>
362 </section> 456</section>
363 <section> 457<section id="proxy">
364 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
365 <body> 459<body>
366 460
367 <p> 461<p>
368 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the 462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
369 following syntax to authenticate yourself: 463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
370 </p> 464</p>
465
371<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget"> 466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
372# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i> 467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
373</pre> 468</pre>
374 <p> 469
470<p>
375 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
376 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
377 </p> 473</p>
474
378<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
379FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
380RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
381</pre> 478</pre>
382 <p> 479
480<p>
383 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password 481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
384 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What 482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
385 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to 483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
386 handle this situation. 484handle this situation.
387 </p> 485</p>
388 486
389 </body> 487</body>
390 </section> 488</section>
391 489<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body>
492
493<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
496entire CD.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
502</p>
503
504<ul>
505 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538</ul>
539
540
541</body>
542</section>
392</chapter> 543</chapter>
393 544
394<chapter> 545<chapter>
395 <title>Package Management</title> 546<title>Package Management</title>
396 <section> 547<section id="ebuilds">
397 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
549<body>
550
551<p>
398 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
399 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
400 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
401 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO 555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
402 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
403 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
404 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file).
561</p>
562
405 </body> 563</body>
406 </section> 564</section>
407 565<section id="configure">
408 <section> 566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
409 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
410 <body> 567<body>
411 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 568
412 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 569<p>
413 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
414 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
415 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p>
574
575<p>
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p>
593
416 </body> 594</body>
417 </section> 595</section>
418 596<section id="norsync">
419 <section>
420 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
421 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
422 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
423 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
424 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
425 </section>
426
427 <section>
428 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
429 <body>
430 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
431 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
432 </body>
433 </section>
434
435 <section>
436 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
437 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
438 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
439 are as follows:</p>
440 <table>
441 <tr>
442 <th>Flag</th>
443 <th>Description</th>
444 </tr>
445 <tr>
446 <ti>CHOST</ti>
447 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
448 </tr>
449 <tr>
450 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
451 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
455 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
456 files)</ti>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <ti>USE</ti>
460 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
461 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
462 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
463 also USE-aware.</ti>
464 </tr>
465 <tr>
466 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
467 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
468 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
469 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
470 </tr>
471 </table>
472 </body>
473 </section>
474
475 <section>
476 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
477 <body>
478 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
479 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
480 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
481 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
482 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
483 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
484 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
485 <ol>
486 <li>Environment variables</li>
487 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
488 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
489 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
490 any other place come from here)</li>
491 </ol></p></body>
492 </section>
493
494 <section>
495 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
496 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
497 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
498 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
499 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
500
501
502 </p></body>
503 </section>
504
505 <section>
506 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
507 clobbering my config files?</title>
508 <body><p>
509 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
510 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
511 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
512 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
513 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
514 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
515 which is now part of Portage.
516 </p></body>
517 </section>
518
519 <section>
520 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
521 <body><p>
522 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
523 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
524 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
525 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
526 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
527 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
528 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
529 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
530 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
531 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
532 </p></body>
533 </section>
534
535 <section>
536 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 597<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
537 <body><p> 598<body>
538 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 599
539 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch 600<p>
540 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP. 601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
541 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully 602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
542 supported. 603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
604proxy is fully supported.
605</p>
606
543 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync"> 607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
544~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre> 608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
545 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot 609</pre>
546 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>. 610
547 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove 611</body>
548 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
549 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
550 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
551 lose all your sourcecode.
552 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
553<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
554~# <c>cd /usr</c>
555~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
556~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
557~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
558~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
559 </p></body>
560 </section> 612</section>
561 613<section id="firewall">
562 <section>
563 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
564 <body><p> 615<body>
616
617<p>
565 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work, 618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
566 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy 619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
567 appropriately. 620appropriately.
568 </p></body> 621</p>
622
623</body>
569 </section> 624</section>
570 625<section id="unison">
571 <section>
572 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title> 626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
573 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from 630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
574 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body> 631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p>
633
634</body>
575 </section> 635</section>
576 636<section id="manualdownload">
577 <section> 637<title>
578 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
579 add them to my system?</title> 639 else and add them to my system?
580 <body><p> 640</title>
641<body>
642
643<p>
581 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
582 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to 645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
583 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. 646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
584 Download sources and bring them on any media 647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
585 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
586 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 649picking up the sources you just brought in!
587 </p></body> 650</p>
651
652</body>
588 </section> 653</section>
654<section id="distfiles">
655<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659</title>
660<body>
589 661
590 <section> 662<p>
591 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
592 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
593 <body><p>
594 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
595 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
596 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
597 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
598 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
599 again. 668again.
600 </p></body> 669</p>
670
671</body>
601 </section> 672</section>
602 673<section id="tmpportage">
603 <section> 674<title>
604 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
605 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
606 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 677</title>
607
608 <body> 678<body>
609 <p>Solution: </p> 679
610 <pre caption = "Solution"> 680<p>
611# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
612# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
613 </pre> 683directory.
614 684</p>
685
615 </body> 686</body>
616 </section> 687</section>
617 <section>
618 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
619 <body>
620 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
621 </body>
622 </section>
623</chapter> 688</chapter>
624 689
625<chapter> 690<chapter>
626 <title>Usage</title> 691<title>Usage</title>
627 <section> 692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
628 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
629 account doesn't work. </title> 695 user account doesn't work.
630 <body> 696</title>
697<body>
698
631 <p> 699<p>
632 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
633 for your user entry in 701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
634 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
635 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
636 </p> 704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
637 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
638 </body> 710</body>
639 </section> 711</section>
640 712<section id="rootX">
641 <section>
642 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
643 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
644 set). Type the following as root:</p> 718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
645 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
646 </body> 725</body>
647 </section> 726</section>
648 727<section id="intkeyboard">
649 <section>
650 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body>
730
731<p>
651 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
652 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
653 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735</p>
736
654 </body> 737</body>
655 </section> 738</section>
656 739<section id="rootdns">
657 <section>
658 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741<body>
742
743<p>
659 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows:
660 </p> 746</p>
747
748<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
661 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 749# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750</pre>
751
662 </body> 752</body>
663 </section> 753</section>
664 754<section id="crontab">
665 <section>
666 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
667 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
668 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
669 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
670 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
671 </body>
672 </section>
673
674 <section>
675 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 755<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756<body>
757
758<p>
676 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group. 759You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
677 </p> 760</p>
761
678 </body> 762</body>
679 </section> 763</section>
680 764<section id="numlock">
681 <section>
682 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
683 <body> 766<body>
684 <p> 767
768<p>
685 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when 769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
686 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and 770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
687 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to 771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
688 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or 772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
689 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such 773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
690 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM. 774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
691 </p> 775</p>
692 <p> 776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
693 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
694 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
695 reboot. 788reboot.
696 </p> 789</p>
697 </body> 790
791</body>
698 </section> 792</section>
699 <section> 793<section id="clear">
700 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title> 794<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
701 <body> 795<body>
702 <p> 796
797<p>
703 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your 798To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
704 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script: 799<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
705 </p> 800</p>
801
706 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout"> 802<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
707$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre> 803$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
708 <p> 804</pre>
805
806<p>
709 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new 807If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
710 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>: 808user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
711 </p> 809</p>
810
712 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
713# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
714 </body> 813</body>
814
715 </section> 815</section>
716
717
718</chapter> 816</chapter>
719 817
720<chapter> 818<chapter>
721 <title>Maintenance</title> 819<title>Maintenance</title>
722 <section> 820<section id="filecorruption">
723 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
724 <body> 822<body>
823
725 <p> 824<p>
726 If your
727 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
728 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
729 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
730 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
731 to the corruption. 829to the corruption.
732 </p> 830</p>
831
733 </body> 832</body>
734 </section> 833</section>
735<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 834<section id="metalogd">
736 <section>
737 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
738 system?</title>
739 <body>
740 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
741 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
742
743<pre>
744# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
745</pre>
746
747<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
748
749<pre>
750# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
751</pre>
752
753</body>
754 </section>
755 <section>
756 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title> 835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
757 <body> 836<body>
758 837
759<p> 838<p>
760Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately 839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
761recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this 840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
762performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux 841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
763system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily 842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
773# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
774<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote> 853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
775# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i> 854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
776</pre> 855</pre>
777 856
778 </body> 857</body>
779 </section> 858</section>
780</chapter> 859</chapter>
781 860
782<chapter> 861<chapter>
783 <title>Development</title> 862<title>Development</title>
784 <section> 863<section id="reportbugs">
785 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body>
866
867<p>
786 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
787 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
788 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
789 </p></body> 872</p>
873
874</body>
790 </section> 875</section>
791 876<section id="releases">
792 <section>
793 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 877<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
794 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 878<body>
795 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 879
796 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 880<p>
797 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 881New releases are announced on the <uri
798 new modules get added.</p></body> 882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886</p>
887
888</body>
799 </section> 889</section>
800 890<section id="addfaq">
801 <section>
802 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
803 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
804 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
805 </section>
806
807 <section>
808 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
809 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
810 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body> 896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p>
898
899</body>
811 </section> 900</section>
901<section id="beeping">
902<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905</title>
906<body>
812 907
813 <section> 908<p>
814 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
815 <body><p> 910</p>
816 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 911
817 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 912<pre caption="Using setterm">
818 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
819 </p></body> 914</pre>
915
916<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre>
927
928<p>
929You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930console beeps for.
931</p>
932
933</body>
820 </section> 934</section>
821
822
823 <section>
824 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
825 </title>
826 <body>
827 <p>
828 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
829
830 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
831
832 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
833 you need to put this command in
834 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
835 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
836 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
837 target terminal, like this ;
838
839 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
840
841 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
842 you would like to disable console beeps for.
843 </p>
844 </body>
845 </section>
846</chapter> 935</chapter>
847 936
848<chapter> 937<chapter>
849<title>Resources</title> 938<title>Resources</title>
850 <section> 939<section id="resources">
851 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
852 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
853 </section>
854
855 <section>
856 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
857 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 941<body>
942
943<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947</p>
948
949</body>
858 </section> 950</section>
859 951<section id="buycd">
860 <section>
861 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
862 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 953<body>
863 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 954
955<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
864 </p> 960</p>
961
962<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from
865 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
866 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
867 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p>
968
868 </body> 969</body>
869 </section> 970</section>
870 971<section id="mailinglist">
871 <section> 972<title>
872 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
873 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
874 <body> 976<body>
977
978<p>
875 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
876 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
877 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
878 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
879 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
880 985
986<p>
881 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
882 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
883 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
884 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
885 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
886 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
887 994
995<p>
888 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
889 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
890 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
891 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
892 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
893 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
894 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
895 reasons, many of these covered 1003reasons, many of these covered
896 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
897 1006
1007<p>
898 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
899 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p>
1011
900 </body> 1012</body>
901 </section>
902
903 <section> 1013</section>
1014<section id="help">
904 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
905 <body> 1016<body>
906 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>, 1017
907 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1018<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
908 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, 1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
909 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
910 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
911 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
912 </p> 1026</p>
1027
913 </body> 1028</body>
914 </section> 1029</section>
915</chapter> 1030</chapter>
1031
916</guide> 1032</guide>

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