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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
16 <version>1.1.7</version>
17 <date>September 27, 2003</date>
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Featured Questions</title>
21 <section>
22 <title>Getting Started</title>
23 <body>
24 <ul>
25 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
26 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
27 </ul>
28 </body>
29 </section>
30 <section>
31 <title>Installation</title>
32 <body>
33 <ul>
34 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
35 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
39 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
49 </ul>
50 </body>
51 </section>
52 <section>
53 <title>Package Management</title>
54 <body>
55 <ul>
56 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
57 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
58 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
59 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
60 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
61 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
62 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
72 </ul>
73 </body>
74 </section>
75 <section>
76 <title>Usage</title>
77 <body>
78 <ul>
79 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
80 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
81 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
82 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
83 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
84 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
85 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
87 I log out?</uri></li>
88 </ul>
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Maintenance</title>
93 <body>
94 <ul>
95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
96 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
97 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
98 </ul>
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 <section>
102 <title>Development</title>
103 <body>
104 <ul>
105 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
106 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
107 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
108 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
109 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
110 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
111 </ul>
112 </body>
113 </section>
114 <section>
115 <title>Resources</title>
116 <body>
117 <ul>
118 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
119 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
120 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
121 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
122 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
123 </ul>
124 </body>
125 </section>
126 </chapter>
129 <chapter>
130 <title>Getting Started</title>
132 <section>
133 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
134 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
135 </section>
137 <section>
138 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
139 <body>
140 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
141 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
142 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
143 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
144 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
145 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
146 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
147 versions.
148 </p>
149 </body>
150 </section>
151 </chapter>
153 <chapter>
154 <title>Installation</title>
156 <section>
158 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
159 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
160 </warn>
162 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
163 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
164 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
165 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
166 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
167 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
168 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
169 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
170 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
171 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
172 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
173 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
174 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
175 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
176 </body>
177 </section>
179 <section>
180 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
181 <body><p>
182 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
183 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
184 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
185 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
186 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
187 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
188 stabilise anytime soon.
189 </p>
190 </body>
191 </section>
193 <section>
194 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
195 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
196 <body>
197 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
198 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
199 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
200 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
201 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
202 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
203 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
204 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
205 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
206 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
207 </body>
208 </section>
210 <section>
211 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
212 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
213 </section>
215 <section>
216 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
217 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
218 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
219 </p></body>
220 </section>
221 <section>
222 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
223 <body>
224 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
225 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
226 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
227 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
228 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
229 </p>
230 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
231 </p>
232 </body>
233 </section>
234 <section>
235 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
236 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
237 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
238 command as root:</p>
239 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
240 </body>
241 </section>
242 <section>
243 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
244 <body>
245 <p>
246 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
247 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
248 kernel, didn't you?).
249 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
250 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
251 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
252 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
253 </p>
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 <section>
257 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
258 <body>
259 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
260 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
261 </body>
262 </section>
263 <section>
264 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
265 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
266 <body>
267 <p>
268 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
269 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
270 it will be preserved between reboots.
271 </p>
272 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
273 and add these lines:</p>
274 <pre>
275 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
276 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
277 </pre>
278 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
279 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
280 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
281 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
282 </body>
283 </section>
284 <section>
285 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
286 <body><p>
287 During installation the grub boot files are copied
288 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
289 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
290 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
291 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
292 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
293 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
294 unpacking the build snapshot or running
295 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
296 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
297 You can get more information on grub, including how to
298 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
299 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
300 </p>
301 </body>
302 </section>
304 <section>
305 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
306 detection. </title>
307 <body>
308 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
309 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
310 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
311 </body>
312 </section>
314 <section>
315 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
316 <body>
317 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
318 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
319 </body>
320 </section>
321 <section>
322 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
323 <body>
324 <p>
325 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
326 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
327 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
328 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
329 </p>
330 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
331 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
332 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
333 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
334 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
335 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
336 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
337 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
338 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
339 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
340 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
341 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
342 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
343 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
344 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
345 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
346 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
347 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
348 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
349 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
350 # <i>exit</i>
351 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
352 # <i>reboot</i>
353 </pre>
354 <p>
355 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
356 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
357 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
358 </p>
359 </body>
360 </section>
361 <section>
362 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
363 <body>
365 <p>
366 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
367 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
368 </p>
369 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
370 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
371 </pre>
372 <p>
373 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
374 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
375 </p>
376 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
377 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
378 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
379 </pre>
380 <p>
381 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
382 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
383 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
384 handle this situation.
385 </p>
387 </body>
388 </section>
390 </chapter>
392 <chapter>
393 <title>Package Management</title>
394 <section>
395 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
396 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
397 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
398 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
399 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
400 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
401 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
402 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
403 </body>
404 </section>
406 <section>
407 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
410 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
411 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
412 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
413 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
414 </body>
415 </section>
417 <section>
418 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
419 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
420 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
421 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
422 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
423 </section>
425 <section>
426 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
427 <body>
428 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
429 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
430 </body>
431 </section>
433 <section>
434 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
435 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
436 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
437 are as follows:</p>
438 <table>
439 <tr>
440 <th>Flag</th>
441 <th>Description</th>
442 </tr>
443 <tr>
444 <ti>CHOST</ti>
445 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
446 </tr>
447 <tr>
448 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
449 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
450 </tr>
451 <tr>
452 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
453 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
454 files)</ti>
455 </tr>
456 <tr>
457 <ti>USE</ti>
458 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
459 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
460 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
461 also USE-aware.</ti>
462 </tr>
463 <tr>
464 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
465 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
466 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
467 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
468 </tr>
469 </table>
470 </body>
471 </section>
473 <section>
474 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
475 <body>
476 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
477 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
478 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
479 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
480 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
481 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
482 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
483 <ol>
484 <li>Environment variables</li>
485 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
486 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
487 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
488 any other place come from here)</li>
489 </ol></p></body>
490 </section>
492 <section>
493 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
494 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
495 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
496 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
497 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
500 </p></body>
501 </section>
503 <section>
504 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
505 clobbering my config files?</title>
506 <body><p>
507 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
508 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
509 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
510 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
511 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
512 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
513 which is now part of Portage.
514 </p></body>
515 </section>
517 <section>
518 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
519 <body><p>
520 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
521 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
522 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
523 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
524 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
525 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
526 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
527 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
528 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
529 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
530 </p></body>
531 </section>
533 <section>
534 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
535 <body><p>
536 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
537 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
538 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
539 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
540 supported.
541 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
542 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
543 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
544 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
545 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
546 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
547 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
548 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
549 lose all your sourcecode.
550 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
551 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
552 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
553 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
554 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
555 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
556 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
557 </p></body>
558 </section>
560 <section>
561 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
562 <body><p>
563 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
564 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
565 appropriately.
566 </p></body>
567 </section>
569 <section>
570 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
571 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
572 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
573 </section>
575 <section>
576 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
577 add them to my system?</title>
578 <body><p>
579 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
580 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
581 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
582 Download sources and bring them on any media
583 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
584 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
585 </p></body>
586 </section>
588 <section>
589 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
590 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
591 <body><p>
592 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
593 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
594 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
595 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
596 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
597 again.
598 </p></body>
599 </section>
601 <section>
602 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
603 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
604 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
606 <body>
607 <p>Solution: </p>
608 <pre caption = "Solution">
609 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
610 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
611 </pre>
613 </body>
614 </section>
615 <section>
616 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
617 <body>
618 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
619 </body>
620 </section>
621 </chapter>
623 <chapter>
624 <title>Usage</title>
625 <section>
626 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
627 account doesn't work. </title>
628 <body>
629 <p>
630 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
631 for your user entry in
632 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
633 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
634 </p>
635 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
636 </body>
637 </section>
639 <section>
640 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
641 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
642 set). Type the following as root:</p>
643 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
644 </body>
645 </section>
647 <section>
648 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
649 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
650 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
651 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
652 </body>
653 </section>
655 <section>
656 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
657 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
658 </p>
659 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
660 </body>
661 </section>
663 <section>
664 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
665 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
666 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
667 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
668 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
669 </body>
670 </section>
672 <section>
673 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
674 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
675 </p>
676 </body>
677 </section>
679 <section>
680 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
681 <body>
682 <p>
683 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
684 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
685 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
686 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
687 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
688 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
689 </p>
690 <p>
691 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
692 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
693 reboot.
694 </p>
695 </body>
696 </section>
697 <section>
698 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
699 <body>
700 <p>
701 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
702 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
703 </p>
704 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
705 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
706 <p>
707 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
708 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
709 </p>
710 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
711 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
712 </body>
713 </section>
716 </chapter>
718 <chapter>
719 <title>Maintenance</title>
720 <section>
721 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
722 <body>
723 <p>
724 If your
725 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
726 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
727 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
728 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
729 to the corruption.
730 </p>
731 </body>
732 </section>
733 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
734 <section>
735 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
736 system?</title>
737 <body>
738 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
739 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
741 <pre>
742 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
743 </pre>
745 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
747 <pre>
748 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
749 </pre>
751 </body>
752 </section>
753 <section>
754 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
755 <body>
757 <p>
758 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
759 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
760 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
761 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
762 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
763 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
764 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
765 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
766 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
767 </p>
769 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
770 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
771 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
772 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
773 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
774 </pre>
776 </body>
777 </section>
778 </chapter>
780 <chapter>
781 <title>Development</title>
782 <section>
783 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
784 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
785 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
786 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
787 </p></body>
788 </section>
790 <section>
791 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
792 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
793 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
794 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
795 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
796 new modules get added.</p></body>
797 </section>
799 <section>
800 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
801 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
802 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
803 </section>
805 <section>
806 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
807 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
808 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
809 </section>
811 <section>
812 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
813 <body><p>
814 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
815 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
816 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
817 </p></body>
818 </section>
821 <section>
822 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
823 </title>
824 <body>
825 <p>
826 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
828 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
830 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
831 you need to put this command in
832 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
833 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
834 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
835 target terminal, like this ;
837 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
839 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
840 you would like to disable console beeps for.
841 </p>
842 </body>
843 </section>
844 </chapter>
846 <chapter>
847 <title>Resources</title>
848 <section>
849 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
850 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
851 </section>
853 <section>
854 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
855 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
856 </section>
858 <section>
859 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
860 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
861 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
862 </p>
863 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
864 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
865 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
866 </body>
867 </section>
869 <section>
870 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
871 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
872 <body>
873 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
874 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
875 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
876 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
877 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
879 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
880 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
881 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
882 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
883 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
884 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
886 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
887 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
888 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
889 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
890 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
891 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
892 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
893 reasons, many of these covered
894 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
896 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
897 administrators have seen them.) </p>
898 </body>
899 </section>
901 <section>
902 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
903 <body>
904 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
905 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
906 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
907 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
908 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
909 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
910 </p>
911 </body>
912 </section>
913 </chapter>
914 </guide>

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