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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/01/31 01:15:42 flammie Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.52 2008/02/03 18:30:34 swift Exp $ -->
3 3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 10<author title="Contributor">
25<author title="Editor"> 25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail> 26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27</author> 27</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail> 29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
30</author> 33</author>
31 34
32<abstract> 35<abstract>
33This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 36This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34provides through Portage. 37provides through Portage.
36 39
37<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 40<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 41<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39<license/> 42<license/>
40 43
41<version>1.13</version> 44<version>1.20</version>
42<date>2006-01-30</date> 45<date>2008-02-03</date>
43 46
44<chapter> 47<chapter>
45<title>Introduction</title> 48<title>Introduction</title>
46<section> 49<section>
47<body> 50<body>
54I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the 57I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel 58patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56sources we make available to you. 59sources we make available to you.
57</p> 60</p>
58 61
62<p>
63Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
64of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
65when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
66fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
67maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
68the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
69</p>
70
71<p>
72Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
73Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
74Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
75mature.
76</p>
77
78<p>
79Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
80Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
81please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
82and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
83we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
84link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
85</p>
86
59</body> 87</body>
60</section> 88</section>
61</chapter> 89</chapter>
62 90
63<chapter> 91<chapter>
89specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel 117specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90on <e>most</e> architectures. 118on <e>most</e> architectures.
91</p> 119</p>
92 120
93<p> 121<p>
94<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel 122<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
95patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase 123security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
96compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is 124uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is the current official stable kernel
97the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing 125tree, and development is progressing rapidly. For highest performance, best
98rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large 126hardware support, and its large new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older
99new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart. 1272.4 counterpart.
100</p>
101
102<p> 128</p>
103Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with 129
104Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel; 130<p>
105for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The 131The 2.4 <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel patches are similar to those included in
106patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and 132its 2.6 counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only 133improve performance.
109bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111<uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112</p> 134</p>
113 135
114<p> 136<p>
115The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo 137The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which 138kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
119official Linux kernel. 141official Linux kernel.
120</p> 142</p>
121 143
122</body> 144</body>
123</section> 145</section>
124<section>
125<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title>
126<body>
127
128<p>
129The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139</p>
140
141<p>
142Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148</p>
149
150<p>
151Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154mature.
155</p>
156
157</body>
158</section>
159
160<section> 146<section>
161<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title> 147<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162<body> 148<body>
163 149
164<p> 150<p>
189<section> 175<section>
190<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title> 176<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191<body> 177<body>
192 178
193<p> 179<p>
194<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c> 180<c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>,
195<c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, 181<c>sparc-sources</c>, and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the 182patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned 183patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198above and below. 184above and below.
199</p> 185</p>
200 186
211Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other 197Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran 198<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These 199<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not 200kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215supported by the Gentoo team. 201supported by the Gentoo team.
202</p>
203
204</body>
205</section>
206<section>
207<title>git-sources</title>
208<body>
209
210<p>
211The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
212development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
213kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
214link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
215Kernel Mailing List).
216</p>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>mm-sources</title>
222<body>
223
224<p>
225The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
226Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
227features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
228going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
229always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
230other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
231</p>
232
233<p>
234If you really want to live on the edge and you think
235<c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
236<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
237doesn't always work as expected.
238</p>
239
240</body>
241</section>
242<section>
243<title>openvz-sources</title>
244<body>
245
246<p>
247OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
248isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
249single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
250applications do not conflict. For more information, see
251<uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
252</p>
253
254</body>
255</section>
256<section>
257<title>tuxonice-sources</title>
258<body>
259
260<p>
261The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
262both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
263link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
264implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
265<e>suspend2</e>.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
270to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
271</p>
272
273</body>
274</section>
275<section>
276<title>usermode-sources</title>
277<body>
278
279<p>
280<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
281kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
282to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
283For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
284scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
285</p>
286
287<p>
288For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
289<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
290</p>
291
292</body>
293</section>
294<section>
295<title>vanilla-sources</title>
296<body>
297
298<p>
299The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
300users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
301released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
302these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
303unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
304instead.
305</p>
306
307<p>
308Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
309under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
310</p>
311
312</body>
313</section>
314</chapter>
315
316<chapter>
317<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
318<section>
319<title>aa-sources</title>
320<body>
321
322<p>
323<c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
324The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
325was removed as it went out of date.
326</p>
327
328</body>
329</section>
330<section>
331<title>alpha-sources</title>
332<body>
333
334<p>
335<c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
336compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
337and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
338with no need for extra patches.
216</p> 339</p>
217 340
218</body> 341</body>
219</section> 342</section>
220<section> 343<section>
232</p> 355</p>
233 356
234</body> 357</body>
235</section> 358</section>
236<section> 359<section>
237<title>git-sources</title>
238<body>
239
240<p>
241The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux
245Kernel Mailing List).
246</p>
247
248</body>
249</section>
250<section>
251<title>mm-sources</title>
252<body>
253
254<p>
255The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
256Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
257features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
258going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
259always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
260other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
261</p>
262
263<p>
264If you really want to live on the edge and you think
265<c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
266<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
267doesn't always work as expected.
268</p>
269
270</body>
271</section>
272<section>
273<title>openmosix-sources</title>
274<body>
275
276<p>
277The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
278(a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more
279information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
280</p>
281
282</body>
283</section>
284<section>
285<title>openvz-sources</title>
286<body>
287
288<p>
289OpenVZ is a server virtualization solution built on Linux. OpenVZ creates
290isolated, secure virtual private servers (VPSs) or virtual environments on a
291single physical server enabling better server utilization and ensuring that
292applications do not conflict. For more information, see
293<uri>http://www.openvz.org</uri>.
294</p>
295
296</body>
297</section>
298<section>
299<title>suspend2-sources</title>
300<body>
301
302<p>
303The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches
304which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new
306and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel.
307</p>
308
309<p>
310This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312</p>
313
314</body>
315</section>
316<section>
317<title>uclinux-sources</title>
318<body>
319
320<p>
321The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323</p>
324
325</body>
326</section>
327<section>
328<title>usermode-sources</title>
329<body>
330
331<p>
332<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337</p>
338
339<p>
340For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
342</p>
343
344</body>
345</section>
346</chapter>
347
348<chapter>
349<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
350<section>
351<title>aa-sources</title>
352<body>
353
354<p>
355<c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
356The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
357was removed as it went out of date.
358</p>
359
360</body>
361</section>
362<section>
363<title>alpha-sources</title>
364<body>
365
366<p>
367<c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
368compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
369and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
370with no need for extra patches.
371</p>
372
373</body>
374</section>
375<section>
376<title>development-sources</title> 360<title>development-sources</title>
377<body> 361<body>
378 362
379<p> 363<p>
380<c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now 364<c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
440</p> 424</p>
441 425
442</body> 426</body>
443</section> 427</section>
444<section> 428<section>
429<title>uclinux-sources</title>
430<body>
431
432<p>
433The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
434devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
435security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no longer
436in the tree.
437</p>
438
439</body>
440</section>
441<section>
445<title>win4lin-sources</title> 442<title>win4lin-sources</title>
446<body> 443<body>
447 444
448<p> 445<p>
449<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools 446<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools

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