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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.8 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.7 2004/06/24 12:39:58 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11     <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
18     </author>
19 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
21     </author>
22 swift 1.1
23     <abstract>
24 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
25 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
26     </abstract>
27    
28 swift 1.6 <license/>
29    
30 bennyc 1.9 <version>0.5</version>
31     <date>July 3, 2004</date>
32 swift 1.1
33     <chapter>
34     <title>Introduction</title>
35     <section>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
40     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
41     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
42     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
43     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
44     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
45     sources we make available to you.
46     </p>
47    
48     </body>
49     </section>
50     </chapter>
51    
52     <chapter>
53     <title>The Choices, Part I</title>
54     <section>
55 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
56     <body>
57    
58     <p>
59     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
60     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
61     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
62     </p>
63    
64     </body>
65     </section>
66     <section>
67 swift 1.1 <title>gentoo-sources</title>
68     <body>
69    
70     <p>
71     For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
72     <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains
73     specially tuned performance kernel patches designed to optimize tasks
74     such as compiling while listening to music and browsing the web. Most
75     of you who are new to Gentoo have probably never run a system where you
76     are regularly compiling many packages from source while you are doing your
77     normal everyday tasks on your computer.
78     You may find that if you use the <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the official
79     kernel sources released from <uri>http://www.kernel.org</uri>) normal tasks --
80     such as listening to music, moving your mouse and the like -- may appear
81     jumpy when you are compiling packages.
82     </p>
83    
84     <p>
85     The <c>gentoo-sources</c> contain an updated ACPI subsystem and are based
86     on Con Kolivas' high-performance kernel patches (<c>ck-sources</c>). We also
87     support grSecurity (a set of security-related patches with support for
88     ACLs), EVMS(2) (a highly flexible storage management filesystem with easy
89     partition resizing), JFS (IBM's high-performance filesystem), the latest
90     NTFS drivers, and more.
91     </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     Because the <c>gentoo-sources</c> are targeted at full performance, they are
95     also very good for gaming purposes.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
106     as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. As I mentioned briefly
107 swift 1.5 above, these are the official 2.4 kernel sources released on
108 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. These sources are maintained (contrary
109     to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
110     Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
111 swift 1.5 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch
112 swift 1.1 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
113     Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
114     Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is
115     what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
116     been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
117     counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
118     support.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p>
122     <c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
123     since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
124     on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
125     then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
126     </p>
127    
128     </body>
129     </section>
130     <section>
131 bennyc 1.9 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
132     <body>
133    
134     <p>
135     The <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c> ebuild includes the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
136     with Gentoo's optimized performance patches.
137     </p>
138    
139     </body>
140     </section>
141     <section>
142 swift 1.5 <title>development-sources</title>
143     <body>
144    
145     <p>
146 bennyc 1.9 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
147     opposed to what the name might suggest this kernel source is completely stable
148     and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
149     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
150 swift 1.5 </p>
151    
152     </body>
153     </section>
154     <section>
155 swift 1.1 <title>gs-sources</title>
156     <body>
157    
158     <p>
159     For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
160     priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
161     <c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
162     This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
163     latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
164     up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
165     aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
166     but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
167     vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
168     compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
169     </p>
170    
171     <p>
172     This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
173     (required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
174     and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
175     amongst other patches.
176     </p>
177    
178     <p>
179     In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
180     High-Availability systems.
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
185     </p>
186    
187     <table>
188     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
189     <tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
190     </table>
191    
192     </body>
193     </section>
194     <section>
195     <title>hardened-sources</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199     <c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of
200 swift 1.5 Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together
201     with stability/security-enhancements. Check
202 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
207     </p>
208    
209     <table>
210     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
211     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
212     </table>
213    
214     </body>
215     </section>
216     <section>
217 bennyc 1.9 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
218     <body>
219    
220     <p>
221     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> use the 2.6 kernel with the patches provided by the
222     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened.
223     </p>
224    
225     </body>
226     </section>
227     <section>
228 swift 1.1 <title>xfs-sources</title>
229     <body>
230    
231     <p>
232     <c>xfs-sources</c> contains support for EVMS, ACPI, grSecurity and, what
233     you probably already figured out by now, the latest XFS support patches
234 dertobi123 1.7 from the XFS Development. Please note that XFS support has been merged
235     into the regular 2.4 kernel tree.
236 swift 1.1 </p>
237    
238     <p>
239     More information about XFS on <uri>http://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/</uri>.
240     </p>
241    
242     </body>
243     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
246     <body>
247    
248     <p>
249 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
250     <c>ia64-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c>,
251     <c>pegasos-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
252     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
253 swift 1.5 specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
254 bennyc 1.9 features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. Kernel
255     sources that contains a "-dev-" means that the sources use the 2.6 kernel
256     instead of the 2.4 kernel.
257 swift 1.1 </p>
258    
259     </body>
260     </section>
261     <section>
262     <title>ppc-sources-benh</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266     The <c>ppc-sources-benh</c> ebuilds provide additional hardware
267     support for the <c>ppc-sources</c> kernel. It is slightly more
268     experimental than the <c>ppc-sources</c>.
269     </p>
270    
271     </body>
272     </section>
273     <section>
274     <title>ppc-sources-crypto</title>
275     <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     The <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> ebuilds provide CryptoAPI
279 swift 1.8 support for the Gentoo Linux PPC Kernel.
280 swift 1.1 </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </section>
284     <section>
285 bennyc 1.9 <title>ppc-dev-sources</title>
286 swift 1.1 <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 bennyc 1.9 The <c>ppc-dev-sources</c> packages provide the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
290     sources with Gentoo PPC's optimized patch for Macintosh machines.
291 swift 1.1 </p>
292    
293     </body>
294     </section>
295     <section>
296     <title>compaq-sources</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300     The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
301     maintained by Compaq.
302     </p>
303    
304     </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307    
308     <chapter>
309     <title>The Choices, Part II</title>
310     <section>
311     <body>
312    
313     <p>
314     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
315     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
316     <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order.
317     </p>
318    
319     </body>
320     </section>
321     <section>
322     <title>aa-sources</title>
323     <body>
324    
325     <p>
326     First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
327     Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
328     kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
329     Memory) patches known to mankind. When I last looked, it also contained
330 swift 1.5 SGI's XFS filesystem and the O(1) scheduler by Ingo Molar (which is
331     the default scheduler for Linux 2.6).
332 swift 1.1 </p>
333    
334     <p>
335     It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
336     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
337     the latest TUX Webserver (an in-kernel webserver).
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     If you have Memory Management troubles with other kernels,
342     <c>aa-sources</c> can be your solution. If you want to optimize Linux's
343     Memory Management for your system, <c>aa-sources</c> is <e>definitely</e>
344     what you need.
345     </p>
346    
347     <p>
348     Visit
349     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.4</uri>
350     for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
351     </p>
352    
353     </body>
354     </section>
355     <section>
356     <title>ck-sources</title>
357     <body>
358    
359     <p>
360     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
361     <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
362     throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
363     applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
364     combination of features for desktop use. See
365     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
366     patches.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371     <section>
372 swift 1.5 <title>gaming-sources</title>
373 swift 1.1 <body>
374    
375     <p>
376 swift 1.5 <c>gaming-sources</c> are based on <c>ck-sources</c> and are therefore
377     tuned for high performance. They also contain patches for the latest
378     game-related hardware (graphic cards, sound cards, and such).
379 swift 1.1 </p>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.5 If you are a hardcore gamer, this is your choice.
383 swift 1.1 </p>
384    
385     </body>
386     </section>
387     <section>
388 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
389 swift 1.1 <body>
390    
391     <p>
392 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
393     updates (GRSecurity version 1.9 and up) which includes, amongst other
394     security-related patches, support for PaX.
395 swift 1.1 </p>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399     <section>
400     <title>mm-sources</title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and
405     contain Andrew Morton's patch set. It assembles several other patches,
406     like ext2/3 Extended Attributes and Access Control Lists, Page Table
407     Sharing, the Orlov Allocator, non-linear mapping behaviour, etc into one
408     patch set.
409     </p>
410    
411     <p>
412     If you really want to live on the edge and you think
413     <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
414     <c>mm-sources</c>.
415     </p>
416    
417     </body>
418     </section>
419     <section>
420     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
425     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
426     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
427     </p>
428    
429     </body>
430     </section>
431     <section>
432 swift 1.5 <title>pac-sources</title>
433 swift 1.1 <body>
434    
435     <p>
436 swift 1.5 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
437     (bero) patches.
438 swift 1.1 </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442     <section>
443 swift 1.5 <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
444 swift 1.1 <body>
445    
446     <p>
447 swift 1.5 This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
448     Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
449     </p>
450    
451     <p>
452     More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
453 swift 1.1 </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457     <section>
458     <title>selinux-sources</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
463     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
464     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
465     </p>
466    
467     </body>
468     </section>
469     <section>
470     <title>usermode-sources</title>
471     <body>
472    
473     <p>
474     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
475     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
476     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
477     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
478     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
479     </p>
480    
481     <p>
482     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
483     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
484     </p>
485    
486     </body>
487     </section>
488     <section>
489     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
490     <body>
491    
492     <p>
493     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
494     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
495     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
496     information.
497     </p>
498    
499     </body>
500     </section>
501     <section>
502     <title>wolk-sources</title>
503     <body>
504    
505     <p>
506     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
507     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
508     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
509     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
510     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
511     combination of the patches.
512     </p>
513    
514     <p>
515     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
516     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
517     </p>
518    
519     </body>
520     </section>
521     </chapter>
522     </guide>

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