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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13 <version>1.1.3</version>
14 <date>15 January 2003</date>
16 <chapter>
17 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 <section>
20 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
21 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
22 </section>
24 <section>
25 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
26 <body>
27 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
28 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
29 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
30 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
31 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
32 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
33 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
34 versions.
35 </p>
36 </body>
37 </section>
38 </chapter>
40 <chapter>
41 <title>Installation</title>
43 <section>
45 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
46 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
47 </warn>
49 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
50 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
51 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
52 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
53 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
54 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
55 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
56 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
57 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
58 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
59 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
60 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
61 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
62 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
63 </body>
64 </section>
66 <section>
67 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
68 <body><p>
69 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
70 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
71 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
72 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
73 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
74 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
75 stabilise anytime soon.
76 </p>
77 </body>
78 </section>
80 <section>
81 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
82 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
83 <body>
84 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
85 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
86 <pre>
87 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
88 </pre>
89 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
90 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
91 </body>
93 </section>
94 <section>
95 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
96 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
97 <body>
98 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
99 having broken packages.
100 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
101 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
102 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
103 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
104 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
105 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
106 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
107 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
108 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
109 </body>
110 </section>
112 <section>
113 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
114 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
115 </section>
117 <section>
118 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
119 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
120 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
121 </p></body>
122 </section>
123 <section>
124 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
125 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
126 how can i add another user?</p>
127 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
128 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
129 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
130 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
131 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
132 </p>
133 </body>
134 </section>
135 <section>
136 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
137 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
138 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
139 command as root:</p>
140 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section>
144 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
145 <body>
146 <p>
147 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
148 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
149 kernel, didn't you?).
150 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
151 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
152 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
153 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
154 </p>
155 </body>
156 </section>
157 <section>
158 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
159 <body>
160 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
161 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
162 </body>
163 </section>
164 <section>
165 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
166 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
167 <body>
168 <p>
169 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
170 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
171 it will be preserved between reboots.
172 </p>
173 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
174 and add these lines:</p>
175 <pre>
176 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
177 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
178 </pre>
179 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
180 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
181 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
182 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
183 </body>
184 </section>
185 <section>
186 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
187 <body><p>
188 During installation the grub boot files are copied
189 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
190 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
191 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
192 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
193 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
194 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
195 unpacking the build snapshot or running
196 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
197 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
198 You can get more information on grub, including how to
199 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
200 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
201 </p>
202 </body>
203 </section>
205 <section>
206 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
207 detection. </title>
208 <body>
209 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
210 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
211 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
212 </body>
213 </section>
215 <section>
216 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
217 <body>
218 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
219 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
220 </body>
221 </section>
222 </chapter>
224 <chapter>
225 <title>Package Management</title>
226 <section>
227 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
228 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
229 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
230 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
231 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
232 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
233 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
234 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
235 </body>
236 </section>
238 <section>
239 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
240 <body>
241 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
242 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
243 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
244 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
245 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
246 </body>
247 </section>
249 <section>
250 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
251 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
252 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
253 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
254 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
255 </section>
257 <section>
258 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
259 <body>
260 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
261 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
262 </body>
263 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
267 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
268 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
269 are as follows:</p>
270 <table>
271 <tr>
272 <th>Flag</th>
273 <th>Description</th>
274 </tr>
275 <tr>
276 <ti>CHOST</ti>
277 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
278 </tr>
279 <tr>
280 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
281 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
285 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
286 files)</ti>
287 </tr>
288 <tr>
289 <ti>USE</ti>
290 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
291 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
292 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
293 also USE-aware.</ti>
294 </tr>
295 <tr>
296 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
297 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
298 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
299 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
300 </tr>
301 </table>
302 </body>
303 </section>
305 <section>
306 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
307 <body>
308 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
309 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
310 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
311 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
312 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
313 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
314 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
315 <ol>
316 <li>Environment variables</li>
317 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
318 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
319 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
320 any other place come from here)</li>
321 </ol></p></body>
322 </section>
324 <section>
325 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
326 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
327 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
328 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
329 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
332 </p></body>
333 </section>
335 <section>
336 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
337 clobbering my config files?</title>
338 <body><p>
339 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
340 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
341 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
342 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
343 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
344 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
345 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
346 </p></body>
347 </section>
349 <section>
350 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
351 <body><p>
352 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
353 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
354 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
355 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
356 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
357 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
358 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
359 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
360 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
361 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
362 </p></body>
363 </section>
365 <section>
366 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
367 <body><p>
368 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
369 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
370 /usr/portage snapshots from
371 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
372 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
373 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
374 </p></body>
375 </section>
377 <section>
378 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
379 <body><p>
380 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
381 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
382 appropriately.
383 </p></body>
384 </section>
386 <section>
387 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
388 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
389 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
390 </section>
392 <section>
393 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
394 add them to my system?</title>
395 <body><p>
396 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
397 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
398 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
399 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
400 </p></body>
401 </section>
403 <section>
404 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
405 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
406 <body><p>
407 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
408 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
409 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
410 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
411 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
412 again.
413 </p></body>
414 </section>
416 <section>
417 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
418 <body>
419 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
420 maintain your local
421 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
422 <pre>
423 # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
424 # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
425 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
426 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
427 # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
428 # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
429 # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
430 # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
431 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
432 # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
433 # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
434 # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
435 </pre>
436 </body>
437 </section>
439 <section>
440 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
441 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
442 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
444 <body>
445 <p>Solution: </p>
446 <pre caption = "Solution">
447 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
448 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
449 </pre>
451 </body>
452 </section>
453 <section>
454 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
455 <body>
456 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
457 </body>
458 </section>
459 </chapter>
461 <chapter>
462 <title>Usage</title>
463 <section>
464 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
465 account doesn't work. </title>
466 <body>
467 <p>
468 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
469 for your user entry in
470 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
471 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
472 </p>
473 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
474 </body>
475 </section>
477 <section>
478 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
479 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
480 set). Type the following as root:</p>
481 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
482 </body>
483 </section>
485 <section>
486 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
487 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
488 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
489 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
490 </body>
491 </section>
493 <section>
494 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
495 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
496 </p>
497 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
498 </body>
499 </section>
501 <section>
502 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
503 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
504 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
505 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
506 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
507 </body>
508 </section>
510 <section>
511 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
512 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
513 </p>
514 </body>
515 </section>
516 </chapter>
518 <chapter>
519 <title>Maintenance</title>
520 <section>
521 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
522 <body>
523 <p>
524 If your
525 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
526 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
527 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
528 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
529 to the corruption.
530 </p>
531 </body>
532 </section>
533 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
534 <section>
535 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
536 system?</title>
537 <body>
538 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
539 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
541 <pre>
542 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
543 </pre>
545 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
547 <pre>
548 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
549 </pre>
551 </body>
552 </section>
553 </chapter>
555 <chapter>
556 <title>Development</title>
557 <section>
558 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
559 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
560 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
561 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
562 </p></body>
563 </section>
565 <section>
566 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
567 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
568 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
569 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
570 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
571 new modules get added.</p></body>
572 </section>
574 <section>
575 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
576 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
577 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
578 </section>
580 <section>
581 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
582 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
583 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
584 </section>
586 <section>
587 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
588 <body><p>
589 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
590 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
591 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
592 </p></body>
593 </section>
596 <section>
597 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
598 </title>
599 <body>
600 <p>
601 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
603 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
605 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
606 you need to put this command in
607 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
608 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
609 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
610 target terminal, like this ;
612 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
614 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
615 you would like to disable console beeps for.
616 </p>
617 </body>
618 </section>
619 </chapter>
621 <chapter>
622 <title>Resources</title>
623 <section>
624 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
625 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
626 </section>
628 <section>
629 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
630 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
631 </section>
633 <section>
634 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
635 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
636 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
637 </p>
638 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
639 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
640 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
641 </body>
642 </section>
644 <section>
645 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
646 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
647 <body>
648 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
649 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
650 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
651 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
652 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
654 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
655 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
656 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
657 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
658 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
659 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
661 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
662 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
663 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
664 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
665 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
666 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
667 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
668 reasons, many of these covered
669 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
671 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
672 administrators have seen them.) </p>
673 </body>
674 </section>
676 <section>
677 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
678 <body>
679 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
680 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
681 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
682 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
683 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
684 </p>
685 </body>
686 </section>
687 </chapter>
688 </guide>

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