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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
16 <license/>
18 <version>1.1.8</version>
19 <date>September 30, 2003</date>
21 <chapter>
22 <title>Featured Questions</title>
23 <section>
24 <title>Getting Started</title>
25 <body>
26 <ul>
27 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
28 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
29 </ul>
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installation</title>
34 <body>
35 <ul>
36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
39 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
50 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
51 </ul>
52 </body>
53 </section>
54 <section>
55 <title>Package Management</title>
56 <body>
57 <ul>
58 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
59 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
60 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
61 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
62 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
72 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
73 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
74 </ul>
75 </body>
76 </section>
77 <section>
78 <title>Usage</title>
79 <body>
80 <ul>
81 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
82 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
83 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
84 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
85 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
89 I log out?</uri></li>
90 </ul>
91 </body>
92 </section>
93 <section>
94 <title>Maintenance</title>
95 <body>
96 <ul>
97 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
98 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
99 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
100 </ul>
101 </body>
102 </section>
103 <section>
104 <title>Development</title>
105 <body>
106 <ul>
107 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
108 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
109 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
110 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
111 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
112 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
113 </ul>
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 <section>
117 <title>Resources</title>
118 <body>
119 <ul>
120 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
121 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
122 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
123 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
124 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
125 </ul>
126 </body>
127 </section>
128 </chapter>
131 <chapter>
132 <title>Getting Started</title>
134 <section>
135 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
136 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
137 </section>
139 <section>
140 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
141 <body>
142 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
143 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
144 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
145 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
146 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
147 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
148 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
149 versions.
150 </p>
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 </chapter>
155 <chapter>
156 <title>Installation</title>
158 <section>
160 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
161 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
162 </warn>
164 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
165 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
166 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
167 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
168 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
169 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
170 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
171 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
172 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
173 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
178 </body>
179 </section>
181 <section>
182 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
183 <body><p>
184 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
185 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190 stabilise anytime soon.
191 </p>
192 </body>
193 </section>
195 <section>
196 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
198 <body>
199 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
200 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
201 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
202 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
203 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
204 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
205 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
206 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
208 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
212 <section>
213 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
214 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
215 </section>
217 <section>
218 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
219 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
220 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
221 </p></body>
222 </section>
223 <section>
224 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 <body>
226 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
227 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
228 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
229 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
230 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
231 </p>
232 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
233 </p>
234 </body>
235 </section>
236 <section>
237 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
238 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
239 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
240 command as root:</p>
241 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
242 </body>
243 </section>
244 <section>
245 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
246 <body>
247 <p>
248 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
249 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
250 kernel, didn't you?).
251 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
252 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
253 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
254 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
255 </p>
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section>
259 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
260 <body>
261 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
262 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
263 </body>
264 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
267 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
268 <body>
269 <p>
270 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
271 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
272 it will be preserved between reboots.
273 </p>
274 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
275 and add these lines:</p>
276 <pre>
277 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
278 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
279 </pre>
280 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
281 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
282 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
283 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
284 </body>
285 </section>
286 <section>
287 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
288 <body><p>
289 During installation the grub boot files are copied
290 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
291 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
292 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
293 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
294 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
295 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
296 unpacking the build snapshot or running
297 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
298 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
299 You can get more information on grub, including how to
300 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
301 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
302 </p>
303 </body>
304 </section>
306 <section>
307 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
308 detection. </title>
309 <body>
310 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
311 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
312 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
313 </body>
314 </section>
316 <section>
317 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
318 <body>
319 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
320 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 </body>
322 </section>
323 <section>
324 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
325 <body>
326 <p>
327 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
328 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
329 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
330 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
331 </p>
332 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
333 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
334 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
335 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
336 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
337 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
338 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
339 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
340 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
341 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
342 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
343 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
344 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
345 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
346 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
347 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
348 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
349 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
350 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
351 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
352 # <i>exit</i>
353 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
354 # <i>reboot</i>
355 </pre>
356 <p>
357 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
358 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
359 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
360 </p>
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 <section>
364 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
365 <body>
367 <p>
368 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
369 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
370 </p>
371 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
372 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
373 </pre>
374 <p>
375 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
376 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
377 </p>
378 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
379 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
380 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
381 </pre>
382 <p>
383 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
384 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
385 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
386 handle this situation.
387 </p>
389 </body>
390 </section>
392 </chapter>
394 <chapter>
395 <title>Package Management</title>
396 <section>
397 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
398 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
399 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
400 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
401 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
402 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
403 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
404 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
405 </body>
406 </section>
408 <section>
409 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
410 <body>
411 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
412 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
413 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
414 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
415 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
416 </body>
417 </section>
419 <section>
420 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
421 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
422 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
423 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
424 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
425 </section>
427 <section>
428 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
429 <body>
430 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
431 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
432 </body>
433 </section>
435 <section>
436 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
437 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
438 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
439 are as follows:</p>
440 <table>
441 <tr>
442 <th>Flag</th>
443 <th>Description</th>
444 </tr>
445 <tr>
446 <ti>CHOST</ti>
447 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
448 </tr>
449 <tr>
450 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
451 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
455 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
456 files)</ti>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <ti>USE</ti>
460 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
461 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
462 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
463 also USE-aware.</ti>
464 </tr>
465 <tr>
466 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
467 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
468 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
469 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
470 </tr>
471 </table>
472 </body>
473 </section>
475 <section>
476 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
477 <body>
478 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
479 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
480 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
481 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
482 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
483 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
484 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
485 <ol>
486 <li>Environment variables</li>
487 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
488 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
489 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
490 any other place come from here)</li>
491 </ol></p></body>
492 </section>
494 <section>
495 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
496 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
497 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
498 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
499 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
502 </p></body>
503 </section>
505 <section>
506 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
507 clobbering my config files?</title>
508 <body><p>
509 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
510 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
511 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
512 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
513 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
514 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
515 which is now part of Portage.
516 </p></body>
517 </section>
519 <section>
520 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
521 <body><p>
522 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
523 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
524 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
525 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
526 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
527 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
528 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
529 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
530 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
531 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
532 </p></body>
533 </section>
535 <section>
536 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
537 <body><p>
538 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
539 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
540 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
541 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
542 supported.
543 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
544 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
545 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
546 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
547 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
548 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
549 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
550 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
551 lose all your sourcecode.
552 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
553 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
554 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
555 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
556 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
557 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
558 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
559 </p></body>
560 </section>
562 <section>
563 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
564 <body><p>
565 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
566 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
567 appropriately.
568 </p></body>
569 </section>
571 <section>
572 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
573 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
574 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
575 </section>
577 <section>
578 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
579 add them to my system?</title>
580 <body><p>
581 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
582 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
583 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
584 Download sources and bring them on any media
585 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
586 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
587 </p></body>
588 </section>
590 <section>
591 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
592 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
593 <body><p>
594 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
595 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
596 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
597 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
598 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
599 again.
600 </p></body>
601 </section>
603 <section>
604 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
605 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
606 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
608 <body>
609 <p>Solution: </p>
610 <pre caption = "Solution">
611 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
612 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
613 </pre>
615 </body>
616 </section>
617 <section>
618 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
619 <body>
620 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
621 </body>
622 </section>
623 </chapter>
625 <chapter>
626 <title>Usage</title>
627 <section>
628 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
629 account doesn't work. </title>
630 <body>
631 <p>
632 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
633 for your user entry in
634 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
635 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
636 </p>
637 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
638 </body>
639 </section>
641 <section>
642 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
643 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
644 set). Type the following as root:</p>
645 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
646 </body>
647 </section>
649 <section>
650 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
651 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
652 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
653 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
654 </body>
655 </section>
657 <section>
658 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
659 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
660 </p>
661 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
662 </body>
663 </section>
665 <section>
666 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
667 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
668 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
669 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
670 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
671 </body>
672 </section>
674 <section>
675 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
676 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
677 </p>
678 </body>
679 </section>
681 <section>
682 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
683 <body>
684 <p>
685 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
686 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
687 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
688 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
689 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
690 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
691 </p>
692 <p>
693 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
694 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
695 reboot.
696 </p>
697 </body>
698 </section>
699 <section>
700 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
701 <body>
702 <p>
703 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
704 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
705 </p>
706 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
707 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
708 <p>
709 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
710 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
711 </p>
712 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
713 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
714 </body>
715 </section>
718 </chapter>
720 <chapter>
721 <title>Maintenance</title>
722 <section>
723 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
724 <body>
725 <p>
726 If your
727 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
728 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
729 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
730 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
731 to the corruption.
732 </p>
733 </body>
734 </section>
735 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
736 <section>
737 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
738 system?</title>
739 <body>
740 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
741 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
743 <pre>
744 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
745 </pre>
747 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
749 <pre>
750 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
751 </pre>
753 </body>
754 </section>
755 <section>
756 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
757 <body>
759 <p>
760 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
761 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
762 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
763 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
764 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
765 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
766 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
767 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
768 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
769 </p>
771 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
772 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
773 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
774 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
775 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
776 </pre>
778 </body>
779 </section>
780 </chapter>
782 <chapter>
783 <title>Development</title>
784 <section>
785 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
786 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
787 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
788 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
789 </p></body>
790 </section>
792 <section>
793 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
794 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
795 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
796 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
797 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
798 new modules get added.</p></body>
799 </section>
801 <section>
802 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
803 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
804 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
805 </section>
807 <section>
808 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
809 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
810 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
811 </section>
813 <section>
814 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
815 <body><p>
816 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
817 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
818 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
819 </p></body>
820 </section>
823 <section>
824 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
825 </title>
826 <body>
827 <p>
828 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
830 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
832 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
833 you need to put this command in
834 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
835 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
836 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
837 target terminal, like this ;
839 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
841 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
842 you would like to disable console beeps for.
843 </p>
844 </body>
845 </section>
846 </chapter>
848 <chapter>
849 <title>Resources</title>
850 <section>
851 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
852 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
853 </section>
855 <section>
856 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
857 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
858 </section>
860 <section>
861 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
862 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
863 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
864 </p>
865 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
866 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
867 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
868 </body>
869 </section>
871 <section>
872 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
873 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
874 <body>
875 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
876 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
877 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
878 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
879 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
881 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
882 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
883 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
884 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
885 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
886 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
888 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
889 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
890 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
891 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
892 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
893 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
894 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
895 reasons, many of these covered
896 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
898 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
899 administrators have seen them.) </p>
900 </body>
901 </section>
903 <section>
904 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
905 <body>
906 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
907 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
908 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
909 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
910 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
911 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
912 </p>
913 </body>
914 </section>
915 </chapter>
916 </guide>

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