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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.24 2005/03/28 11:44:23 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/01/31 01:15:42 flammie Exp $ -->
3 3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author> 24</author>
25<author title="Editor"> 25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail> 26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30</author>
28 31
29<abstract> 32<abstract>
30This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 33This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
31provides through Portage. 34provides through Portage.
32</abstract> 35</abstract>
33 36
37<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
34<license/> 39<license/>
35 40
36<version>1.1</version> 41<version>1.13</version>
37<date>2005-03-28</date> 42<date>2006-01-30</date>
38 43
39<chapter> 44<chapter>
40<title>Introduction</title> 45<title>Introduction</title>
41<section> 46<section>
42<body> 47<body>
73</p> 78</p>
74 79
75</body> 80</body>
76</section> 81</section>
77<section> 82<section>
78<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources and gentoo-dev-sources</title> 83<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
79<body> 84<body>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Two different 87For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the
83kernel branches exist under this package name: gentoo-sources-2.4 and 882005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
84gentoo-sources-2.6. On most architectures, 2.6 is the default, and we 89specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
85recommend that you choose this branch. 90on <e>most</e> architectures.
86</p>
87
88<p> 91</p>
92
93<p>
89<c>gentoo-sources-2.6</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel 94<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel
90patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase 95patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase
91compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is 96compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is
92the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing 97the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
93rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large 98rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
94new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart. 99new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
95</p> 100</p>
96 101
97<p> 102<p>
98Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with 103Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
99Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel; 104Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
100for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources-2.4</c>. The patches included in 105for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
101this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number 106patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
102of patches designed to add functionality and improve performance. Linux 2.4 is 107counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
103currently not being developed further - only bug and security fixes are being 108improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
104included in the newer releases. If you are able to, we suggest that you upgrade 109bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
105to Linux 2.6. You may find the 110able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
106<uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration 111<uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
107document</uri> useful.
108</p> 112</p>
109 113
110<p> 114<p>
111The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo 115The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
112kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which 116kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
128not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run 132not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
129a completely unmodified Linux kernel. 133a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
130</p> 134</p>
131 135
132<p> 136<p>
133Similarly to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of Linux can be found under 137Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
134this package: 2.4 and 2.6. 138under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
135</p> 139</p>
136 140
137<p> 141<p>
138Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original 142Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
139creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to 143creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
152 156
153</body> 157</body>
154</section> 158</section>
155 159
156<section> 160<section>
157<title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title> 161<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
158<body> 162<body>
159 163
160<p>
161<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
162running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
163subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
164GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
165<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
166</p> 164<p>
167 165<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted
166at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the
167various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for
168<uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and
169<uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6
171and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for
172more information.
168<p> 173</p>
169<c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c> 174
170but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
171</p> 175<p>
172 176<c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177(<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
173<p> 180</p>
174The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
175</p>
176 181
177<table> 182<impo>
178<tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr> 183These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
179<tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr> 184<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them.
180</table> 185</impo>
181 186
182</body> 187</body>
183</section> 188</section>
184<section> 189<section>
185<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title> 190<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
186<body> 191<body>
187 192
188<p> 193<p>
189<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>, 194<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
190<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
191and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, 195<c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
192patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of 196patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
193the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets 197patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
194mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that 198above and below.
195the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
196</p> 199</p>
197 200
198</body> 201</body>
199</section> 202</section>
200</chapter> 203</chapter>
217<section> 220<section>
218<title>ck-sources</title> 221<title>ck-sources</title>
219<body> 222<body>
220 223
221<p> 224<p>
222<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is 225<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is
223<e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of 226primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is
224throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize 227configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is
225applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best 228also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development
226combination of features for desktop use. See 229and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support
227<uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his 230and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in
228patches. 231<c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
229</p> 232</p>
230 233
231</body> 234</body>
232</section>
233<section> 235</section>
236<section>
234<title>grsec-sources</title> 237<title>git-sources</title>
235<body> 238<body>
236 239
237<p> 240<p>
238The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity 241The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
239updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other 242development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
240security-related patches, support for PaX. 243kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
245Kernel Mailing List).
241</p> 246</p>
242 247
243</body> 248</body>
244</section> 249</section>
245<section> 250<section>
246<title>mm-sources</title> 251<title>mm-sources</title>
247<body> 252<body>
248 253
249<p> 254<p>
250The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain 255The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
251Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge 256Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
252features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are 257features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
253going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be 258going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
254always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the 259always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
255other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff. 260other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
256</p> 261</p>
257 262
258<p> 263<p>
259If you really want to live on the edge and you think 264If you really want to live on the edge and you think
260<c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out 265<c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
261<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and 266<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
262doesn't always work as expected. 267doesn't always work as expected.
263</p> 268</p>
264 269
265</body> 270</body>
268<title>openmosix-sources</title> 273<title>openmosix-sources</title>
269<body> 274<body>
270 275
271<p> 276<p>
272The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system 277The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
273(like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see 278(a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
274<uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>. 279information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
275</p> 280</p>
276 281
277</body> 282</body>
278</section>
279<section> 283</section>
284<section>
285<title>openvz-sources</title>
286<body>
287
288<p>
289OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
290isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
291single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
292applications do not conflict. For more information, see
293<uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
294</p>
295
296</body>
297</section>
298<section>
299<title>suspend2-sources</title>
300<body>
301
302<p>
303The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
304which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
306and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
307</p>
308
309<p>
310This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312</p>
313
314</body>
315</section>
316<section>
280<title>selinux-sources</title> 317<title>uclinux-sources</title>
281<body> 318<body>
282 319
283<p> 320<p>
284<c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are 321The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
285patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security 322devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
286Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
287</p> 323</p>
288 324
289</body> 325</body>
290</section> 326</section>
291<section> 327<section>
305<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>. 341<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
306</p> 342</p>
307 343
308</body> 344</body>
309</section> 345</section>
310<section>
311<title>win4lin-sources</title>
312<body>
313
314<p>
315<c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
316that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
317at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
318information.
319</p>
320
321</body>
322</section>
323<section>
324<title>wolk-sources</title>
325<body>
326
327<p>
328<c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
329<uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
330many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
331extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
332of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
333combination of the patches.
334</p>
335
336<p>
337If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
338kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
339</p>
340
341</body>
342</section>
343</chapter> 346</chapter>
344 347
345<chapter> 348<chapter>
346<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title> 349<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
347<section> 350<section>
390</p> 393</p>
391 394
392</body> 395</body>
393</section> 396</section>
394<section> 397<section>
398<title>grsec-sources</title>
399<body>
400
401<p>
402The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source used to be patched with the latest
403grsecurity updates (grsecurity version 2.0 and up) which included, amongst
404other security-related patches, support for PaX. As grsecurity patches are
405included in <c>hardened-sources</c>, this package is no longer in Portage.
406</p>
407
408</body>
409</section>
410<section>
411<title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415<c>hardened-dev-sources</c> can now be found under the <c>hardened-sources</c>
416package.
417</p>
418
419</body>
420</section>
421<section>
395<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title> 422<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
396<body> 423<body>
397 424
398<p> 425<p>
399The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the 426The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
406<title>selinux-sources</title> 433<title>selinux-sources</title>
407<body> 434<body>
408 435
409<p> 436<p>
410<c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements, 437<c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
411has been obseleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. 438has been obsoleted by security development in the 2.6 tree. SELinux
439functionality can be found in the <c>hardened-sources</c> package.
440</p>
441
442</body>
443</section>
444<section>
445<title>win4lin-sources</title>
446<body>
447
448<p>
449<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
412</p> 452</p>
413 453
414</body> 454</body>
415</section> 455</section>
416</chapter> 456</chapter>
417
418</guide> 457</guide>

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