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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.8 2004/07/02 09:56:48 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.19 2004/11/06 15:39:58 swift Exp $ -->
3 3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 10<author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail> 11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail> 14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
18</author> 27</author>
19 28
20<abstract> 29<abstract>
21This document gives you an overview on all kernelsources that Gentoo 30This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
22provides through Portage. 31provides through Portage.
23</abstract> 32</abstract>
24 33
25<license/> 34<license/>
26 35
27<version>0.4</version> 36<version>0.7.5</version>
28<date>July 02, 2004</date> 37<date>November 02, 2004</date>
29 38
30<chapter> 39<chapter>
31<title>Introduction</title> 40<title>Introduction</title>
32<section> 41<section>
33<body> 42<body>
45</body> 54</body>
46</section> 55</section>
47</chapter> 56</chapter>
48 57
49<chapter> 58<chapter>
50<title>The Choices, Part I</title> 59<title>Supported kernel packages</title>
60<section>
61<title>genkernel</title>
62<body>
63
64<p>
65<c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
66hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
67for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
68</p>
69
70<p>
71For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
72Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
73</p>
74
75</body>
51<section> 76</section>
52<title>gentoo-sources</title> 77<section>
78<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources and gentoo-dev-sources</title>
53<body> 79<body>
54 80
55<p> 81<p>
56For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the 82For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
57<c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains 83<c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
58specially tuned performance kernel patches designed to optimize tasks 84kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
59such as compiling while listening to music and browsing the web. Most 85areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
60of you who are new to Gentoo have probably never run a system where you 86<uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
61are regularly compiling many packages from source while you are doing your 87security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
62normal everyday tasks on your computer. 88vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
63You may find that if you use the <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the official 89(including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
64kernel sources released from <uri>http://www.kernel.org</uri>) normal tasks -- 90<e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
65such as listening to music, moving your mouse and the like -- may appear
66jumpy when you are compiling packages.
67</p>
68
69<p> 91</p>
70The <c>gentoo-sources</c> contain an updated ACPI subsystem and are based 92
71on Con Kolivas' high-performance kernel patches (<c>ck-sources</c>). We also
72support grSecurity (a set of security-related patches with support for
73ACLs), EVMS(2) (a highly flexible storage management filesystem with easy
74partition resizing), JFS (IBM's high-performance filesystem), the latest
75NTFS drivers, and more.
76</p> 93<p>
77 94For users looking to take advantage of the new features, stability, and
95performance of Linux 2.6, we provide <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>. This package
96consists of a minimal patchset providing fixes and enhancement for stability
97and security. This kernel will become our recommended default at some point
98in the near future.
78<p> 99</p>
79Because the <c>gentoo-sources</c> are targeted at full performance, they are 100
80also very good for gaming purposes.
81</p> 101<p>
102The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
103most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
104group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
105kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
106USB and PCI subsystems of the official Linux kernel.
107</p>
82 108
83</body> 109</body>
84</section>
85<section> 110</section>
86<title>vanilla-sources</title> 111<section>
112<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources and development-sources</title>
87<body> 113<body>
88 114
89<p> 115<p>
90The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with 116The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
91as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. As I mentioned briefly 117as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
92above, these are the official 2.4 kernel sources released on 118kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
93<uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. These sources are maintained (contrary
94to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo 119(contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
95Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is 120Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
96only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch 121only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable kernel branch
97to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan 122to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
98Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo 123Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
99Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is 124Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This last kernel
100what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has 125is what all the patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
101been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be 126been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
102counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware 127counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
103support. 128support.
104</p> 129</p>
105 130
106<p> 131<p>
107<c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
108since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
109on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
110then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
111</p>
112
113</body>
114</section>
115<section>
116<title>development-sources</title>
117<body>
118
119<p>
120The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. 132The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
121As opposed to what the name might suggest this kernel source is completely 133opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
122stable and production-ready. 134and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
135<uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
123</p> 136</p>
124 137
125</body> 138</body>
126</section>
127<section> 139</section>
128<title>gs-sources</title>
129<body>
130 140
131<p>
132For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
133priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
134<c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
135This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
136latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
137up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
138aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
139but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
140vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
141compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
142</p>
143
144<p>
145This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
146(required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
147and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
148amongst other patches.
149</p>
150
151<p>
152In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
153High-Availability systems.
154</p>
155
156<p>
157The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
158</p>
159
160<table>
161<tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
162<tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
163</table>
164
165</body>
166</section> 141<section>
167<section> 142<title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title>
168<title>gentoo-test-sources</title>
169<body>
170
171<p>
172<c>gentoo-test-sources</c> are what will become <c>gentoo-sources</c> after
173lots of testing and QA. Patches to the <c>gentoo-sources</c> are first
174added to <c>gentoo-test-sources</c> for testing. So if you want the
175performance of <c>gentoo-sources</c> with the most recent possible
176patches, use <c>gentoo-test-sources</c>.
177</p>
178
179</body> 143<body>
180</section>
181<section>
182<title>hardened-sources</title>
183<body>
184 144
185<p> 145<p>
186<c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of 146<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
187Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together 147running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
148subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
188with stability/security-enhancements. Check 149GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
189<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information. 150<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
151</p>
152
153<p>
154<c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c>
155but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
190</p> 156</p>
191 157
192<p> 158<p>
193The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches: 159The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
194</p> 160</p>
199</table> 165</table>
200 166
201</body> 167</body>
202</section> 168</section>
203<section> 169<section>
204<title>xfs-sources</title>
205<body>
206
207<p>
208<c>xfs-sources</c> contains support for EVMS, ACPI, grSecurity and, what
209you probably already figured out by now, the latest XFS support patches
210from the XFS Development. Please note that XFS support has been merged
211into the regular 2.4 kernel tree.
212</p>
213
214<p>
215More information about XFS on <uri>http://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/</uri>.
216</p>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title> 170<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
222<body> 171<body>
223 172
224<p> 173<p>
225<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>ia64-sources</c>, 174<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
226<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c> and 175<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
227<c>sparc-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on 176and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
228specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and 177patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of
229features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. 178the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets
230</p> 179mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that
231 180the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
232</body>
233</section>
234<section>
235<title>ppc-sources-benh</title>
236<body>
237
238<p>
239The <c>ppc-sources-benh</c> ebuilds provide additional hardware
240support for the <c>ppc-sources</c> kernel. It is slightly more
241experimental than the <c>ppc-sources</c>.
242</p>
243
244</body>
245</section>
246<section>
247<title>ppc-sources-crypto</title>
248<body>
249
250<p>
251The <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> ebuilds provide CryptoAPI
252support for the Gentoo Linux PPC Kernel.
253</p>
254
255</body>
256</section>
257<section>
258<title>ppc-sources-dev</title>
259<body>
260
261<p>
262The <c>ppc-sources-dev</c> packages provide the development sources for
263<c>ppc-sources</c>. Every patch which should become part of
264<c>ppc-sources</c> has to go through <c>ppc-sources-dev</c> first.
265</p>
266
267</body>
268</section>
269<section>
270<title>compaq-sources</title>
271<body>
272
273<p>
274The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
275maintained by Compaq.
276</p> 181</p>
277 182
278</body> 183</body>
279</section> 184</section>
280</chapter> 185</chapter>
281 186
282<chapter> 187<chapter>
283<title>The Choices, Part II</title> 188<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
284<section> 189<section>
285<body> 190<body>
286 191
287<p> 192<p>
288Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other 193Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
289<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran 194<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
290<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. 195<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
196kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
197supported by the Gentoo team.
291</p> 198</p>
292 199
293</body> 200</body>
294</section> 201</section>
295<section> 202<section>
298 205
299<p> 206<p>
300First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set. 207First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
301Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His 208Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
302kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual 209kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
303Memory) patches known to mankind. When I last looked, it also contained 210Memory) patches known to mankind.
304SGI's XFS filesystem and the O(1) scheduler by Ingo Molar (which is
305the default scheduler for Linux 2.6).
306</p> 211</p>
307 212
308<p> 213<p>
309It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our 214It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
310<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and 215<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
318what you need. 223what you need.
319</p> 224</p>
320 225
321<p> 226<p>
322Visit 227Visit
323<uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.4</uri> 228<uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
324for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources. 229for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
230</p>
231
232<p>
233Andrea has not been maintaining his patchsets recently, and as a result of
234this, this kernel is a bit out of date and may be removed from Portage soon.
325</p> 235</p>
326 236
327</body> 237</body>
328</section> 238</section>
329<section> 239<section>
341</p> 251</p>
342 252
343</body> 253</body>
344</section> 254</section>
345<section> 255<section>
346<title>gaming-sources</title>
347<body>
348
349<p>
350<c>gaming-sources</c> are based on <c>ck-sources</c> and are therefore
351tuned for high performance. They also contain patches for the latest
352game-related hardware (graphic cards, sound cards, and such).
353</p>
354
355<p>
356If you are a hardcore gamer, this is your choice.
357</p>
358
359</body>
360</section>
361<section>
362<title>grsec-sources</title> 256<title>grsec-sources</title>
363<body> 257<body>
364 258
365<p> 259<p>
366The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity 260The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
367updates (GRSecurity version 1.9 and up) which includes, amongst other 261updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
368security-related patches, support for PaX. 262security-related patches, support for PaX.
369</p> 263</p>
370 264
371</body> 265</body>
372</section> 266</section>
373<section> 267<section>
374<title>mm-sources</title> 268<title>mm-sources</title>
375<body> 269<body>
376 270
377<p> 271<p>
378The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and 272The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
379contain Andrew Morton's patch set. It assembles several other patches, 273Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
380like ext2/3 Extended Attributes and Access Control Lists, Page Table 274features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
381Sharing, the Orlov Allocator, non-linear mapping behaviour, etc into one 275going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
382patch set. 276always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
383</p> 277other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
384
385<p> 278</p>
279
280<p>
386If you really want to live on the edge and you think 281If you really want to live on the edge and you think
387<c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out 282<c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
388<c>mm-sources</c>. 283<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
284doesn't always work as expected.
389</p> 285</p>
390 286
391</body> 287</body>
392</section> 288</section>
393<section> 289<section>
406<title>pac-sources</title> 302<title>pac-sources</title>
407<body> 303<body>
408 304
409<p> 305<p>
410The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's 306The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
411(bero) patches. 307(bero) patches. Be warned that this kernel is quite out of date and may be
412</p> 308removed from Portage soon.
413
414</body>
415</section>
416<section>
417<title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
418<body>
419
420<p>
421This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
422Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
423</p>
424
425<p>
426More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
427</p> 309</p>
428 310
429</body> 311</body>
430</section> 312</section>
431<section> 313<section>
491</p> 373</p>
492 374
493</body> 375</body>
494</section> 376</section>
495</chapter> 377</chapter>
378
379<chapter>
380<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
381<section>
382<title>gaming-sources</title>
383<body>
384
385<p>
386<c>gaming-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with a broken scheduler patch applied
387which enhanced performance in games. It was removed from Portage because some
388problems accumulated, and the scheduler work being done in Linux 2.6 at the
389same time offered the same or even better performance.
390</p>
391
392</body>
393</section>
394<section>
395<title>gs-sources</title>
396<body>
397
398<p>
399<c>gs-sources</c>, once advertised as our server-style patch set, became a
400testing ground for prerelease 2.4 kernels. Unfortunately, the maintainer
401became inactive and this kernel detoriated with new system updates and
402became out of date.
403</p>
404
405</body>
406</section>
407<section>
408<title>ia64-sources</title>
409<body>
410
411<p>
412<c>ia64-sources</c> were the IA64-specific kernel trees. They are however
413obsoleted in favor of <c>development-sources</c>.
414</p>
415
416</body>
417</section>
418</chapter>
419
496</guide> 420</guide>

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