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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/01/31 01:15:42 flammie Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.61 2010/09/06 05:03:31 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 11<author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail> 12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
25<author title="Editor"> 26<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail> 27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27</author> 28</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 29<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail> 30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31</author>
32<author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
30</author> 34</author>
31 35
32<abstract> 36<abstract>
33This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 37This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34provides through Portage. 38provides through Portage.
36 40
37<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 41<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 42<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39<license/> 43<license/>
40 44
41<version>1.13</version> 45<version>2</version>
42<date>2006-01-30</date> 46<date>2010-09-05</date>
43 47
44<chapter> 48<chapter>
45<title>Introduction</title> 49<title>Introduction</title>
46<section> 50<section>
47<body> 51<body>
48 52
49<p> 53<p>
50As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo 54As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as 55Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c> 56possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document, 57you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the 58I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel 59patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56sources we make available to you. 60sources we make available to you.
61</p>
62
63<p>
64Linux 2.4 is maintained by Willy Tarreau. Linus Torvalds, the original creator
65of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to Marcelo Tosatti
66when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree. Marcelo did a
67fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and has since handed over
68maintainership to Willy. Note that only security and bug fixes are accepted into
69the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
70</p>
71
72<p>
73Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
74Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
75Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
76mature.
77</p>
78
79<p>
80Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
81Linux 2.6, and some users prefer the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel. However,
82please note that Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only bug
83and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are able to,
84we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the <uri
85link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
57</p> 86</p>
58 87
59</body> 88</body>
60</section> 89</section>
61</chapter> 90</chapter>
82<section> 111<section>
83<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title> 112<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84<body> 113<body>
85 114
86<p> 115<p>
87For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the 116For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
882005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90on <e>most</e> architectures.
91</p>
92
93<p>
94<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel 117<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, lightly patched to fix
95patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase 118security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
96compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is 119uncommon system architectures.
97the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100</p>
101
102<p>
103Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111<uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112</p> 120</p>
113 121
114<p> 122<p>
115The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo 123The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which 124kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
120</p> 128</p>
121 129
122</body> 130</body>
123</section> 131</section>
124<section> 132<section>
125<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title> 133<title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
126<body>
127
128<p>
129The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139</p>
140
141<p>
142Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148</p>
149
150<p>
151Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154mature.
155</p>
156
157</body> 134<body>
158</section>
159 135
160<section>
161<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162<body>
163
164<p> 136<p>
165<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted 137<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
166at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the 138our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
167various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for 139subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
168<uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and 140link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
169<uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with 141link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6 142stability/security-enhancements. Check
171and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for 143<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
172more information.
173</p>
174
175<p>
176<c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177(<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180</p> 144</p>
181 145
182<impo> 146<impo>
183These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the 147This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them. 148<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
185</impo> 149</impo>
186 150
187</body> 151</body>
188</section> 152</section>
189<section> 153<section>
190<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title> 154<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191<body> 155<body>
192 156
193<p> 157<p>
194<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c> 158<c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
195<c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, 159<c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
196patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the 160architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
197patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned 161support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
198above and below.
199</p> 162</p>
200 163
201</body> 164</body>
202</section> 165</section>
203</chapter> 166</chapter>
206<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title> 169<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207<section> 170<section>
208<body> 171<body>
209 172
210<p> 173<p>
211Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other 174Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran 175<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These 176<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
214kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not 177kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215supported by the Gentoo team. 178supported by the Gentoo team.
216</p> 179</p>
217 180
218</body> 181</body>
220<section> 183<section>
221<title>ck-sources</title> 184<title>ck-sources</title>
222<body> 185<body>
223 186
224<p> 187<p>
225<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is 188<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
226primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is 189designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
227configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is 190for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
228also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development 191different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
229and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support 192when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
230and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in 193<uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
231<c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232</p> 194</p>
233 195
234</body> 196</body>
235</section> 197</section>
198
236<section> 199<section>
237<title>git-sources</title> 200<title>git-sources</title>
238<body> 201<body>
239 202
240<p> 203<p>
241The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream 204The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in 205development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri 206kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux 207link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
245Kernel Mailing List). 208(Linux Kernel Mailing List).
246</p> 209</p>
247 210
248</body> 211</body>
249</section> 212</section>
250<section> 213<section>
268</p> 231</p>
269 232
270</body> 233</body>
271</section> 234</section>
272<section> 235<section>
273<title>openmosix-sources</title> 236<title>pf-sources</title>
274<body> 237<body>
275 238
276<p> 239<p>
277The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system 240The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
278(a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more 241patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
279information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>. 242<c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
243the <uri
244link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
245<uri
246link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
280</p> 247</p>
281 248
282</body> 249</body>
283</section> 250</section>
284<section> 251<section>
294</p> 261</p>
295 262
296</body> 263</body>
297</section> 264</section>
298<section> 265<section>
299<title>suspend2-sources</title> 266<title>tuxonice-sources</title>
300<body> 267<body>
301 268
302<p> 269<p>
303The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches 270The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
304which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri 271both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new 272link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
306and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel. 273implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
274<e>suspend2</e>.
307</p> 275</p>
308 276
309<p> 277<p>
310This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able 278This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere. 279to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312</p> 280</p>
313 281
314</body> 282</body>
315</section> 283</section>
316<section> 284<section>
317<title>uclinux-sources</title>
318<body>
319
320<p>
321The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323</p>
324
325</body>
326</section>
327<section>
328<title>usermode-sources</title> 285<title>usermode-sources</title>
329<body> 286<body>
330 287
331<p> 288<p>
332<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This 289<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux 290kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support. 291to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and 292For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>. 293scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337</p>
338
339<p> 294</p>
295
296<p>
340For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the 297For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>. 298<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
299</p>
300
301</body>
302</section>
303<section>
304<title>vanilla-sources</title>
305<body>
306
307<p>
308The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
309users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
310released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
311these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
312unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
313instead.
314</p>
315
316<p>
317Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
318</p>
319
320</body>
321</section>
322<section>
323<title>zen-sources</title>
324<body>
325
326<p>
327<c>zen-sources</c> is designed for desktop systems. It includes code not found
328in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel has patches that add new features,
329support additional hardware, and contain various tweaks for desktops.
342</p> 330</p>
343 331
344</body> 332</body>
345</section> 333</section>
346</chapter> 334</chapter>
417</p> 405</p>
418 406
419</body> 407</body>
420</section> 408</section>
421<section> 409<section>
410<title>hppa-sources</title>
411<body>
412
413<p>
414<c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
415compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
416and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
417with no need for extra patches.
418</p>
419
420</body>
421</section>
422<section>
422<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title> 423<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
423<body> 424<body>
424 425
425<p> 426<p>
426The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the 427The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
427<c>rsbac-sources</c> package. 428<c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
429</p>
430
431</body>
432</section>
433<section>
434<title>rsbac-sources</title>
435<body>
436
437<p>
438<c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
439Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
440been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
441additional security features.
428</p> 442</p>
429 443
430</body> 444</body>
431</section> 445</section>
432<section> 446<section>
440</p> 454</p>
441 455
442</body> 456</body>
443</section> 457</section>
444<section> 458<section>
459<title>sh-sources</title>
460<body>
461
462<p>
463<c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
464compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
465and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
466with no need for extra patches.
467</p>
468
469</body>
470</section>
471<section>
472<title>uclinux-sources</title>
473<body>
474
475<p>
476The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
477devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
478security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
479longer in the tree.
480</p>
481
482</body>
483</section>
484<section>
445<title>win4lin-sources</title> 485<title>win4lin-sources</title>
446<body> 486<body>
447 487
448<p> 488<p>
449<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools 489<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications 490that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues. 491at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
452</p> 492</p>
453 493
454</body> 494</body>

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