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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/01/31 01:15:42 flammie Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.68 2013/12/09 09:55:55 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Kernel/Overview">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 11<author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail> 12 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
25<author title="Editor"> 26<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail> 27 <mail link="greg_g@gentoo.org">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27</author> 28</author>
28<author title="Editor"> 29<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail> 30 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
31</author>
32<author title="Editor">
33 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
30</author> 34</author>
31 35
32<abstract> 36<abstract>
33This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 37This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
34provides through Portage. 38provides through Portage.
36 40
37<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 41<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
38<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 42<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
39<license/> 43<license/>
40 44
41<version>1.13</version> 45<version>8</version>
42<date>2006-01-30</date> 46<date>2013-07-23</date>
43 47
44<chapter> 48<chapter>
45<title>Introduction</title> 49<title>Introduction</title>
46<section> 50<section>
47<body> 51<body>
48 52
49<p> 53<p>
50As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo 54As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
51Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as 55Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
52possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c> 56possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
53you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document, 57you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
54I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the 58I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
55patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel 59patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
56sources we make available to you. 60sources we make available to you.
57</p> 61</p>
58 62
59</body> 63</body>
82<section> 86<section>
83<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title> 87<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources</title>
84<body> 88<body>
85 89
86<p> 90<p>
87For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel. Since the 91For most users, we recommend the <c>gentoo-sources</c> kernel.
882005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless you are
89specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a 2.6 kernel
90on <e>most</e> architectures.
91</p>
92
93<p>
94<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 2.6, with various kernel 92<c>gentoo-sources</c> is a kernel based on Linux 3.x, lightly patched to fix
95patches included to fix security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase 93security problems, kernel bugs, and to increase compatibility with the more
96compatibility with the more uncommon system architectures. Linux 2.6 is 94uncommon system architectures.
97the current official stable kernel tree, and development is progressing
98rapidly. For highest performance, best hardware support, and its large
99new feature set, we recommend 2.6 over its older 2.4 counterpart.
100</p>
101
102<p>
103Some of the more uncommon system architectures are not fully compatible with
104Linux 2.6, and some users prefer to the tried-and-tested Linux 2.4 kernel;
105for this reason we provide <c>gentoo-sources</c> (the 2.4 version). The
106patches included in this kernel are similar to those included in its 2.6
107counterpart, plus a number of patches designed to add functionality and
108improve performance. Linux 2.4 is currently not being developed further - only
109bug and security fixes are being included in the newer releases. If you are
110able to, we suggest that you upgrade to Linux 2.6. You may find the
111<uri link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">migration document</uri> useful.
112</p> 95</p>
113 96
114<p> 97<p>
115The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo 98The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package absorbs most of the resources of the Gentoo
116kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which 99kernel team. They are brought to you by a group of talented developers, which
120</p> 103</p>
121 104
122</body> 105</body>
123</section> 106</section>
124<section> 107<section>
125<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources</title> 108<title>For servers: hardened-sources</title>
126<body>
127
128<p>
129The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
130as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel
131sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do
132not patch these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run
133a completely unmodified Linux kernel.
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Similar to <c>gentoo-sources</c>, two versions of the kernel can be found
138under this package: 2.4 and 2.6.
139</p>
140
141<p>
142Linux 2.4 is maintained by Marcelo Tosatti. Linus Torvalds, the original
143creator of Linux, handed maintainership of the Linux 2.4 branch over to
144Marcelo when Linus went off to start developing the newer 2.6 kernel tree.
145Marcelo has done a fine job of keeping 2.4 stable and secure, and is now
146only accepting security and bug fixes into the 2.4 kernel tree. Actual
147development happens in the Linux 2.6 kernel tree.
148</p>
149
150<p>
151Linux 2.6 is maintained by Andrew Morton, who works closely with Linus
152Torvalds to deliver a fast, powerful, and feature-packed Linux kernel.
153Development is happening at incredible pace and this kernel tree is now very
154mature.
155</p>
156
157</body> 109<body>
158</section>
159 110
160<section>
161<title>For servers: hardened-sources and rsbac-sources</title>
162<body>
163
164<p> 111<p>
165<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted 112<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on the official Linux kernel and is targeted at
166at our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the 113our users running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
167various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for 114subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for <uri
168<uri link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and 115link="http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/">LSM/SELinux</uri> and <uri
169<uri link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with 116link="http://grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>), together with
170stability/security-enhancements. Like <c>gentoo-sources</c> it comes in 2.6 117stability/security-enhancements. Check
171and 2.4 versions. Check <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for 118<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
172more information.
173</p>
174
175<p>
176<c>rsbac-sources</c> contains patches to use Rule Set Based Access Controls
177(<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>) and comes in 2.4 and 2.6
178flavours. It is maintained by the <uri link="/proj/en/hardened/rsbac/">RSBAC
179project</uri>, a sub-project of Gentoo Hardened.
180</p> 119</p>
181 120
182<impo> 121<impo>
183These kernels provide powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the 122This kernel provides powerful patches for enhanced security. Please read the
184<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use them. 123<uri link="/proj/en/hardened/">documentation</uri> before you use it.
185</impo> 124</impo>
186 125
187</body> 126</body>
188</section> 127</section>
189<section> 128<section>
190<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
191<body>
192
193<p>
194<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>,<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>sh-sources</c>
195<c>sparc-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
196patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the
197patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned
198above and below.
199</p>
200
201</body>
202</section>
203</chapter>
204
205<chapter>
206<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
207<section>
208<body>
209
210<p>
211Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
212<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
213<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
214kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
215supported by the Gentoo team.
216</p>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>ck-sources</title> 129<title>ck-sources</title>
222<body> 130<body>
223 131
224<p> 132<p>
225<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is 133<c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This patchset is primarily
226primarily designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is 134designed to improve system responsiveness and interactivity and is configurable
227configurable for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset is 135for varying workloads (from servers to desktops). The patchset includes a
228also quite mature and has been put through numerous iterations of development 136different scheduler, BFS, designed to keep systems responsive and smooth even
229and tuning. The emphasis of each release is on stability and security. Support 137when under heavy load. Support and information is available at
230and information is available at <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in 138<uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> and in <c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
231<c>#ck</c> on <c>irc.oftc.net</c>.
232</p> 139</p>
233 140
234</body> 141</body>
235</section> 142</section>
236<section> 143<section>
239 146
240<p> 147<p>
241The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream 148The <c>git-sources</c> package tracks daily snapshots of the upstream
242development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in 149development kernel tree. You should run these kernels if you are interested in
243kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri 150kernel development or testing. Bugreports should go to the <uri
244link="http://bugme.osdl.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML (Linux 151link="http://bugzilla.kernel.org/">Linux Kernel Bug Tracker</uri> or LKML
245Kernel Mailing List). 152(Linux Kernel Mailing List).
246</p> 153</p>
247 154
248</body> 155</body>
249</section>
250<section> 156</section>
251<title>mm-sources</title>
252<body>
253
254<p>
255The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contain
256Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
257features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
258going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
259always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
260other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
261</p>
262
263<p>
264If you really want to live on the edge and you think
265<c>vanilla-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
266<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
267doesn't always work as expected.
268</p>
269
270</body>
271</section> 157<section>
158<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
159<body>
160
161<p>
162<c>mips-sources</c> and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched
163to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for
164hardware and features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and
165below.
166</p>
167
168</body>
272<section> 169</section>
273<title>openmosix-sources</title> 170</chapter>
171
172<chapter>
173<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
174<section>
175<body>
176
177<p>
178Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
179<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
180<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Let's take them in alphabetical order. These
181kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
182supported by the Gentoo kernel team.
183</p>
184
274<body> 185</body>
186</section>
187<section>
188<title>pf-sources</title>
189<body>
275 190
276<p> 191<p>
277The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system 192The <c>pf-sources</c> kernel brings together parts of several different kernel
278(a cluster oriented kernel patchset like MOSIX but Open Source). For more 193patches. It includes the BFS patchset from <c>ck-sources</c>, the
279information see <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>. 194<c>tuxonice</c> patches, <uri link="http://www.linuximq.net">LinuxIMQ</uri>, and
195the <uri
196link="http://algo.ing.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/patches/">BFQ</uri> I/O
197<uri
198link="http://kerneltrap.org/Linux/Budget_Fair_Queuing_IO_Scheduler">scheduler</uri>.
280</p> 199</p>
281 200
282</body> 201</body>
283</section> 202</section>
284<section> 203<section>
294</p> 213</p>
295 214
296</body> 215</body>
297</section> 216</section>
298<section> 217<section>
299<title>suspend2-sources</title> 218<title>tuxonice-sources</title>
300<body> 219<body>
301 220
302<p> 221<p>
303The <c>suspend2-sources</c> are patched with both genpatches 222The <c>tuxonice-sources</c> (formerly <c>suspend2-sources</c>) are patched with
304which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri 223both genpatches which includes the patches found in gentoo-sources, and <uri
305link="http://www.suspend2.net">Software Suspend 2</uri> which is a new 224link="http://www.tuxonice.net">TuxOnIce</uri> which is an improved
306and improved implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel. 225implementation of suspend-to-disk for the Linux kernel, formerly known as
226<e>suspend2</e>.
307</p> 227</p>
308 228
309<p> 229<p>
310This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able 230This kernel is recommended for laptop users who often rely on being able
311to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere. 231to suspend their laptop and resume work elsewhere.
312</p> 232</p>
313 233
314</body> 234</body>
315</section> 235</section>
316<section> 236<section>
317<title>uclinux-sources</title>
318<body>
319
320<p>
321The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
322devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>.
323</p>
324
325</body>
326</section>
327<section>
328<title>usermode-sources</title> 237<title>usermode-sources</title>
329<body> 238<body>
330 239
331<p> 240<p>
332<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This 241<c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
333kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux 242kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
334to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support. 243to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
335For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and 244For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
336scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>. 245scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
337</p>
338
339<p> 246</p>
247
248<p>
340For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the 249For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
341<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>. 250<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/User-mode_Linux/System_testing_with_UML">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
251</p>
252
253</body>
254</section>
255<section>
256<title>vanilla-sources</title>
257<body>
258
259<p>
260The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with as Linux
261users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official kernel sources
262released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. Please note that we do not patch
263these kernels at all - these are purely for people who wish to run a completely
264unmodified Linux kernel. We recommend that you use <c>gentoo-sources</c>
265instead.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Two versions of the kernel can be found under this package: 2.6 and 3.x.
342</p> 270</p>
343 271
344</body> 272</body>
345</section> 273</section>
346</chapter> 274</chapter>
371</p> 299</p>
372 300
373</body> 301</body>
374</section> 302</section>
375<section> 303<section>
304<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
305<body>
306
307<p>
308<c>cell-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel designed to run on the Sony PlayStation 3
309game console.
310</p>
311
312</body>
313</section>
314<section>
376<title>development-sources</title> 315<title>development-sources</title>
377<body> 316<body>
378 317
379<p> 318<p>
380<c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now 319<c>development-sources</c>, the official 2.6 kernel from kernel.org, can now
417</p> 356</p>
418 357
419</body> 358</body>
420</section> 359</section>
421<section> 360<section>
361<title>hppa-sources</title>
362<body>
363
364<p>
365<c>hppa-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
366compatibility for the HPPA architecture. These patches have been developed
367and included in the mainline kernel. HPPA users can now run any recent kernel
368with no need for extra patches.
369</p>
370
371</body>
372</section>
373<section>
374<title>mm-sources</title>
375<body>
376
377<p>
378The <c>mm-sources</c> were based on the <c>vanilla-sources</c> and contained
379Andrew Morton's patch set. They includde the experimental and bleeding-edge
380features that were going to be included in the official kernel (or that were
381going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They were known to be
382always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
383other; kernel hackers used them as a testing ground for highly experimental new
384stuff.
385</p>
386
387</body>
388</section>
389<section>
422<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title> 390<title>rsbac-dev-sources</title>
423<body> 391<body>
424 392
425<p> 393<p>
426The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the 394The <c>rsbac-dev-sources</c> kernels can now be found under the
427<c>rsbac-sources</c> package. 395<c>rsbac-sources</c> package.
396</p>
397
398</body>
399</section>
400<section>
401<title>rsbac-sources</title>
402<body>
403
404<p>
405<c>rsbac-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel. It contained patches to use Rule
406Set Based Access Controls (<uri link="http://www.rsbac.org">RSBAC</uri>). It has
407been removed due to lack of maintainers. Use <c>hardened-sources</c> if you need
408additional security features.
428</p> 409</p>
429 410
430</body> 411</body>
431</section> 412</section>
432<section> 413<section>
440</p> 421</p>
441 422
442</body> 423</body>
443</section> 424</section>
444<section> 425<section>
426<title>sh-sources</title>
427<body>
428
429<p>
430<c>sh-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
431compatibility for the SuperH architecture. These patches have been developed
432and included in the mainline kernel. SuperH users can now run any recent kernel
433with no need for extra patches.
434</p>
435
436</body>
437</section>
438<section>
439<title>sparc-sources</title>
440<body>
441
442<p>
443<c>sparc-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
444compatibility for the SPARC architecture. These patches have been developed
445and included in the mainline kernel. SPARC users can now run any recent kernel
446with no need for extra patches.
447</p>
448
449</body>
450</section>
451<section>
452<title>uclinux-sources</title>
453<body>
454
455<p>
456The <c>uclinux-sources</c> are meant for CPUs without MMUs as well as embedded
457devices. For more information, see <uri>http://www.uclinux.org</uri>. Lack of
458security patches as well as hardware to test on were the reasons this is no
459longer in the tree.
460</p>
461
462</body>
463</section>
464<section>
445<title>win4lin-sources</title> 465<title>win4lin-sources</title>
446<body> 466<body>
447 467
448<p> 468<p>
449<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools 469<c>win4lin-sources</c> were patched to support the userland win4lin tools
450that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications 470that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
451at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues. 471at almost native speeds. This was removed due to security issues.
452</p> 472</p>
453 473
454</body> 474</body>
455</section> 475</section>
476<section>
477<title>xen-sources</title>
478<body>
479
480<p>
481<c>xen-sources</c> was a 2.6-based kernel that allowed running multiple
482operating systems on a single physical system. You can create virtual
483environments in which one or more guest operating systems run on a <uri
484link="http://www.xensource.com">Xen</uri>-powered host operating system.
485</p>
486
487<p>
488The <c>xen-sources</c> patches were incorporated into the mainline Linux kernel
489as of version 3.0.
490</p>
491
492<p>
493For more information on Xen and Gentoo, read the <uri
494link="/doc/en/xen-guide.xml">Gentoo Xen Guide</uri>.
495</p>
496
497</body>
498</section>
499
500<section>
501<title>zen-sources</title>
502<body>
503
504<p>
505<c>zen-sources</c> was designed for desktop systems. It included code not found
506in the mainline kernel. The zen kernel had patches that added new features,
507supported additional hardware, and contained various tweaks for desktops.
508</p>
509
510</body>
511</section>
456</chapter> 512</chapter>
457</guide> 513</guide>

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