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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.84 2005/06/05 16:44:56 neysx Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.96 2005/07/26 14:22:01 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Previous Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer"> 10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey 11 Colin Morey
12</author> 12</author>
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor"> 31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author> 33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
34 37
35<abstract> 38<abstract>
36This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev 39This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, 40mailing list and from IRC.
38please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39</abstract> 41</abstract>
40 42
43<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
41<license/> 45<license/>
42 46
43<version>2.16</version> 47<version>3.0.7</version>
44<date>2005-06-05</date> 48<date>2005-07-26</date>
45 49
46<chapter> 50<chapter>
47<title>Featured Questions</title> 51<title>Questions:</title>
48<section> 52<section>
49<title>Getting Started</title> 53<title>Getting Started</title>
50<body> 54<body>
51 55
56<p>
57Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61answered here.
62</p>
63
52<ul> 64<ul>
53 <li> 65 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it 66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri> 67 mean?</uri>
56 </li> 68 </li>
65<title>Installation</title> 77<title>Installation</title>
66<body> 78<body>
67 79
68<ul> 80<ul>
69 <li> 81 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and 82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What 83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li> 84 </li>
74 <li> 85 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's) 86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri> 87 password?</uri>
77 </li> 88 </li>
117 <li> 128 <li>
118 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. 129 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 Can I?</uri> 130 Can I?</uri>
120 </li> 131 </li>
121 <li> 132 <li>
122 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
125 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a 133 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 firewall?</uri> 134 firewall?</uri>
127 </li> 135 </li>
128 <li> 136 <li>
137 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
129 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can 140 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
130 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri> 141 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
131 </li> 142 </li>
132 <li> 143 <li>
133 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are 144 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
134 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to 145 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
135 delete there files?</uri>
136 </li> 146 </li>
137 <li> 147 <li>
138 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to 148 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
139 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri> 149 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
140 </li> 150 </li>
177<body> 187<body>
178 188
179<ul> 189<ul>
180 <li> 190 <li>
181 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- 191 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
182 how to fix'em, etc.</uri> 192 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
183 </li> 193 </li>
184</ul> 194</ul>
185 195
186</body> 196</body>
187</section> 197</section>
195 </li> 205 </li>
196 <li> 206 <li>
197 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri> 207 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
198 </li> 208 </li>
199 <li> 209 <li>
200 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling 210 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
201 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri> 211 beeps?</uri>
202 </li> 212 </li>
203</ul> 213</ul>
204 214
205</body> 215</body>
206</section> 216</section>
250Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri 260Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
251link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system 261link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
252that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a 262that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
253Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri 263Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
254link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>), 264link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
255conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through 265conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
256sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri 266(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
257link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
258file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri 268file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
259link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>. 269link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
260</p> 270</p>
261 271
262<p> 272<p>
263With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of 273With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
264optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't 274optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
265installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install Gentoo 275installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
266to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>. 276to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
267</p>
268
269<p> 277</p>
270Gentoo is actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the 278
271package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace 279<p>
280Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
272development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the 281development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
273mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are 282mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
274added frequently, and releases succeed each other quickly. 283added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
275</p> 284</p>
276 285
277</body> 286</body>
278</section> 287</section>
279</chapter> 288</chapter>
280 289
281<chapter> 290<chapter>
282<title>Installation</title> 291<title>Installation</title>
283<section id="optimizations"> 292<section id="optimizations">
284<title> 293<title>
285 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 294 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
286 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 295 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
287</title> 296</title>
288<body> 297<body>
289 298
290<p> 299<p>
291Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by 300Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
293compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 302compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
294do the same thing anymore. 303do the same thing anymore.
295</p> 304</p>
296 305
297<p> 306<p>
298Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> before 307Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
299reporting a bug. 308reporting a bug.
300</p> 309</p>
301 310
302</body> 311</body>
303</section> 312</section>
304<section id="password"> 313<section id="password">
305<title>How can I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title> 314<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
306<body> 315<body>
307 316
308<p> 317<p>
309You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 318You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
319into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
310into. For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c> once you've 320<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
311completed the install.
312</p> 321</p>
313 322
314</body> 323</body>
315</section> 324</section>
316<section id="useradd"> 325<section id="useradd">
317<title>How do I add a normal user?</title> 326<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
318<body> 327<body>
319 328
320<p> 329<p>
321The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called "gentoo". The next 330The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
322step is to give this user a password using <c>passwd gentoo</c>. 331this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
323</p> 332him, so the following command is preferred:
324
325<p>
326Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
327</p> 333</p>
328 334
329<pre caption="Using useradd"> 335<pre caption="Using useradd">
330# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i> 336# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
331</pre> 337</pre>
332 338
333<p>
334This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
335devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
336root (using <c>su</c>), and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
337</p> 339<p>
338 340This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
339<p> 341<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
340You can install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and 342<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
341then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow 343execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
342the instructions which are then given. 344privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
343</p> 345</p>
344 346
345</body> 347</body>
346</section> 348</section>
347<section id="su"> 349<section id="su">
363<section id="devfs"> 365<section id="devfs">
364<title>How do I disable devfs?</title> 366<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
365<body> 367<body>
366 368
367<p> 369<p>
368If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you 370Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
369can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the 371function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
370other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6 372archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
371kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
372to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
373link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too. 373link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
374udev.
374</p> 375</p>
375 376
376</body> 377</body>
377</section> 378</section>
378<section id="upgrade"> 379<section id="upgrade">
380 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling? 381 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
381</title> 382</title>
382<body> 383<body>
383 384
384<p> 385<p>
385In fact there is no difference between the various releases 386In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
386<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are 387been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
387<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c> 388running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
388will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". 389entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
389The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation. 390individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
390</p> 391See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
391 392for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
392<p>
393More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
394Upgrading Guide</uri>.
395</p> 393</p>
396 394
397</body> 395</body>
398</section> 396</section>
399<section id="bootrescue"> 397<section id="bootrescue">
400<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 398<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
401<body> 399<body>
402 400
403<p> 401<p>
404You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 402You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
405kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 403kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
406on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 404on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
407<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 405<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
408</p> 406</p>
409 407
410<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 408<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
411<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 409<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
412<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 410<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
413# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 411# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
414# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 412# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
415# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 413# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
416# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i> 414# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
419# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i> 417# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
420# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 418# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
421# <i>make menuconfig</i> 419# <i>make menuconfig</i>
422<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment> 420<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
423<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment> 421<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
424# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i> 422# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
425<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment> 423<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
426# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i> 424# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
427<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment> 425<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
428# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 426# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
429<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 427<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
431# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 429# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
432# <i>reboot</i> 430# <i>reboot</i>
433</pre> 431</pre>
434 432
435<p> 433<p>
436If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 434If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
437follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 435follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
438should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 436should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
439</p> 437</p>
440 438
441</body> 439</body>
442</section> 440</section>
443<section id="proxy"> 441<section id="proxy">
444<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 442<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
445<body> 443<body>
446 444
447<p> 445<p>
448When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
449following syntax to authenticate yourself:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
453# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 446To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
458<path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 447<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
459</p> 448</p>
460 449
461<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 450<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
462FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \ 451HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
463 -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 452FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
464RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \ 453RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
465 -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
466</pre>
467
468<p>
469To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
470so:
471</p>
472
473<pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
474RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
475</pre> 454</pre>
476 455
477</body> 456</body>
478</section> 457</section>
479<section id="isoburning"> 458<section id="isoburning">
507 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace 486 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
508 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed 487 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
509 by the path to the ISO file :) 488 by the path to the ISO file :)
510 </li> 489 </li>
511 <li> 490 <li>
512 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 491 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
513 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 492 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
514 <c>Start</c>. 493 click <c>Start</c>.
515 </li> 494 </li>
516 <li> 495 <li>
517 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from 496 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
518 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the 497 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
519 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and 498 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
534<body> 513<body>
535 514
536<p> 515<p>
537First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you 516First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
538need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may 517need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
539need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri 518need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
540link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-). 519link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
541</p> 520</p>
542 521
543<p> 522<p>
544For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
545meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
546systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
547</p>
548
549<p>
550If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even 523If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
551generic. 524generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
525will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
526</p>
527
528<p>
529If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
530than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
531link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
532guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
552</p> 533</p>
553 534
554</body> 535</body>
555</section> 536</section>
556</chapter> 537</chapter>
560<section id="ebuilds"> 541<section id="ebuilds">
561<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title> 542<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
562<body> 543<body>
563 544
564<p> 545<p>
565They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is 546Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
566a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> 547which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
567files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. 548package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
568We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri 549releases and snapshots. The <uri
569link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild 550link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
570HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary 551HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
552</p>
553
554<p>
571ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced 555For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
572<c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached 556<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
573to the end of the file). 557attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
558not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
559</p>
560
561<p>
562It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
563Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
564install packages.
574</p> 565</p>
575 566
576</body> 567</body>
577</section> 568</section>
578<section id="configure"> 569<section id="configure">
579<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title> 570<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
571<body>
572
573<p>
574Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
575requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
576recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
577place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
578better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
579link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
580HOWTO</uri> for more information.
581</p>
582
580<body> 583</body>
584</section>
585<section id="firewall">
586<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
587<body>
581 588
582<p>
583Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
584ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
585Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
586</p> 589<p>
587 590See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
588<p> 591link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
589Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 592files manually</uri>.
590/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
591</p>
592
593<p>
594Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
595Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
596perform to configure and compile the package.
597</p>
598
599<p>
600When finished, execute <c>touch
601/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
602into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
603<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
604merge</c>.
605</p> 593</p>
606 594
607</body> 595</body>
608</section> 596</section>
609<section id="norsync"> 597<section id="norsync">
611<body> 599<body>
612 600
613<p> 601<p>
614If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use 602If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
615<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you 603<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
616through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so 604through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
617proxy is fully supported. 605document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
618</p> 606a proxy.
619
620<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
621# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
622</pre>
623
624</body>
625</section>
626<section id="firewall">
627<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
628<body>
629
630<p>
631Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
632edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
633appropriately.
634</p> 607</p>
635 608
636</body> 609</body>
637</section> 610</section>
638<section id="manualdownload"> 611<section id="manualdownload">
645<p> 618<p>
646Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 619Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
647are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where 620are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
648to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download 621to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
649sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into 622sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
650<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it 623<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
651picking up the sources you just brought in! 624Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
652</p> 625</p>
653 626
654</body> 627</body>
655</section> 628</section>
656<section id="distfiles"> 629<section id="distfiles">
657<title> 630<title>
658 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in 631 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
659 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these 632 delete these files?
660 files?
661</title> 633</title>
662<body> 634<body>
663 635
664<p> 636<p>
665Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 637Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
666connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 638However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
667possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 639several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
668a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 640software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
669upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 641be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
670again. 642<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
643developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
644Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
645at your own risk.
671</p> 646</p>
672 647
673</body> 648</body>
674</section> 649</section>
675<section id="tmpportage"> 650<section id="tmpportage">
679</title> 654</title>
680<body> 655<body>
681 656
682<p> 657<p>
683During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in 658During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
684<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this 659<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
685directory. 660a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
661contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
662always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
686</p> 663</p>
687 664
688</body> 665</body>
689</section> 666</section>
690</chapter> 667</chapter>
694<section id="intkeyboard"> 671<section id="intkeyboard">
695<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 672<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
696<body> 673<body>
697 674
698<p> 675<p>
699Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 676Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
700Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 677either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
678</p>
679
680<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
701<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>. 681# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
702</p> 682</pre>
703 683
704</body> 684</body>
705</section> 685</section>
706<section id="rootdns"> 686<section id="rootdns">
707<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 687<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
708<body> 688<body>
709 689
710<p> 690<p>
711<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as 691<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
712follows: 692follows:
731<section id="numlock"> 711<section id="numlock">
732<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 712<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
733<body> 713<body>
734 714
735<p> 715<p>
736If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
737you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
738add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
739<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
740<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
741as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
742</p>
743
744<p>
745GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
746need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
747Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
748insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
749<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
750</p>
751
752<p>
753If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 716If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
754numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 717numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
755reboot. 718</p>
719
720<p>
721Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
722section or online manuals for assistance.
756</p> 723</p>
757 724
758</body> 725</body>
759</section> 726</section>
760<section id="clear"> 727<section id="clear">
802</chapter> 769</chapter>
803 770
804<chapter> 771<chapter>
805<title>Maintenance</title> 772<title>Maintenance</title>
806<section id="filecorruption"> 773<section id="filecorruption">
807<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 774<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
808<body> 775<body>
809 776
810<p> 777<p>
811If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 778If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
812Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 779run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
813the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 780make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
814again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 781directories due to the corruption.
815to the corruption.
816</p> 782</p>
817 783
818</body> 784</body>
819</section> 785</section>
820</chapter> 786</chapter>
787
821<chapter> 788<chapter>
822<title>Development</title> 789<title>Development</title>
823<section id="reportbugs"> 790<section id="reportbugs">
824<title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 791<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
825<body> 792<body>
826 793
827<p> 794<p>
828For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, 795Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
829use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can 796your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
830also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
831link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 797link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
832</p> 798</p>
833 799
834</body> 800</body>
835</section> 801</section>
836<section id="releases"> 802<section id="releases">
837<title>How often are new releases made?</title> 803<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
838<body> 804<body>
839 805
840<p> 806<p>
841New releases are announced on the <uri 807Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
842link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 808new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
843mailing list. The packages themselves are usually updated shortly after the
844main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
845<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. 809our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
810releases are announced on the <uri
811link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
812on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
846</p> 813</p>
847 814
848</body> 815</body>
849</section> 816</section>
850<section id="beeping"> 817<section id="beeping">
851<title> 818<title>
852 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console 819 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
853 beeps?
854</title> 820</title>
855<body> 821<body>
856 822
857<p> 823<p>
858Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this: 824Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
861<pre caption="Using setterm"> 827<pre caption="Using setterm">
862# <i>setterm -blength 0</i> 828# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
863</pre> 829</pre>
864 830
865<p> 831<p>
866If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 832If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
867you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, 833command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
868this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 834beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
869beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 835command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
870target terminal, like this:
871</p>
872 836
873<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)"> 837<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
874# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i> 838# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
875</pre> 839</pre>
876 840
888<section id="resources"> 852<section id="resources">
889<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 853<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
890<body> 854<body>
891 855
892<p> 856<p>
893The official Gentoo documentation can be found on 857The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
894<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
895<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>. 858<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
896</p> 859</p>
897 860
898</body> 861</body>
899</section> 862</section>
900<section id="buycd"> 863<section id="buycd">
901<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 864<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
902<body> 865<body>
903 866
904<p> 867<p>
905Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 868Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
906our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 869link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
907purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 870purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
908So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 871please consider buying from our store if possible.
909</p> 872</p>
910 873
911<p> 874<p>
912You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri 875You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
913link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page. 876link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
918<section id="help"> 881<section id="help">
919<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 882<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
920<body> 883<body>
921 884
922<p> 885<p>
923A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri 886A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
924link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, 887link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
925the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri 888Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
926link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo 889To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
927mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all 890to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
928else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: 891Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
929<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
930</p> 892</p>
931 893
932</body> 894</body>
933</section> 895</section>
934</chapter> 896</chapter>

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