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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.9 2004/07/03 12:07:11 bennyc Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.19 2004/11/06 15:39:58 swift Exp $ -->
3 3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 8 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Contributor"> 10<author title="Contributor">
11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail> 11 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail> 14 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 16<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 20 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
18</author> 21</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 22<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
21</author> 27</author>
22 28
23<abstract> 29<abstract>
24This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo 30This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
25provides through Portage. 31provides through Portage.
26</abstract> 32</abstract>
27 33
28<license/> 34<license/>
29 35
30<version>0.5</version> 36<version>0.7.5</version>
31<date>July 3, 2004</date> 37<date>November 02, 2004</date>
32 38
33<chapter> 39<chapter>
34<title>Introduction</title> 40<title>Introduction</title>
35<section> 41<section>
36<body> 42<body>
48</body> 54</body>
49</section> 55</section>
50</chapter> 56</chapter>
51 57
52<chapter> 58<chapter>
53<title>The Choices, Part I</title> 59<title>Supported kernel packages</title>
54<section> 60<section>
55<title>genkernel</title> 61<title>genkernel</title>
56<body> 62<body>
57 63
58<p> 64<p>
59<c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your 65<c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
60hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended 66hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
61for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually. 67for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
62</p> 68</p>
63 69
70<p>
71For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
72Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
73</p>
74
64</body> 75</body>
65</section>
66<section> 76</section>
67<title>gentoo-sources</title> 77<section>
78<title>General purpose: gentoo-sources and gentoo-dev-sources</title>
68<body> 79<body>
69 80
70<p> 81<p>
71For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the 82For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
72<c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains 83<c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
73specially tuned performance kernel patches designed to optimize tasks 84kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
74such as compiling while listening to music and browsing the web. Most 85areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
75of you who are new to Gentoo have probably never run a system where you 86<uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
76are regularly compiling many packages from source while you are doing your 87security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
77normal everyday tasks on your computer. 88vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
78You may find that if you use the <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the official 89(including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
79kernel sources released from <uri>http://www.kernel.org</uri>) normal tasks -- 90<e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
80such as listening to music, moving your mouse and the like -- may appear
81jumpy when you are compiling packages.
82</p>
83
84<p> 91</p>
85The <c>gentoo-sources</c> contain an updated ACPI subsystem and are based 92
86on Con Kolivas' high-performance kernel patches (<c>ck-sources</c>). We also
87support grSecurity (a set of security-related patches with support for
88ACLs), EVMS(2) (a highly flexible storage management filesystem with easy
89partition resizing), JFS (IBM's high-performance filesystem), the latest
90NTFS drivers, and more.
91</p> 93<p>
92 94For users looking to take advantage of the new features, stability, and
95performance of Linux 2.6, we provide <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>. This package
96consists of a minimal patchset providing fixes and enhancement for stability
97and security. This kernel will become our recommended default at some point
98in the near future.
93<p> 99</p>
94Because the <c>gentoo-sources</c> are targeted at full performance, they are 100
95also very good for gaming purposes.
96</p> 101<p>
102The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
103most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
104group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
105kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
106USB and PCI subsystems of the official Linux kernel.
107</p>
97 108
98</body> 109</body>
99</section>
100<section> 110</section>
101<title>vanilla-sources</title> 111<section>
112<title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources and development-sources</title>
102<body> 113<body>
103 114
104<p> 115<p>
105The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with 116The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
106as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. As I mentioned briefly 117as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
107above, these are the official 2.4 kernel sources released on 118kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
108<uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. These sources are maintained (contrary
109to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo 119(contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
110Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is 120Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
111only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch 121only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable kernel branch
112to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan 122to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
113Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo 123Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
114Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is 124Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This last kernel
115what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has 125is what all the patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
116been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be 126been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
117counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware 127counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
118support. 128support.
119</p> 129</p>
120 130
121<p> 131<p>
122<c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
123since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
124on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
125then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
126</p>
127
128</body>
129</section>
130<section>
131<title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
132<body>
133
134<p>
135The <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c> ebuild includes the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
136with Gentoo's optimized performance patches.
137</p>
138
139</body>
140</section>
141<section>
142<title>development-sources</title>
143<body>
144
145<p>
146The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As 132The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
147opposed to what the name might suggest this kernel source is completely stable 133opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
148and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on 134and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
149<uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>. 135<uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
150</p> 136</p>
151 137
152</body> 138</body>
153</section> 139</section>
154<section>
155<title>gs-sources</title>
156<body>
157 140
158<p>
159For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
160priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
161<c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
162This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
163latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
164up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
165aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
166but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
167vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
168compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
169</p>
170
171<p>
172This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
173(required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
174and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
175amongst other patches.
176</p>
177
178<p>
179In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
180High-Availability systems.
181</p>
182
183<p>
184The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
185</p>
186
187<table>
188<tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
189<tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
190</table>
191
192</body>
193</section> 141<section>
194<section> 142<title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title>
195<title>hardened-sources</title>
196<body> 143<body>
197 144
198<p> 145<p>
199<c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of 146<c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
200Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together 147running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
148subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
201with stability/security-enhancements. Check 149GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
202<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information. 150<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
151</p>
152
153<p>
154<c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c>
155but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
203</p> 156</p>
204 157
205<p> 158<p>
206The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches: 159The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
207</p> 160</p>
212</table> 165</table>
213 166
214</body> 167</body>
215</section> 168</section>
216<section> 169<section>
217<title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
218<body>
219
220<p>
221<c>hardened-dev-sources</c> use the 2.6 kernel with the patches provided by the
222various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened.
223</p>
224
225</body>
226</section>
227<section>
228<title>xfs-sources</title>
229<body>
230
231<p>
232<c>xfs-sources</c> contains support for EVMS, ACPI, grSecurity and, what
233you probably already figured out by now, the latest XFS support patches
234from the XFS Development. Please note that XFS support has been merged
235into the regular 2.4 kernel tree.
236</p>
237
238<p>
239More information about XFS on <uri>http://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/</uri>.
240</p>
241
242</body>
243</section>
244<section>
245<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title> 170<title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
246<body> 171<body>
247 172
248<p> 173<p>
249<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>, 174<c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
250<c>ia64-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c>,
251<c>pegasos-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c> 175<c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
252and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on 176and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
253specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and 177patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of
254features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. Kernel 178the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets
255sources that contains a "-dev-" means that the sources use the 2.6 kernel 179mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that
256instead of the 2.4 kernel. 180the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
257</p>
258
259</body>
260</section>
261<section>
262<title>ppc-sources-benh</title>
263<body>
264
265<p>
266The <c>ppc-sources-benh</c> ebuilds provide additional hardware
267support for the <c>ppc-sources</c> kernel. It is slightly more
268experimental than the <c>ppc-sources</c>.
269</p>
270
271</body>
272</section>
273<section>
274<title>ppc-sources-crypto</title>
275<body>
276
277<p>
278The <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> ebuilds provide CryptoAPI
279support for the Gentoo Linux PPC Kernel.
280</p>
281
282</body>
283</section>
284<section>
285<title>ppc-dev-sources</title>
286<body>
287
288<p>
289The <c>ppc-dev-sources</c> packages provide the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
290sources with Gentoo PPC's optimized patch for Macintosh machines.
291</p>
292
293</body>
294</section>
295<section>
296<title>compaq-sources</title>
297<body>
298
299<p>
300The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
301maintained by Compaq.
302</p> 181</p>
303 182
304</body> 183</body>
305</section> 184</section>
306</chapter> 185</chapter>
307 186
308<chapter> 187<chapter>
309<title>The Choices, Part II</title> 188<title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
310<section> 189<section>
311<body> 190<body>
312 191
313<p> 192<p>
314Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other 193Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
315<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran 194<path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
316<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. 195<c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
196kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
197supported by the Gentoo team.
317</p> 198</p>
318 199
319</body> 200</body>
320</section> 201</section>
321<section> 202<section>
324 205
325<p> 206<p>
326First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set. 207First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
327Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His 208Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
328kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual 209kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
329Memory) patches known to mankind. When I last looked, it also contained 210Memory) patches known to mankind.
330SGI's XFS filesystem and the O(1) scheduler by Ingo Molar (which is
331the default scheduler for Linux 2.6).
332</p> 211</p>
333 212
334<p> 213<p>
335It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our 214It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
336<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and 215<uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
344what you need. 223what you need.
345</p> 224</p>
346 225
347<p> 226<p>
348Visit 227Visit
349<uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.4</uri> 228<uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
350for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources. 229for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
230</p>
231
232<p>
233Andrea has not been maintaining his patchsets recently, and as a result of
234this, this kernel is a bit out of date and may be removed from Portage soon.
351</p> 235</p>
352 236
353</body> 237</body>
354</section> 238</section>
355<section> 239<section>
367</p> 251</p>
368 252
369</body> 253</body>
370</section> 254</section>
371<section> 255<section>
372<title>gaming-sources</title>
373<body>
374
375<p>
376<c>gaming-sources</c> are based on <c>ck-sources</c> and are therefore
377tuned for high performance. They also contain patches for the latest
378game-related hardware (graphic cards, sound cards, and such).
379</p>
380
381<p>
382If you are a hardcore gamer, this is your choice.
383</p>
384
385</body>
386</section>
387<section>
388<title>grsec-sources</title> 256<title>grsec-sources</title>
389<body> 257<body>
390 258
391<p> 259<p>
392The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity 260The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
393updates (GRSecurity version 1.9 and up) which includes, amongst other 261updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
394security-related patches, support for PaX. 262security-related patches, support for PaX.
395</p> 263</p>
396 264
397</body> 265</body>
398</section> 266</section>
399<section> 267<section>
400<title>mm-sources</title> 268<title>mm-sources</title>
401<body> 269<body>
402 270
403<p> 271<p>
404The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and 272The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
405contain Andrew Morton's patch set. It assembles several other patches, 273Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
406like ext2/3 Extended Attributes and Access Control Lists, Page Table 274features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
407Sharing, the Orlov Allocator, non-linear mapping behaviour, etc into one 275going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
408patch set. 276always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
409</p> 277other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
410
411<p> 278</p>
279
280<p>
412If you really want to live on the edge and you think 281If you really want to live on the edge and you think
413<c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out 282<c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
414<c>mm-sources</c>. 283<c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
284doesn't always work as expected.
415</p> 285</p>
416 286
417</body> 287</body>
418</section> 288</section>
419<section> 289<section>
432<title>pac-sources</title> 302<title>pac-sources</title>
433<body> 303<body>
434 304
435<p> 305<p>
436The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's 306The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
437(bero) patches. 307(bero) patches. Be warned that this kernel is quite out of date and may be
438</p> 308removed from Portage soon.
439
440</body>
441</section>
442<section>
443<title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
444<body>
445
446<p>
447This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
448Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
449</p>
450
451<p>
452More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
453</p> 309</p>
454 310
455</body> 311</body>
456</section> 312</section>
457<section> 313<section>
517</p> 373</p>
518 374
519</body> 375</body>
520</section> 376</section>
521</chapter> 377</chapter>
378
379<chapter>
380<title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
381<section>
382<title>gaming-sources</title>
383<body>
384
385<p>
386<c>gaming-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with a broken scheduler patch applied
387which enhanced performance in games. It was removed from Portage because some
388problems accumulated, and the scheduler work being done in Linux 2.6 at the
389same time offered the same or even better performance.
390</p>
391
392</body>
393</section>
394<section>
395<title>gs-sources</title>
396<body>
397
398<p>
399<c>gs-sources</c>, once advertised as our server-style patch set, became a
400testing ground for prerelease 2.4 kernels. Unfortunately, the maintainer
401became inactive and this kernel detoriated with new system updates and
402became out of date.
403</p>
404
405</body>
406</section>
407<section>
408<title>ia64-sources</title>
409<body>
410
411<p>
412<c>ia64-sources</c> were the IA64-specific kernel trees. They are however
413obsoleted in favor of <c>development-sources</c>.
414</p>
415
416</body>
417</section>
418</chapter>
419
522</guide> 420</guide>

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