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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.75 2004/11/18 01:12:58 bennyc Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <license/>
42
43 <version>2.11</version>
44 <date>2004-11-28</date>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Featured Questions</title>
48 <section>
49 <title>Getting Started</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60 </ul>
61
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 <section>
65 <title>Installation</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <ul>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102 </ul>
103
104 </body>
105 </section>
106 <section>
107 <title>Package Management</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <ul>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
113 </li>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
116 Can I?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
123 firewall?</uri>
124 </li>
125 <li>
126 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
127 system?</uri>
128 </li>
129 <li>
130 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
131 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
135 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
136 delete there files?</uri>
137 </li>
138 <li>
139 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
140 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
141 </li>
142 </ul>
143
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>Usage</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <ul>
151 <li>
152 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
153 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
160 Layout?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
173 out?</uri>
174 </li>
175 <li>
176 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
177 su'ing</uri>
178 </li>
179 </ul>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section>
184 <title>Maintenance</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <ul>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
190 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
191 </li>
192 <li>
193 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
194 </li>
195 </ul>
196
197 </body>
198 </section>
199 <section>
200 <title>Development</title>
201 <body>
202
203 <ul>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
212 FAQ?</uri>
213 </li>
214 <li>
215 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
216 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
217 </li>
218 </ul>
219
220 </body>
221 </section>
222 <section>
223 <title>Resources</title>
224 <body>
225
226 <ul>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
229 Linux?</uri>
230 </li>
231 <li>
232 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
233 </li>
234 <li>
235 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
236 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
237 entire list?</uri>
238 </li>
239 <li>
240 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
241 do now?</uri>
242 </li>
243 </ul>
244
245 </body>
246 </section>
247 </chapter>
248
249 <chapter>
250 <title>Getting Started</title>
251
252 <section id="pronunciation">
253 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
258 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
259 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
260 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
261 </p>
262
263 </body>
264 </section>
265 <section id="differences">
266 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
271 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
272 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
273 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
274 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
275 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
276 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
277 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
278 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
279 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
280 </p>
281
282 <p>
283 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
284 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
285 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
286 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
287 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
292 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
293 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
294 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
295 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
296 </p>
297
298 </body>
299 </section>
300 </chapter>
301
302 <chapter>
303 <title>Installation</title>
304 <section id="optimizations">
305 <title>
306 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
307 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
308 </title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
313 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
314 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
315 do the same thing anymore.
316 </p>
317
318 <p>
319 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
320 bug.
321 </p>
322
323 </body>
324 </section>
325 <section id="password">
326 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
327 <body>
328
329 <p>
330 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
331 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
332 completed the install.
333 </p>
334
335 </body>
336 </section>
337 <section id="useradd">
338 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
343 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
344 </p>
345
346 <p>
347 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Using useradd">
351 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
352 </pre>
353
354 <p>
355 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
356 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
357 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
358 </p>
359
360 <p>
361 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
362 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
363 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
364 </p>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section id="su">
369 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
374 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
375 the following command as root:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
379 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 <section id="devfs">
385 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
390 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
391 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
392 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
393 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
394 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
395 </p>
396
397 </body>
398 </section>
399 <section id="upgrade">
400 <title>
401 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
402 </title>
403 <body>
404
405 <p>
406 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
407 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
408 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
409 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
410 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
411 </p>
412
413 <p>
414 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
415 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
416 </p>
417
418 </body>
419 </section>
420 <section id="bootrescue">
421 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
426 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
427 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
428 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
432 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
433 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
434 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
435 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
436 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
437 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
438 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
439 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
440 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
441 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
442 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
443 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
444 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
445 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
446 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
447 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
448 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
449 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
450 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
451 # <i>exit</i>
452 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
453 # <i>reboot</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
458 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
459 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
460 </p>
461
462 </body>
463 </section>
464 <section id="proxy">
465 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
470 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
474 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
475 </pre>
476
477 <p>
478 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
479 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
483 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
484 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
485 </pre>
486
487 <p>
488 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
489 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
490 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
491 handle this situation.
492 </p>
493
494 </body>
495 </section>
496 <section id="isoburning">
497 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
498 <body>
499
500 <p>
501 You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
502 should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
503 entire CD.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
508 Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
509 </p>
510
511 <ul>
512 <li>
513 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
514 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
515 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
516 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
517 </li>
518 <li>
519 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
520 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
521 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
522 your brand new CD being burnt.
523 </li>
524 <li>
525 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
526 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
527 by the path to the ISO file :)
528 </li>
529 <li>
530 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
531 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
532 <c>Start</c>.
533 </li>
534 <li>
535 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
536 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
537 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
539 </li>
540 <li>
541 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
542 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
543 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
544 </li>
545 </ul>
546
547
548 </body>
549 </section>
550 </chapter>
551
552 <chapter>
553 <title>Package Management</title>
554 <section id="ebuilds">
555 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
556 <body>
557
558 <p>
559 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
560 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
561 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
562 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
563 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
564 Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
565 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
566 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
567 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
568 file).
569 </p>
570
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 <section id="configure">
574 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
575 <body>
576
577 <p>
578 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
579 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
580 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
581 </p>
582
583 <p>
584 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
585 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
586 </p>
587
588 <p>
589 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
590 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
591 perform to configure and compile the package.
592 </p>
593
594 <p>
595 When finished, execute <c>touch
596 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
597 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
598 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
599 merge</c>.
600 </p>
601
602 </body>
603 </section>
604 <section id="norsync">
605 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
606 <body>
607
608 <p>
609 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
610 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
611 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
612 proxy is fully supported.
613 </p>
614
615 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
616 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
617 </pre>
618
619 </body>
620 </section>
621 <section id="firewall">
622 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
623 <body>
624
625 <p>
626 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
627 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
628 appropriately.
629 </p>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section id="unison">
634 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
639 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
640 </p>
641
642 </body>
643 </section>
644 <section id="manualdownload">
645 <title>
646 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
647 else and add them to my system?
648 </title>
649 <body>
650
651 <p>
652 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
653 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
654 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
655 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
656 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
657 picking up the sources you just brought in!
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 <section id="distfiles">
663 <title>
664 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
665 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
666 files?
667 </title>
668 <body>
669
670 <p>
671 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
672 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
673 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
674 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
675 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
676 again.
677 </p>
678
679 </body>
680 </section>
681 <section id="tmpportage">
682 <title>
683 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
684 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
685 </title>
686 <body>
687
688 <p>
689 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
690 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
691 directory.
692 </p>
693
694 </body>
695 </section>
696 </chapter>
697
698 <chapter>
699 <title>Usage</title>
700 <section id="rootssh">
701 <title>
702 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
703 user account doesn't work.
704 </title>
705 <body>
706
707 <p>
708 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
709 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
710 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
711 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
712 </p>
713
714 <pre caption="Using usermod">
715 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
716 </pre>
717
718 </body>
719 </section>
720 <section id="rootX">
721 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
722 <body>
723
724 <p>
725 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
726 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
727 </p>
728
729 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
730 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
731 </pre>
732
733 </body>
734 </section>
735 <section id="intkeyboard">
736 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
737 <body>
738
739 <p>
740 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
741 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
742 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
743 </p>
744
745 </body>
746 </section>
747 <section id="rootdns">
748 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
749 <body>
750
751 <p>
752 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
753 follows:
754 </p>
755
756 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
757 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
758 </pre>
759
760 </body>
761 </section>
762 <section id="crontab">
763 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
764 <body>
765
766 <p>
767 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
768 </p>
769
770 </body>
771 </section>
772 <section id="numlock">
773 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
774 <body>
775
776 <p>
777 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
778 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
779 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
780 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
781 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
782 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
783 </p>
784
785 <p>
786 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
787 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
788 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
789 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
790 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
791 </p>
792
793 <p>
794 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
795 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
796 reboot.
797 </p>
798
799 </body>
800 </section>
801 <section id="clear">
802 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
803 <body>
804
805 <p>
806 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
807 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
808 </p>
809
810 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
811 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
812 </pre>
813
814 <p>
815 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
816 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
817 </p>
818
819 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
820 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
821 </body>
822
823 </section>
824 <section id="suinx">
825 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
826 <body>
827
828 <p>
829 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
830 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
831 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
832 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
833 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
834 </p>
835
836 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
837 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
838 </pre>
839
840 </body>
841 </section>
842
843 </chapter>
844
845 <chapter>
846 <title>Maintenance</title>
847 <section id="filecorruption">
848 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
849 <body>
850
851 <p>
852 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
853 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
854 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
855 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
856 to the corruption.
857 </p>
858
859 </body>
860 </section>
861 <section id="metalogd">
862 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
863 <body>
864
865 <p>
866 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
867 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
868 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
869 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
870 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
871 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
872 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
873 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
874 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
875 </p>
876
877 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
878 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
879 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
880 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
881 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
882 </pre>
883
884 </body>
885 </section>
886 </chapter>
887
888 <chapter>
889 <title>Development</title>
890 <section id="reportbugs">
891 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
892 <body>
893
894 <p>
895 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
896 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
897 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
898 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
899 </p>
900
901 </body>
902 </section>
903 <section id="releases">
904 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
905 <body>
906
907 <p>
908 New releases are announced on the <uri
909 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
910 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
911 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
912 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
913 </p>
914
915 </body>
916 </section>
917 <section id="addfaq">
918 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
919 <body>
920
921 <p>
922 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
923 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
924 </p>
925
926 </body>
927 </section>
928 <section id="beeping">
929 <title>
930 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
931 beeps?
932 </title>
933 <body>
934
935 <p>
936 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
937 </p>
938
939 <pre caption="Using setterm">
940 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
941 </pre>
942
943 <p>
944 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
945 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
946 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
947 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
948 target terminal, like this:
949 </p>
950
951 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
952 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
953 </pre>
954
955 <p>
956 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
957 console beeps for.
958 </p>
959
960 </body>
961 </section>
962 </chapter>
963
964 <chapter>
965 <title>Resources</title>
966 <section id="resources">
967 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
968 <body>
969
970 <p>
971 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
972 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
973 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
974 </p>
975
976 </body>
977 </section>
978 <section id="buycd">
979 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
980 <body>
981
982 <p>
983 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
984 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
985 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
986 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
987 </p>
988
989 <p>
990 You can also find fresh CDs from
991 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
992 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
993 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
994 </p>
995
996 </body>
997 </section>
998 <section id="mailinglist">
999 <title>
1000 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1001 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1002 </title>
1003 <body>
1004
1005 <p>
1006 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1007 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1008 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1009 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1010 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1011 </p>
1012
1013 <p>
1014 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1015 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1016 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1017 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1018 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1019 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1020 </p>
1021
1022 <p>
1023 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1024 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1025 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1026 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1027 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1028 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1029 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1030 reasons, many of these covered
1031 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1032 </p>
1033
1034 <p>
1035 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1036 administrators have seen them).
1037 </p>
1038
1039 </body>
1040 </section>
1041 <section id="help">
1042 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1043 <body>
1044
1045 <p>
1046 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1047 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1048 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1049 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1050 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1051 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1052 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1053 </p>
1054
1055 </body>
1056 </section>
1057 </chapter>
1058
1059 </guide>

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