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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/01/31 01:15:42 flammie Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.64 2012/05/27 07:36:05 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 11<author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail> 12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
25<author title="Editor"> 26<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail> 27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27</author> 28</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 29<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail> 30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31</author>
32<author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
30</author> 34</author>
31 35
32<abstract> 36<abstract>
33This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 37This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34provides through Portage. 38provides through Portage.
36 40
37<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 41<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 42<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39<license/> 43<license/>
40 44
41<version>1.13</version> 45<version>5</version>
42<date>2006-01-30</date> 46<date>2012-05-27</date>
43 47
44<chapter> 48<chapter>
45<title>Introduction</title> 49<title>Introduction</title>
46<section> 50<section>
47<body> 51<body>
48 52
49<p> 53<p>
50As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo 54As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as 55Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c> 56possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document, 57you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the 58I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel 59patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56sources we make available to you. 60sources we make available to you.
57</p> 61</p>
58 62
59</body> 63</body>
82<section> 86<section>
83<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title> 87<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84<body> 88<body>
85 89
86<p> 90<p>
87For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the 91For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
882005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90on <e>most</e> architectures.
91</p>
92
93<p>
94<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel 92<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 3.x, lightly patched to fix
95patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase 93security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
96compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is 94uncommon system architectures.
97the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100</p>
101
102<p>
103Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111<uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112</p> 95</p>
113 96
114<p> 97<p>
115The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo 98The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which 99kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
120</p> 103</p>
121 104
122</body> 105</body>
123</section> 106</section>
124<section> 107<section>
125<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title> 108<title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
126<body>
127
128<p>
129The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139</p>
140
141<p>
142Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148</p>
149
150<p>
151Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154mature.
155</p>
156
157</body> 109<body>
158</section>
159 110
160<section>
161<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162<body>
163
164<p> 111<p>
165<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted 112<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
166at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the 113our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
167various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for 114subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
168<uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and 115link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
169<uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with 116link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6 117stability/security-enhancements. Check
171and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for 118<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
172more information.
173</p>
174
175<p>
176<c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177(<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180</p> 119</p>
181 120
182<impo> 121<impo>
183These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the 122This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them. 123<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
185</impo> 124</impo>
186 125
187</body> 126</body>
188</section> 127</section>
189<section> 128<section>
190<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191<body>
192
193<p>
194<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
195<c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198above and below.
199</p>
200
201</body>
202</section>
203</chapter>
204
205<chapter>
206<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207<section>
208<body>
209
210<p>
211Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215supported by the Gentoo team.
216</p>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>ck-sources</title> 129<title>ck-sources</title>
222<body> 130<body>
223 131
224<p> 132<p>
225<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is 133<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
226primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is 134designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
227configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is 135for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
228also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development 136different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
229and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support 137when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
230and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in 138<uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
231<c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232</p> 139</p>
233 140
234</body> 141</body>
235</section> 142</section>
236<section> 143<section>
239 146
240<p> 147<p>
241The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream 148The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in 149development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri 150kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux 151link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
245Kernel Mailing List). 152(Linux Kernel Mailing List).
246</p> 153</p>
247 154
248</body> 155</body>
249</section>
250<section> 156</section>
251<title>mm-sources</title>
252<body>
253
254<p>
255The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
256Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
257features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
258going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
259always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
260other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
261</p>
262
263<p>
264If you really want to live on the edge and you think
265<c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
266<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
267doesn't always work as expected.
268</p>
269
270</body>
271</section> 157<section>
158<title>xen-sources</title>
159<body>
160
161<p>
162<c>xen-sources</c> lets you run multiple operating systems on a single physical
163system. You can create virtual environments in which one or more guest operating
164systems run on a <uri link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host
165operating system.
166</p>
167
168<p>
169For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
170link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
171</p>
172
173</body>
272<section> 174</section>
273<title>openmosix-sources</title> 175<section>
176<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
177<body>
178
179<p>
180<c>cell-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>, and
181<c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on specific
182architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and features
183support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below.
184</p>
185
274<body> 186</body>
187</section>
188</chapter>
275 189
190<chapter>
191<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
192<section>
193<body>
194
195<p>
196Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
197<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
198<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
199kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
200supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
276<p> 201</p>
277The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system 202
278(a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more 203</body>
279information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>. 204</section>
205<section>
206<title>pf-sources</title>
207<body>
208
209<p>
210The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
211patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
212<c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
213the <uri
214link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
215<uri
216link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
280</p> 217</p>
281 218
282</body> 219</body>
283</section> 220</section>
284<section> 221<section>
294</p> 231</p>
295 232
296</body> 233</body>
297</section> 234</section>
298<section> 235<section>
299<title>suspend2-sources</title> 236<title>tuxonice-sources</title>
300<body> 237<body>
301 238
302<p> 239<p>
303The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches 240The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
304which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri 241both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new 242link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
306and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel. 243implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
244<e>suspend2</e>.
307</p> 245</p>
308 246
309<p> 247<p>
310This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able 248This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere. 249to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312</p> 250</p>
313 251
314</body> 252</body>
315</section> 253</section>
316<section> 254<section>
317<title>uclinux-sources</title>
318<body>
319
320<p>
321The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323</p>
324
325</body>
326</section>
327<section>
328<title>usermode-sources</title> 255<title>usermode-sources</title>
329<body> 256<body>
330 257
331<p> 258<p>
332<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This 259<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux 260kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support. 261to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and 262For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>. 263scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337</p>
338
339<p> 264</p>
265
266<p>
340For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the 267For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>. 268<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
269</p>
270
271</body>
272</section>
273<section>
274<title>vanilla-sources</title>
275<body>
276
277<p>
278The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
279users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
280released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
281these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
282unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
283instead.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.6 and 3.x.
342</p> 288</p>
343 289
344</body> 290</body>
345</section> 291</section>
346</chapter> 292</chapter>
417</p> 363</p>
418 364
419</body> 365</body>
420</section> 366</section>
421<section> 367<section>
368<title>hppa-sources</title>
369<body>
370
371<p>
372<c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
373compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
374and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
375with no need for extra patches.
376</p>
377
378</body>
379</section>
380<section>
381<title>mm-sources</title>
382<body>
383
384<p>
385The <c>mm-sources</c> were based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contained
386Andrew Morton's patch set. They includde the experimental and bleeding-edge
387features that were going to be included in the official kernel (or that were
388going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They were known to be
389always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
390other; kernel hackers used them as a testing ground for highly experimental new
391stuff.
392</p>
393
394</body>
395</section>
396<section>
422<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title> 397<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
423<body> 398<body>
424 399
425<p> 400<p>
426The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the 401The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
427<c>rsbac-sources</c> package. 402<c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
403</p>
404
405</body>
406</section>
407<section>
408<title>rsbac-sources</title>
409<body>
410
411<p>
412<c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
413Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
414been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
415additional security features.
428</p> 416</p>
429 417
430</body> 418</body>
431</section> 419</section>
432<section> 420<section>
440</p> 428</p>
441 429
442</body> 430</body>
443</section> 431</section>
444<section> 432<section>
433<title>sh-sources</title>
434<body>
435
436<p>
437<c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
438compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
439and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
440with no need for extra patches.
441</p>
442
443</body>
444</section>
445<section>
446<title>uclinux-sources</title>
447<body>
448
449<p>
450The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
451devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
452security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
453longer in the tree.
454</p>
455
456</body>
457</section>
458<section>
445<title>win4lin-sources</title> 459<title>win4lin-sources</title>
446<body> 460<body>
447 461
448<p> 462<p>
449<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools 463<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications 464that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues. 465at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
452</p> 466</p>
453 467
454</body> 468</body>
455</section> 469</section>
470<section>
471<title>zen-sources</title>
472<body>
473
474<p>
475<c>zen-sources</c> was designed for desktop systems. It included code not found
476in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel had patches that added new features,
477supported additional hardware, and contained various tweaks for desktops.
478</p>
479
480</body>
481</section>
456</chapter> 482</chapter>
457</guide> 483</guide>

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