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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.82 2005/04/16 21:20:42 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 11 Colin Morey
12</author> 12</author>
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
31 34
32<abstract> 35<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 36This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 37mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team. 38please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 39</abstract>
37 40
38<license/> 41<license/>
39 42
40<version>2.8</version> 43<version>2.15</version>
41<date>July 04, 2004</date> 44<date>2005-04-16</date>
42 45
43<chapter> 46<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 47<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section> 48<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 49<title>Getting Started</title>
94 have to do?</uri> 97 have to do?</uri>
95 </li> 98 </li>
96 <li> 99 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri> 100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li> 101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104 </li>
99</ul> 105</ul>
100 106
101</body> 107</body>
102</section> 108</section>
103<section> 109<section>
167 </li> 173 </li>
168 <li> 174 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log 175 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri> 176 out?</uri>
171 </li> 177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180 su'ing</uri>
181 </li>
172</ul> 182</ul>
173 183
174</body> 184</body>
175</section> 185</section>
176<section> 186<section>
246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 256<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247<body> 257<body>
248 258
249<p> 259<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the 260A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo 261"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the 262penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands. 263penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254</p> 264</p>
255 265
256</body> 266</body>
257</section> 267</section>
258<section id="differences"> 268<section id="differences">
262<p> 272<p>
263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 273Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 274link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 275that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 276Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>), 277link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 278conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 279sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration 280link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 281file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>. 282link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273</p> 283</p>
274 284
275<p> 285<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your 286With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or 287choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 317compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore. 318do the same thing anymore.
309</p> 319</p>
310 320
311<p> 321<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a 322Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> first
313bug. 323before reporting a bug.
314</p> 324</p>
315 325
316</body> 326</body>
317</section> 327</section>
318<section id="password"> 328<section id="password">
339<p> 349<p>
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 350Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p> 351</p>
342 352
343<pre caption="Using useradd"> 353<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i> 354# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i>
345</pre> 355</pre>
346 356
347<p> 357<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related 358This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to 359devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell. 360root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p> 361</p>
352 362
353<p> 363<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 364You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
373</pre> 383</pre>
374 384
375</body> 385</body>
376</section> 386</section>
377<section id="devfs"> 387<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 388<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
379<body> 389<body>
380 390
381<p> 391<p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you 392If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the 393can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
396<body> 406<body>
397 407
398<p> 408<p>
399In fact there is no difference between the various releases 409In fact there is no difference between the various releases
400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 410<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> 411<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 412will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 413The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
404</p> 414</p>
405 415
406<p> 416<p>
471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 481To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 482<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p> 483</p>
474 484
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 485<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 486FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
487 -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 488RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
489 -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478</pre> 490</pre>
479 491
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p> 492<p>
493To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
494so:
495</p>
496
497<pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
498RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
499</pre>
486 500
487</body> 501</body>
488</section> 502</section>
489<section id="isoburning"> 503<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title> 504<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on 522 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R. 523 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li> 524 </li>
511 <li> 525 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and 526 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you 527 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch 528 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt. 529 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li> 530 </li>
517 <li> 531 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 532 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
538</ul> 552</ul>
539 553
540 554
541</body> 555</body>
542</section> 556</section>
557<section id="cpus">
558<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
559<body>
560
561<p>
562First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
563need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You need to
564consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
565link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
566</p>
567
568<p>
569For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
570meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
571systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
572</p>
573
574<p>
575If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
576generic.
577</p>
578
579</body>
580</section>
543</chapter> 581</chapter>
544 582
545<chapter> 583<chapter>
546<title>Package Management</title> 584<title>Package Management</title>
547<section id="ebuilds"> 585<section id="ebuilds">
551<p> 589<p>
552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 590They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 591primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 592(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 593apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 594The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
595Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 596contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format 597create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the 598(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file). 599file).
561</p> 600</p>
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 850<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 851# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body> 852</body>
814 853
815</section> 854</section>
855<section id="suinx">
856<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
857<body>
858
859<p>
860This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
861don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
862link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
863the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
864<path>/etc/profile</path>.
865</p>
866
867<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
868export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
869</pre>
870
871</body>
872</section>
873
816</chapter> 874</chapter>
817 875
818<chapter> 876<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title> 877<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption"> 878<section id="filecorruption">
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to 904disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>. 905METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p> 906</p>
849 907
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off"> 908<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote> 909<comment>(To turn the buffering off:)</comment>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 910# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote> 911<comment>(To turn the buffering back on:)</comment>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i> 912# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre> 913</pre>
856 914
857</body> 915</body>
858</section> 916</section>
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 1016purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 1017So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
960</p> 1018</p>
961 1019
962<p> 1020<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from 1021You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 1022link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p> 1023</p>
968 1024
969</body> 1025</body>
970</section> 1026</section>
971<section id="mailinglist"> 1027<section id="mailinglist">

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