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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.85 2005/06/05 17:22:29 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 11 Colin Morey
12</author> 12</author>
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smith.jonathan@gmail.com">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
31 37
32<abstract> 38<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 39This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 40mailing list and from IRC.
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 41</abstract>
37 42
43<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
38<license/> 45<license/>
39 46
40<version>2.8</version> 47<version>3.0</version>
41<date>July 04, 2004</date> 48<date>2005-06-05</date>
42 49
43<chapter> 50<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 51<title>Questions:</title>
45<section> 52<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 53<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body> 54<body>
48 55
56<p>
57Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61answered here.
62</p>
63
64
49<ul> 65<ul>
50 <li> 66 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it 67 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri> 68 mean?</uri>
53 </li> 69 </li>
62<title>Installation</title> 78<title>Installation</title>
63<body> 79<body>
64 80
65<ul> 81<ul>
66 <li> 82 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and 83 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What 84 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li> 85 </li>
71 <li> 86 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's) 87 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri> 88 password?</uri>
74 </li> 89 </li>
94 have to do?</uri> 109 have to do?</uri>
95 </li> 110 </li>
96 <li> 111 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri> 112 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li> 113 </li>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
116 </li>
99</ul> 117</ul>
100 118
101</body> 119</body>
102</section> 120</section>
103<section> 121<section>
111 <li> 129 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. 130 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri> 131 Can I?</uri>
114 </li> 132 </li>
115 <li> 133 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a 134 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri> 135 firewall?</uri>
121 </li> 136 </li>
122 <li> 137 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating 138 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
124 system?</uri>
125 </li> 139 </li>
126 <li> 140 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can 141 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri> 142 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li> 143 </li>
130 <li> 144 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are 145 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to 146 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete there files?</uri>
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li> 147 </li>
135 <li> 148 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to 149 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri> 150 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li> 151 </li>
144<title>Usage</title> 157<title>Usage</title>
145<body> 158<body>
146 159
147<ul> 160<ul>
148 <li> 161 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard 162 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri> 163 Layout?</uri>
158 </li> 164 </li>
159 <li> 165 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri> 166 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 </li> 173 </li>
168 <li> 174 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log 175 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri> 176 out?</uri>
171 </li> 177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180 su'ing</uri>
181 </li>
172</ul> 182</ul>
173 183
174</body> 184</body>
175</section> 185</section>
176<section> 186<section>
180<ul> 190<ul>
181 <li> 191 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- 192 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri> 193 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li> 194 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul> 195</ul>
189 196
190</body> 197</body>
191</section> 198</section>
192<section> 199<section>
199 </li> 206 </li>
200 <li> 207 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri> 208 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li> 209 </li>
203 <li> 210 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling 211 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri> 212 beeps?</uri>
210 </li> 213 </li>
211</ul> 214</ul>
212 215
213</body> 216</body>
214</section> 217</section>
223 </li> 226 </li>
224 <li> 227 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri> 228 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li> 229 </li>
227 <li> 230 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I 231 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri> 232 do now?</uri>
235 </li> 233 </li>
236</ul> 234</ul>
237 235
246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 244<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247<body> 245<body>
248 246
249<p> 247<p>
250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the 248A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo 249"g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the 250penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands. 251penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254</p> 252</p>
255 253
256</body> 254</body>
257</section> 255</section>
258<section id="differences"> 256<section id="differences">
262<p> 260<p>
263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 261Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 262link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 263that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 264Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>), 265link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 266conditional dependencies, pretend installs, safe installation (through
269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 267sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration 268link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 269file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>. 270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273</p>
274
275<p> 271</p>
272
273<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your 274With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or 275optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install 276installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a 277to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p> 278</p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the 279
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace 280<p>
281Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the 282development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are 283mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ... 284added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
289</p> 285</p>
290 286
291</body> 287</body>
292</section> 288</section>
293</chapter> 289</chapter>
294 290
295<chapter> 291<chapter>
296<title>Installation</title> 292<title>Installation</title>
297<section id="optimizations"> 293<section id="optimizations">
298<title> 294<title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 295 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 296 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
301</title> 297</title>
302<body> 298<body>
303 299
304<p> 300<p>
305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by 301Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 303compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore. 304do the same thing anymore.
309</p> 305</p>
310 306
311<p> 307<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a 308Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
313bug. 309reporting a bug.
314</p> 310</p>
315 311
316</body> 312</body>
317</section> 313</section>
318<section id="password"> 314<section id="password">
319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title> 315<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320<body> 316<body>
321 317
322<p> 318<p>
323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 319You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've 320into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
325completed the install. 321<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
326</p> 322</p>
327 323
328</body> 324</body>
329</section> 325</section>
330<section id="useradd"> 326<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 327<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
332<body> 328<body>
333 329
334<p>
335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337</p> 330<p>
338 331The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
339<p> 332this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 333him, so the following command is preferred:
341</p> 334</p>
342 335
343<pre caption="Using useradd"> 336<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i> 337# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
345</pre> 338</pre>
346 339
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p> 340<p>
352 341This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
353<p> 342audio group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 343<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow 344execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>. 345privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
357</p> 346</p>
358 347
359</body> 348</body>
360</section> 349</section>
361<section id="su"> 350<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 351<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body> 352<body>
364 353
365<p> 354<p>
366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 355For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue 356wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
368the following command as root: 357as root:
369</p> 358</p>
370 359
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group"> 360<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i> 361# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre> 362</pre>
374 363
375</body> 364</body>
376</section> 365</section>
377<section id="devfs"> 366<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 367<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
379<body> 368<body>
380 369
381<p> 370<p>
382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you 371Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the 372function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6 373archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too. 374link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
375udev.
388</p> 376</p>
389 377
390</body> 378</body>
391</section> 379</section>
392<section id="upgrade"> 380<section id="upgrade">
394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling? 382 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title> 383</title>
396<body> 384<body>
397 385
398<p> 386<p>
399In fact there is no difference between the various releases 387In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 388been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> 389running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 390entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 391individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
404</p> 392See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
405 393for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
406<p>
407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409</p> 394</p>
410 395
411</body> 396</body>
412</section> 397</section>
413<section id="bootrescue"> 398<section id="bootrescue">
414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 399<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415<body> 400<body>
416 401
417<p> 402<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 403You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 404kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 405on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 406<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p> 407</p>
423 408
424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 409<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 410<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 411<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 412# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 413# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 414# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i> 415# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i> 418# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 419# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i> 420# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment> 421<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment> 422<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i> 423# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment> 424<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i> 425# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment> 426<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 427# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 428<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 430# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i> 431# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre> 432</pre>
448 433
449<p> 434<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 435If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 436follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 437should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p> 438</p>
454 439
455</body> 440</body>
456</section> 441</section>
457<section id="proxy"> 442<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 443<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body> 444<body>
460 445
461<p> 446<p>
462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468</pre>
469
470<p>
471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 447To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 448<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p> 449</p>
474 450
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 451<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 452HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 453FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
478</pre> 454RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p> 455</pre>
486 456
487</body> 457</body>
488</section> 458</section>
489<section id="isoburning"> 459<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title> 460<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body> 461<body>
492 462
493<p> 463<p>
494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you 464You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an 465just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
496entire CD.
497</p> 466</p>
498 467
499<p> 468<p>
500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a 469There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :) 470Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
502</p> 471</p>
503 472
504<ul> 473<ul>
505 <li> 474 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD 475 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on 477 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R. 478 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li> 479 </li>
511 <li> 480 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and 481 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you 482 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch 483 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt. 484 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li> 485 </li>
517 <li> 486 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 487 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed 488 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :) 489 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li> 490 </li>
522 <li> 491 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 492 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 493 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
525 <c>Start</c>. 494 click <c>Start</c>.
526 </li> 495 </li>
527 <li> 496 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from 497 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the 498 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and 499 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538</ul> 507</ul>
539 508
540 509
541</body> 510</body>
542</section> 511</section>
512<section id="cpus">
513<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
514<body>
515
516<p>
517First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
518need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
519need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
520link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
521</p>
522
523<p>
524If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
525generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
526will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
527</p>
528
529<p>
530If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
531than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
532link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
533guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
534</p>
535
536</body>
537</section>
543</chapter> 538</chapter>
544 539
545<chapter> 540<chapter>
546<title>Package Management</title> 541<title>Package Management</title>
547<section id="ebuilds"> 542<section id="ebuilds">
548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 543<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
549<body> 544<body>
550 545
546<p>
547Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
548which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
549package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
550releases and snapshots. The <uri
551link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
552HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
551<p> 553</p>
552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 554
553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 555<p>
554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 556For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 557<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 558attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 559not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format 560</p>
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the 561
560file). 562<p>
563It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
564portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
565install packages.
561</p> 566</p>
562 567
563</body> 568</body>
564</section> 569</section>
565<section id="configure"> 570<section id="configure">
566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title> 571<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
572<body>
573
574<p>
575Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
576requires a good understanding of portage internals and commands, it is instead
577recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
578place it in the portage overlay (thats why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
579better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
580link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
581HOWTO</uri> for more information.
582</p>
583
567<body> 584</body>
585</section>
586<section id="firewall">
587<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
588<body>
568 589
569<p>
570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p> 590<p>
574 591See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
575<p> 592link="#nosync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 593files manually</uri>.
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p> 594</p>
593 595
594</body> 596</body>
595</section> 597</section>
596<section id="norsync"> 598<section id="norsync">
598<body> 600<body>
599 601
600<p> 602<p>
601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use 603If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you 604<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so 605through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
604proxy is fully supported. 606document for information on downloading source files and portage snapshots via
605</p> 607a proxy.
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
611</body>
612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
616
617<p>
618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
621</p>
622
623</body>
624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
628
629<p>
630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632</p> 608</p>
633 609
634</body> 610</body>
635</section> 611</section>
636<section id="manualdownload"> 612<section id="manualdownload">
643<p> 619<p>
644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 620Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where 621are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download 622to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into 623sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it 624<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
649picking up the sources you just brought in! 625Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
650</p> 626</p>
651 627
652</body> 628</body>
653</section> 629</section>
654<section id="distfiles"> 630<section id="distfiles">
655<title> 631<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in 632 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these 633 delete there files?
658 files?
659</title> 634</title>
660<body> 635<body>
661 636
662<p> 637<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 638Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 639However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 640several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 641software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 642be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
668again. 643<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
644developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
645Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
646at your own risk.
669</p> 647</p>
670 648
671</body> 649</body>
672</section> 650</section>
673<section id="tmpportage"> 651<section id="tmpportage">
677</title> 655</title>
678<body> 656<body>
679 657
680<p> 658<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in 659During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this 660<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
683directory. 661a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
684</p> 662contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
685 663always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
686</body>
687</section>
688</chapter>
689
690<chapter>
691<title>Usage</title>
692<section id="rootssh">
693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
697<body>
698
699<p> 664</p>
700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
710</body>
711</section>
712<section id="rootX">
713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724 665
725</body> 666</body>
726</section> 667</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard"> 668<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 669<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body> 670<body>
730 671
731<p> 672<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 673Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. Then, either
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 674<c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
675</p>
676
677<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>. 678# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
735</p> 679</pre>
736 680
737</body> 681</body>
738</section> 682</section>
739<section id="rootdns"> 683<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 684<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
741<body> 685<body>
742 686
743<p> 687<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as 688<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows: 689follows:
764<section id="numlock"> 708<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 709<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body> 710<body>
767 711
768<p> 712<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 713If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 714numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
788reboot. 715</p>
716
717<p>
718Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
719section or online manuals for assistance.
789</p> 720</p>
790 721
791</body> 722</body>
792</section> 723</section>
793<section id="clear"> 724<section id="clear">
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 742<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 743# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body> 744</body>
814 745
815</section> 746</section>
747<section id="suinx">
748<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
749<body>
750
751<p>
752This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
753don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
754link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
755the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
756<path>/etc/profile</path>.
757</p>
758
759<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
760export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
761</pre>
762
763</body>
764</section>
765
816</chapter> 766</chapter>
817 767
818<chapter> 768<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title> 769<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption"> 770<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 771<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822<body> 772<body>
823 773
824<p> 774<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 775If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 776run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 777make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 778directories due to the corruption.
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837
838<p> 779</p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre>
856 780
857</body> 781</body>
858</section> 782</section>
859</chapter> 783</chapter>
860
861<chapter> 784<chapter>
862<title>Development</title> 785<title>Development</title>
863<section id="reportbugs"> 786<section id="reportbugs">
864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 787<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body> 788<body>
866 789
867<p> 790<p>
868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, 791Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can 792your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 793link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872</p> 794</p>
873 795
874</body> 796</body>
875</section> 797</section>
876<section id="releases"> 798<section id="releases">
877<title>How often are new releases made?</title> 799<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878<body> 800<body>
879 801
880<p> 802<p>
881New releases are announced on the <uri 803Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 804new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. 805our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
886</p> 806releases are announced on the <uri
887 807link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
888</body> 808on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
889</section>
890<section id="addfaq">
891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p> 809</p>
898 810
899</body> 811</body>
900</section> 812</section>
901<section id="beeping"> 813<section id="beeping">
902<title> 814<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console 815 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
904 beeps?
905</title> 816</title>
906<body> 817<body>
907 818
908<p> 819<p>
909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this: 820Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
912<pre caption="Using setterm"> 823<pre caption="Using setterm">
913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i> 824# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914</pre> 825</pre>
915 826
916<p> 827<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 828If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, 829command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 830beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 831command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923 832
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)"> 833<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i> 834# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre> 835</pre>
927 836
939<section id="resources"> 848<section id="resources">
940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 849<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941<body> 850<body>
942 851
943<p> 852<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on 853The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>. 854<uri>http://docs.gentoo.org</uri>.
947</p> 855</p>
948 856
949</body> 857</body>
950</section> 858</section>
951<section id="buycd"> 859<section id="buycd">
952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 860<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953<body> 861<body>
954 862
955<p> 863<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 864Install CDs for all supported architecture are available on our <uri
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 865link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 866purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 867please consider buying from our store if possible.
960</p>
961
962<p> 868</p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from 869
964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p> 870<p>
968 871You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
969</body> 872link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
970</section>
971<section id="mailinglist">
972<title>
973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
976<body>
977
978<p>
979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
985
986<p>
987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
994
995<p>
996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003reasons, many of these covered
1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
1006
1007<p>
1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p> 873</p>
1011 874
1012</body> 875</body>
1013</section> 876</section>
1014<section id="help"> 877<section id="help">
1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 878<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016<body> 879<body>
1017 880
1018<p> 881<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri 882A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, 883link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri 884Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo 885To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all 886to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: 887Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026</p> 888</p>
1027 889
1028</body> 890</body>
1029</section> 891</section>
1030</chapter> 892</chapter>

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