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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
14 <version>1.1.2</version>
15 <date>08 October 2002</date>
17 <chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title>
20 <section>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "jen-two".</p></body>
23 </section>
25 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35 versions.
36 </p></body> </section> </chapter>
38 <chapter>
39 <title>Installation</title>
41 <section>
42 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
43 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
44 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
45 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
46 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
47 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
48 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
49 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
50 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
51 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
52 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
53 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
54 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
55 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
56 </body>
57 </section>
59 <section>
60 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
61 <body><p>
62 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
63 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
64 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
65 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
66 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
67 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
68 stabilise anytime soon.
69 </p>
70 </body>
71 </section>
73 <section>
74 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
75 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
76 <body>
77 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
78 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
79 <pre>
80 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
81 </pre>
82 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
83 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
84 </body>
86 </section>
87 <section>
88 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
89 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
90 <body>
91 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
92 having broken packages.
93 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
94 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
95 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
96 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
97 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
98 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
99 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
100 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
101 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
102 </body>
103 </section>
105 <section>
106 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
107 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
108 </section>
110 <section>
111 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
112 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
113 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
114 </p></body>
115 </section>
116 <section>
117 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
118 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
119 how can i add another user?</p>
120 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
121 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
126 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
127 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
128 command as root:</p>
129 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
134 <body>
135 <p>
136 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
137 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
138 kernel, didn't you?).
139 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
140 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
141 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
142 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
143 </p>
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
148 <body>
149 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
150 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
155 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>
158 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
159 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
160 it will be preserved between reboots.
161 </p>
162 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
163 and add these lines:</p>
164 <pre>
165 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
166 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
167 </pre>
168 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
169 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
170 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
171 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
172 </body>
173 </section>
174 <section>
175 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
176 <body><p>
177 During installation the grub boot files are copied
178 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
179 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
180 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
181 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
182 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
183 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
184 unpacking the build snapshot or running
185 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
186 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
187 You can get more information on grub, including how to
188 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
189 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
190 </p>
191 </body>
192 </section>
194 <section>
195 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
196 detection. </title>
197 <body>
198 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
199 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
200 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
201 </body>
202 </section>
204 </chapter>
206 <chapter>
207 <title>Package Management</title>
208 <section>
209 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
210 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
211 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
212 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
213 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
214 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
215 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
216 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
217 </body>
218 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
222 <body>
223 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
224 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
225 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
226 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
227 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
228 </body>
229 </section>
231 <section>
232 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
233 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
234 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
235 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
236 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
237 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
241 <body>
242 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
243 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
244 </body>
245 </section>
247 <section>
248 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
249 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
250 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
251 are as follows:</p>
252 <table>
253 <tr>
254 <th>Flag</th>
255 <th>Description</th>
256 </tr>
257 <tr>
258 <ti>CHOST</ti>
259 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
260 </tr>
261 <tr>
262 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
263 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
267 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
268 files)</ti>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <ti>USE</ti>
272 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
273 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
274 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
275 also USE-aware.</ti>
276 </tr>
277 <tr>
278 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
279 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
280 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
281 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
282 </tr>
283 </table>
284 </body>
285 </section>
287 <section>
288 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
289 <body>
290 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
291 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
292 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
293 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
294 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
295 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
296 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
297 <ol>
298 <li>Environment variables</li>
299 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
300 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
301 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
302 any other place come from here)</li>
303 </ol></p></body>
304 </section>
306 <section>
307 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
308 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
309 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
310 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
311 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
314 </p></body>
315 </section>
317 <section>
318 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
319 clobbering my config files?</title>
320 <body><p>
321 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
322 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
323 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
324 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
325 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
326 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
327 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
328 </p></body>
329 </section>
331 <section>
332 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
333 <body><p>
334 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
335 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
336 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
337 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
338 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
339 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
340 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
341 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
342 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
343 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
344 </p></body>
345 </section>
347 <section>
348 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
349 <body><p>
350 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
351 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
352 /usr/portage snapshot from
353 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots</uri>. Just unpack
354 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
355 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
356 </p></body>
357 </section>
359 <section>
360 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
361 <body><p>
362 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
363 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
364 appropriately.
365 </p></body>
366 </section>
368 <section>
369 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
370 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
371 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
372 </section>
374 <section>
375 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
376 add them to my system?</title>
377 <body><p>
378 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
379 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
380 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
381 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
382 </p></body>
383 </section>
385 <section>
386 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
387 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
388 <body><p>
389 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
390 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
391 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
392 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
393 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
394 again.
395 </p></body>
396 </section>
398 <section>
399 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
400 <body>
401 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
402 maintain your local
403 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
404 <pre>
405 # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
406 # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
407 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
408 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
409 # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
410 # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
411 # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
412 # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
413 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
414 # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
415 # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
416 # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
417 </pre>
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 </chapter>
422 <chapter>
423 <title>Usage</title>
424 <section>
425 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
426 account doesn't work. </title>
427 <body>
428 <p>
429 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
430 for your user entry in
431 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
432 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
433 </p>
434 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
435 </body>
436 </section>
438 <section>
439 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
440 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
441 set). Type the following as root:</p>
442 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
443 </body>
444 </section>
446 <section>
447 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
448 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
449 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
450 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
451 </body>
452 </section>
454 <section>
455 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
456 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
457 </p>
458 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
459 </body>
460 </section>
462 <section>
463 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
464 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
465 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
466 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
467 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
468 </body>
469 </section>
470 </chapter>
472 <chapter>
473 <title>Maintenance</title>
474 <section>
475 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
476 <body>
477 <p>
478 If your
479 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
480 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
481 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
482 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
483 to the corruption.
484 </p>
485 </body>
486 </section>
487 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
488 <section>
489 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
490 system?</title>
491 <body>
492 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
493 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
495 <pre>
496 # <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
497 </pre>
499 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
501 <pre>
502 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
503 </pre>
505 </body>
506 </section>
507 </chapter>
509 <chapter>
510 <title>Development</title>
511 <section>
512 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
513 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
514 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
515 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
516 </p></body>
517 </section>
519 <section>
520 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
521 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri>
522 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
523 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
524 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
525 new modules get added.</p></body>
526 </section>
528 <section>
529 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
530 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
531 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
532 </section>
534 <section>
535 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
536 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
537 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
538 </section>
540 <section>
541 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
542 <body><p>
543 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
544 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
545 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
546 </p></body>
547 </section>
550 <section>
551 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
552 </title>
553 <body>
554 <p>
555 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
557 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
559 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
560 you need to put this command in
561 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
562 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
563 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
564 target terminal, like this ;
566 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
568 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
569 you would like to disable console beeps for.
570 </p>
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 </chapter>
575 <chapter>
576 <title>Resources</title>
577 <section>
578 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
579 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
580 </section>
582 <section>
583 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
584 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
585 </section>
587 <section>
588 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
589 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
590 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
591 </p>
592 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
593 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
594 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
595 </body>
596 </section>
598 <section>
599 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
600 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
601 <body>
602 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
603 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
604 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
605 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
606 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
608 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
609 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
610 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
611 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
612 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
613 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
615 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
616 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
617 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
618 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
619 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
620 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
621 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
622 reasons, many of these covered
623 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
625 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
626 administrators have seen them.) </p>
627 </body>
628 </section>
630 <section>
631 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
632 <body>
633 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
634 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
635 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
636 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
637 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
638 </p>
639 </body>
640 </section>
641 </chapter>
642 </guide>

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