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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.7 2005/10/06 15:58:16 jkt Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6 <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Author">
15 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Author">
18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19 </author>
21 <abstract>
22 This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23 installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24 for people interested in helping out with development.
25 </abstract>
27 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29 <license/>
31 <version>1.6</version>
32 <date>2005-10-10</date>
34 <chapter>
35 <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36 <section>
37 <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38 <body>
40 <p>
41 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42 link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43 Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44 link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45 <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46 huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47 platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48 being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49 production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50 Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51 </p>
53 </body>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57 <body>
59 <p>
60 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61 with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62 is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63 GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 </p>
66 </body>
67 </section>
68 <section>
69 <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70 <body>
72 <p>
73 Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74 systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75 with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76 that are worth noting:
77 </p>
79 <ul>
80 <li>
81 Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82 complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83 much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 consistent.
85 </li>
86 <li>
87 Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88 but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89 link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90 Team</uri>.
91 </li>
92 </ul>
94 <p>
95 Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96 from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97 joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98 </p>
100 <ul>
101 <li>
102 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 linked against libc.
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112 e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114 possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 </li>
116 </ul>
118 </body>
119 </section>
120 </chapter>
122 <chapter>
123 <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124 <section>
125 <title>Installation instructions</title>
126 <body>
128 <p>
129 After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130 Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131 you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132 would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133 and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134 use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135 an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136 </p>
138 <p>
139 Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140 use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141 (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142 or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143 <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144 <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145 while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147 Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148 </p>
150 <p>
151 Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152 your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153 </p>
155 <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
157 <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158 # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
159 </pre>
161 <p>
162 Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163 a stage3 tarball.
164 </p>
166 <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
168 <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
169 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
170 # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
171 <comment>(A wrong make.conf was packaged with the current stage3 tarball. We'll now remove it.)</comment>
172 # <i>rm -f /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
173 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
174 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
175 </pre>
177 <p>
178 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an up-to-date
179 copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this is to to get our latest
180 snapshot which you than extract to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>
181 </p>
183 <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay">
184 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
185 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
186 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
187 # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
188 </pre>
190 <p>
191 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
192 the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
193 <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
194 documentation</uri>.
195 </p>
197 <p>
198 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
199 filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
200 point before proceeding with the chroot.
201 </p>
203 <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
204 # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
205 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
206 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
207 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
208 </pre>
210 <p>
211 After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
212 <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
213 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
214 </p>
216 <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
217 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
218 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
219 # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
220 <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
221 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
222 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
223 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
224 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
225 </pre>
227 <p>
228 Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
229 on your connection might take quite a while.
230 </p>
232 <pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
233 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
234 <comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
235 # <i>cd /</i>
236 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
237 # <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
238 # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
239 </pre>
241 <p>
242 Congratulations, by the time you have reached this step you should have a
243 running Gentoo/FreeBSD system! If you want, you can now rebuild the system's
244 core packages.
245 </p>
247 <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages">
248 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
249 </pre>
251 <impo>
252 Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
253 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
254 installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
255 <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD.
256 </impo>
258 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
259 # <i>emerge boot0</i>
260 <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
261 # <i>exit</i>
262 <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
263 # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
264 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
265 # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
266 </pre>
268 <p>
269 If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
270 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">
271 chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
272 </p>
274 <p>
275 When you did <c>emerge system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
276 installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. Configuring and compiling a custom
277 kernel is really different from compiling Linux, so if you are not familiar with
278 the process we encourage you to have a look at <uri
279 link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
280 chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
281 </p>
283 <p>
284 Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
285 supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
286 ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
287 found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
288 and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
289 </p>
291 </body>
292 </section>
293 </chapter>
295 <chapter>
296 <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
297 <section>
298 <title>How to help</title>
299 <body>
301 <p>
302 There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
303 spare time:
304 </p>
306 <ul>
307 <li>
308 We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
309 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
310 </li>
311 <li>
312 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild maintainers
313 in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can be accepted
314 into the main tree.
315 </li>
316 <li>
317 Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
318 advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
319 use help in this area.
320 </li>
321 <li>
322 Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
323 maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
324 and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
325 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
326 </li>
327 <li>
328 Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
329 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
330 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
331 from you.
332 </li>
333 <li>
334 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
335 creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
336 </li>
337 </ul>
339 </body>
340 </section>
341 <section>
342 <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
343 <body>
345 <p>
346 Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
347 important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
348 development effort:
349 </p>
351 <ul>
352 <li>
353 FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
354 Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
355 configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
356 included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
357 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
358 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
359 this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
360 file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
361 not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
362 stopped).
363 </li>
364 <li>
365 Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
366 won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
367 The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
368 for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
369 problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
370 generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
371 or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
372 is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
373 following procedures helps:
374 <ul>
375 <li>
376 If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
377 <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
378 </li>
379 <li>
380 If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
381 system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
382 <c>$WORKDIR</c>
383 </li>
384 </ul>
385 </li>
386 <li>
387 In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
388 are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
389 found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
390 usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
391 <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
392 <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
393 </li>
394 </ul>
396 </body>
397 </section>
398 <section>
399 <title>Known issues</title>
400 <body>
402 <p>
403 At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
404 really worth noting:
405 </p>
407 <ul>
408 <li>
409 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
410 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
411 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
412 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
413 </li>
414 <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
415 </ul>
417 </body>
418 </section>
419 </chapter>
421 <chapter>
422 <title>Contact</title>
423 <section>
424 <body>
426 <p>
427 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
428 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
429 Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
430 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
431 list</uri>.
432 </p>
434 </body>
435 </section>
436 </chapter>
437 </guide>

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