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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.74 2004/11/09 08:11:00 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <license/>
42
43 <version>2.10</version>
44 <date>November 17, 2004</date>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Featured Questions</title>
48 <section>
49 <title>Getting Started</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60 </ul>
61
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 <section>
65 <title>Installation</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <ul>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102 </ul>
103
104 </body>
105 </section>
106 <section>
107 <title>Package Management</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <ul>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
113 </li>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
116 Can I?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
123 firewall?</uri>
124 </li>
125 <li>
126 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
127 system?</uri>
128 </li>
129 <li>
130 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
131 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
135 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
136 delete there files?</uri>
137 </li>
138 <li>
139 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
140 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
141 </li>
142 </ul>
143
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>Usage</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <ul>
151 <li>
152 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
153 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
160 Layout?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
173 out?</uri>
174 </li>
175 </ul>
176
177 </body>
178 </section>
179 <section>
180 <title>Maintenance</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <ul>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
186 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
187 </li>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
190 </li>
191 </ul>
192
193 </body>
194 </section>
195 <section>
196 <title>Development</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <ul>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
205 </li>
206 <li>
207 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
208 FAQ?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
212 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
213 </li>
214 </ul>
215
216 </body>
217 </section>
218 <section>
219 <title>Resources</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <ul>
223 <li>
224 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
225 Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
229 </li>
230 <li>
231 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
232 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
233 entire list?</uri>
234 </li>
235 <li>
236 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
237 do now?</uri>
238 </li>
239 </ul>
240
241 </body>
242 </section>
243 </chapter>
244
245 <chapter>
246 <title>Getting Started</title>
247
248 <section id="pronunciation">
249 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
250 <body>
251
252 <p>
253 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
254 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
255 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
256 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
257 </p>
258
259 </body>
260 </section>
261 <section id="differences">
262 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
263 <body>
264
265 <p>
266 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
267 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
268 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
269 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
270 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
271 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
272 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
273 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
274 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
275 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
276 </p>
277
278 <p>
279 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
280 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
281 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
282 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
283 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
288 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
289 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
290 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
291 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
292 </p>
293
294 </body>
295 </section>
296 </chapter>
297
298 <chapter>
299 <title>Installation</title>
300 <section id="optimizations">
301 <title>
302 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
303 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
304 </title>
305 <body>
306
307 <p>
308 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
309 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
310 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
311 do the same thing anymore.
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
316 bug.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </section>
321 <section id="password">
322 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
323 <body>
324
325 <p>
326 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
327 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
328 completed the install.
329 </p>
330
331 </body>
332 </section>
333 <section id="useradd">
334 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
339 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Using useradd">
347 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
352 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
353 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
358 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
359 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
360 </p>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section id="su">
365 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
370 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
371 the following command as root:
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
375 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 <section id="devfs">
381 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
386 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
387 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
388 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
389 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
390 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
391 </p>
392
393 </body>
394 </section>
395 <section id="upgrade">
396 <title>
397 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
398 </title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
403 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
404 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
405 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
406 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
407 </p>
408
409 <p>
410 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
411 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
412 </p>
413
414 </body>
415 </section>
416 <section id="bootrescue">
417 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
418 <body>
419
420 <p>
421 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
422 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
423 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
424 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
428 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
429 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
430 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
431 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
432 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
433 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
434 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
435 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
436 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
437 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
438 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
439 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
440 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
441 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
442 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
443 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
444 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
445 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
446 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
447 # <i>exit</i>
448 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
449 # <i>reboot</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 <p>
453 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
454 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
455 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
456 </p>
457
458 </body>
459 </section>
460 <section id="proxy">
461 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
462 <body>
463
464 <p>
465 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
466 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
470 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
475 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
479 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
480 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
485 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
486 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
487 handle this situation.
488 </p>
489
490 </body>
491 </section>
492 <section id="isoburning">
493 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
494 <body>
495
496 <p>
497 You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
498 should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
499 entire CD.
500 </p>
501
502 <p>
503 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
504 Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
505 </p>
506
507 <ul>
508 <li>
509 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
510 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
511 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
512 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
513 </li>
514 <li>
515 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
516 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
517 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
518 your brand new CD being burnt.
519 </li>
520 <li>
521 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
522 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
523 by the path to the ISO file :)
524 </li>
525 <li>
526 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
527 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
528 <c>Start</c>.
529 </li>
530 <li>
531 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
532 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
533 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
534 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
535 </li>
536 <li>
537 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
538 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
539 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
540 </li>
541 </ul>
542
543
544 </body>
545 </section>
546 </chapter>
547
548 <chapter>
549 <title>Package Management</title>
550 <section id="ebuilds">
551 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
552 <body>
553
554 <p>
555 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
556 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
557 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
558 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
559 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
560 Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
561 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
562 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
563 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
564 file).
565 </p>
566
567 </body>
568 </section>
569 <section id="configure">
570 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
571 <body>
572
573 <p>
574 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
575 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
576 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
577 </p>
578
579 <p>
580 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
581 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
582 </p>
583
584 <p>
585 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
586 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
587 perform to configure and compile the package.
588 </p>
589
590 <p>
591 When finished, execute <c>touch
592 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
593 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
594 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
595 merge</c>.
596 </p>
597
598 </body>
599 </section>
600 <section id="norsync">
601 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
602 <body>
603
604 <p>
605 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
606 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
607 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
608 proxy is fully supported.
609 </p>
610
611 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
612 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
613 </pre>
614
615 </body>
616 </section>
617 <section id="firewall">
618 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
619 <body>
620
621 <p>
622 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
623 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
624 appropriately.
625 </p>
626
627 </body>
628 </section>
629 <section id="unison">
630 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
631 <body>
632
633 <p>
634 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
635 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
636 </p>
637
638 </body>
639 </section>
640 <section id="manualdownload">
641 <title>
642 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
643 else and add them to my system?
644 </title>
645 <body>
646
647 <p>
648 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
649 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
650 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
651 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
652 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
653 picking up the sources you just brought in!
654 </p>
655
656 </body>
657 </section>
658 <section id="distfiles">
659 <title>
660 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
661 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
662 files?
663 </title>
664 <body>
665
666 <p>
667 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
668 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
669 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
670 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
671 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
672 again.
673 </p>
674
675 </body>
676 </section>
677 <section id="tmpportage">
678 <title>
679 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
680 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
681 </title>
682 <body>
683
684 <p>
685 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
686 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
687 directory.
688 </p>
689
690 </body>
691 </section>
692 </chapter>
693
694 <chapter>
695 <title>Usage</title>
696 <section id="rootssh">
697 <title>
698 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
699 user account doesn't work.
700 </title>
701 <body>
702
703 <p>
704 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
705 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
706 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
707 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
708 </p>
709
710 <pre caption="Using usermod">
711 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
712 </pre>
713
714 </body>
715 </section>
716 <section id="rootX">
717 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
718 <body>
719
720 <p>
721 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
722 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
723 </p>
724
725 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
726 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
727 </pre>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 <section id="intkeyboard">
732 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
737 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
738 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
739 </p>
740
741 </body>
742 </section>
743 <section id="rootdns">
744 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
745 <body>
746
747 <p>
748 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
749 follows:
750 </p>
751
752 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
753 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
754 </pre>
755
756 </body>
757 </section>
758 <section id="crontab">
759 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
760 <body>
761
762 <p>
763 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
764 </p>
765
766 </body>
767 </section>
768 <section id="numlock">
769 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
770 <body>
771
772 <p>
773 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
774 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
775 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
776 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
777 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
778 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
779 </p>
780
781 <p>
782 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
783 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
784 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
785 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
786 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
787 </p>
788
789 <p>
790 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
791 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
792 reboot.
793 </p>
794
795 </body>
796 </section>
797 <section id="clear">
798 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
799 <body>
800
801 <p>
802 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
803 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
804 </p>
805
806 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
807 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
808 </pre>
809
810 <p>
811 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
812 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
813 </p>
814
815 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
816 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
817 </body>
818
819 </section>
820 </chapter>
821
822 <chapter>
823 <title>Maintenance</title>
824 <section id="filecorruption">
825 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
826 <body>
827
828 <p>
829 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
830 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
831 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
832 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
833 to the corruption.
834 </p>
835
836 </body>
837 </section>
838 <section id="metalogd">
839 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
840 <body>
841
842 <p>
843 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
844 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
845 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
846 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
847 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
848 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
849 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
850 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
851 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
852 </p>
853
854 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
855 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
856 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
857 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
858 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
859 </pre>
860
861 </body>
862 </section>
863 </chapter>
864
865 <chapter>
866 <title>Development</title>
867 <section id="reportbugs">
868 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
869 <body>
870
871 <p>
872 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
873 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
874 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
875 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
876 </p>
877
878 </body>
879 </section>
880 <section id="releases">
881 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
882 <body>
883
884 <p>
885 New releases are announced on the <uri
886 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
887 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
888 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
889 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
890 </p>
891
892 </body>
893 </section>
894 <section id="addfaq">
895 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
896 <body>
897
898 <p>
899 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
900 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
901 </p>
902
903 </body>
904 </section>
905 <section id="beeping">
906 <title>
907 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
908 beeps?
909 </title>
910 <body>
911
912 <p>
913 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
914 </p>
915
916 <pre caption="Using setterm">
917 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
918 </pre>
919
920 <p>
921 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
922 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
923 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
924 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
925 target terminal, like this:
926 </p>
927
928 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
929 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
930 </pre>
931
932 <p>
933 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
934 console beeps for.
935 </p>
936
937 </body>
938 </section>
939 </chapter>
940
941 <chapter>
942 <title>Resources</title>
943 <section id="resources">
944 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
945 <body>
946
947 <p>
948 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
949 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
950 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
951 </p>
952
953 </body>
954 </section>
955 <section id="buycd">
956 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
957 <body>
958
959 <p>
960 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
961 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
962 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
963 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
964 </p>
965
966 <p>
967 You can also find fresh CDs from
968 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
969 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
970 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
971 </p>
972
973 </body>
974 </section>
975 <section id="mailinglist">
976 <title>
977 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
978 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
979 </title>
980 <body>
981
982 <p>
983 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
984 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
985 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
986 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
987 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
988 </p>
989
990 <p>
991 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
992 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
993 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
994 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
995 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
996 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
997 </p>
998
999 <p>
1000 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1001 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1002 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1003 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1004 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1005 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1006 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1007 reasons, many of these covered
1008 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1009 </p>
1010
1011 <p>
1012 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1013 administrators have seen them).
1014 </p>
1015
1016 </body>
1017 </section>
1018 <section id="help">
1019 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1020 <body>
1021
1022 <p>
1023 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1024 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1025 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1026 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1027 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1028 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1029 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1030 </p>
1031
1032 </body>
1033 </section>
1034 </chapter>
1035
1036 </guide>

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