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1 zhen 1.4 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 zhen 1.6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10     <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15    
16     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17     Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18     approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19     scratch.
20     </abstract>
21    
22     <version>2.1</version>
23     <date>20 November 2002</date>
24    
25     <chapter>
26     <title>About the Install</title>
27     <section>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
31     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
32     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
33     (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
34     modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
35     card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
36     network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files.
37     </p>
38    
39     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
40     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
41     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
42     slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
43     livecd ISO images from
44     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
45     easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
46     some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
47     optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
48     stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
49     stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd.
50     </p>
51    
52     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
53     create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
54     If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
55     to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
56     them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
57     have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
58     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:
59     </p>
60    
61     <table>
62     <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
63     <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
64     <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
65     <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
66     </table>
67    
68     </body>
69     </section>
70     </chapter>
71    
72     <chapter>
73     <title>Booting</title>
74     <section>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
78     greeted with a lot of text output
79     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
80     Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
81     and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
82     password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
83     The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
84     to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
85     the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
86     You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
87     console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
88     hitting enter.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
92     and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
93     load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
94     devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
95     console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
96     hitting enter.
97     </p>
98    
99     </body>
100     </section>
101     </chapter>
102    
103     <chapter>
104     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
105     <section>
106     <body>
107    
108    
109     <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
110     autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
111     kernel modules.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
115     will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
116     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
117     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
118     type:
119     </p>
120 drobbins 1.1
121 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
122 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
123 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
124     </pre>
125 drobbins 1.1
126 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
127     during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
128     modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
129     </p>
130 drobbins 1.1
131 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
132 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
133     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
134 zhen 1.6 </pre>
135 drobbins 1.1
136 zhen 1.6 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
137     <note>
138     Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
139     </note>
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
143     ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
144     </p>
145 drobbins 1.1
146 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
147 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
148     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
149     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
150     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
151     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
152 zhen 1.6 </pre>
153 drobbins 1.1
154 zhen 1.6 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
155     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
156 drobbins 1.1
157 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
158 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
159     # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
160     <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
161     # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
162     <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
163 zhen 1.6 </pre>
164 drobbins 1.1
165 zhen 1.6 </body>
166     </section>
167     </chapter>
168 drobbins 1.1
169 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
170     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
171     <section>
172     <body>
173 drobbins 1.1
174 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
175     trickery.
176     </p>
177 drobbins 1.1
178 zhen 1.6 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
179     portion of the install. </warn>
180 drobbins 1.1
181 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
182 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
183     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
184     # <i>insmod ds</i>
185     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
186 zhen 1.6 </pre>
187 drobbins 1.1
188 zhen 1.6 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
189     few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
190     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
191     preferable. (Technically, you need not run
192     <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
193     But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
194     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
195     drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
196     remove it). </p>
197    
198     </body>
199     </section>
200     </chapter>
201    
202     <chapter>
203     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
204     <section>
205     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
206     <body>
207    
208     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
209     made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
210     script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
211     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
212     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
213    
214     <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
215     # <c> adsl-setup </c>
216     # <c> adsl-start </c>
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
220     your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
221     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
222    
223     </body>
224     </section>
225    
226     <section>
227     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
231     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
232     Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
233     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
234     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
235     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
236     script. </p>
237 drobbins 1.1
238 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
239 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
240 zhen 1.6 </pre>
241 drobbins 1.1
242 zhen 1.6 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
243 drobbins 1.1
244 zhen 1.6 </body>
245     </section>
246 drobbins 1.1
247 zhen 1.6 <section>
248     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
249     <body>
250 drobbins 1.1
251 zhen 1.6 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
252     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
253 drobbins 1.1
254 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
255 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
256 zhen 1.6 </pre>
257 drobbins 1.1
258 zhen 1.6 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
259     add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
260     </note>
261    
262     <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
263     are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </section>
267    
268     <section>
269     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
273     sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
274     Type in the following commands, replacing
275     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
276     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
277     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
278     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
279     </p>
280 drobbins 1.1
281 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
282 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
283     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
284 zhen 1.6 </pre>
285 drobbins 1.1
286 zhen 1.6 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
287     file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
288 drobbins 1.1
289 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
290 drobbins 1.1
291 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
292 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
293     nameserver 10.0.0.1
294     nameserver 10.0.0.2
295 zhen 1.6 </pre>
296    
297     <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
298     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
299     </body>
300     </section>
301    
302     <section>
303     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
304     <body>
305     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
306     you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
307     </p>
308 drobbins 1.1
309 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting a Proxy">
310 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
311     # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
312     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
313 zhen 1.6 </pre>
314 drobbins 1.1
315 zhen 1.6 </body>
316     </section>
317 drobbins 1.1
318 zhen 1.6 <section>
319     <title>Network Testing</title>
320     <body>
321     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
322     that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
323 drobbins 1.1
324 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
325 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
326     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
327     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
328     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
329     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
330     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
331     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
332     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
333     Interrupt:11
334 zhen 1.6 </pre>
335 drobbins 1.1
336 zhen 1.7 <p>You may want to also try pinging Gentoo.org's website, just to make sure that your packets are
337 zhen 1.6 reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working correctly, etc.
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption = "Further Network Testing">
341     # <c>ping www.gentoo.org </c>
342     </pre>
343    
344     </body>
345     </section>
346    
347     <section>
348     <title>Networking is go!</title>
349     <body>
350     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
351     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
352     </body>
353     </section>
354 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
355    
356 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
357     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
358     <section>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
362     to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
366     We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
367     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
368     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
369     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
370     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
371     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
372     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
373     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
374     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
375     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
376     </p>
377    
378     <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
379     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
380     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
381     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
382     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
383     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
384     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
385     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
386     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
387     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
388     is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
389     is highly unstable at this time.
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
393     for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
394     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
395     mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
396     if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
397     now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
398     Here are our basic recommended filesystem
399     sizes and types:
400     </p>
401    
402     <table>
403     <tr>
404     <th>Partition</th>
405     <th>Size</th>
406     <th>Type</th>
407     <th>example device</th>
408     </tr>
409     <tr>
410     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
411     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
412     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
413     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
414     </tr>
415     <tr>
416     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
417     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
418     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
419     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
420     </tr>
421     <tr>
422     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
423     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
424     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
425     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
426     </tr>
427     </table>
428    
429     <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the
430     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with
431     mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path>
432     for example. To do this you would do:
433     </p>
434 drobbins 1.1
435 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
436 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
437     <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
438 zhen 1.6 </pre>
439 drobbins 1.1
440 zhen 1.6 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
441     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
442 drobbins 1.1
443 zhen 1.6 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
444 zhware 1.9 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. By default cfdisk work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
445     <note>Changes to the partitions don't reflect on-the-fly, so please reboot after using fdisk or cfdisk.</note>
446 drobbins 1.1
447 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
448     different.
449     You will have the partitions like this:
450     <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
451     X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
452     array, then it will
453     be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
454     </note>
455 drobbins 1.1
456    
457 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
458     the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
459 drobbins 1.1
460 zhen 1.6 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
462 zhen 1.6 </pre>
463 drobbins 1.1
464 zhen 1.6 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
465 drobbins 1.1
466 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
467 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
468 zhen 1.6 </pre>
469 drobbins 1.1
470 zhen 1.6 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
471 drobbins 1.1
472 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
473 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
474 zhen 1.6 </pre>
475    
476     <note>
477     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
478     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
479     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
480     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
481     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
482     </note>
483    
484     <warn>
485     If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
486     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
487     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
488     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
489     </warn>
490 drobbins 1.1
491 zhen 1.6 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
492 drobbins 1.1
493 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
494 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
495 zhen 1.6 </pre>
496 drobbins 1.1
497 zhen 1.6 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
498    
499     <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
500 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
501 zhen 1.6 </pre>
502 drobbins 1.1
503 zhen 1.6 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
504     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
505     </note>
506    
507     </body>
508     </section>
509     </chapter>
510    
511     <chapter>
512     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
513     <section>
514     <body>
515    
516     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
517     provides later:
518     </p>
519 drobbins 1.1
520 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
521 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
522 zhen 1.6 </pre>
523 drobbins 1.1
524 zhen 1.6 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
525     and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
526 drobbins 1.1
527 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
528 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
529     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
530     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
531     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
532 zhen 1.6 </pre>
533 drobbins 1.1
534 zhen 1.6 <p>
535     If you are setting up Gentoo
536     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
537     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
538     </p>
539 drobbins 1.1
540 zhen 1.6 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
541     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
542     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
543     We'll get to that in a bit.
544     </impo>
545    
546     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
547     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
548     </body>
549     </section>
550     </chapter>
551    
552     <chapter>
553     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
554    
555     <section>
556     <body>
557    
558     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
559     to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
560     On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
561     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
562     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
563     from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
564 drobbins 1.1
565 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
566 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
567     # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
568 zhen 1.6 </pre>
569 drobbins 1.1
570 zhen 1.6 </body>
571     </section>
572     </chapter>
573    
574     <chapter>
575     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
576     <section>
577    
578     <body>
579    
580     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
581     Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation.
582     </p>
583    
584     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
585     cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
586    
587     <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method,
588     you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
589     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
590     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
591     compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stage3 image now also includes
592     complete linux sources and a Portage tree snapshot, eliminating the
593     need to do an <c>emerge sync</c> later, but it is highly recommended to do so anyway.
594     </p>
595 drobbins 1.1
596 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
597 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
598     # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
599     # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
600     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
601 zhen 1.6 </pre>
602 drobbins 1.1
603 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
604 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
605     # <c>env-update</c>
606     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
607     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
608 zhen 1.6 </pre>
609 drobbins 1.1
610 zhen 1.6 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment.
611     </p>
612 drobbins 1.1
613 zhen 1.6 </body>
614     </section>
615     </chapter>
616 drobbins 1.1
617 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
618     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
619 drobbins 1.1
620 zhen 1.6 <section>
621     <body>
622 drobbins 1.1
623 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
624     you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
625 drobbins 1.1
626 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
627     # <c>emerge sync</c>
628     </pre>
629 drobbins 1.1
630 zhen 1.6 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
631     it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
632     </p>
633    
634     </body>
635     </section>
636     </chapter>
637     <chapter>
638 stocke2 1.8 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
639 zhen 1.6 <section>
640     <body>
641    
642     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
643     install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
644     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
645     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
646     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
647     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
648     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
649     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
650     </p>
651    
652    
653     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
654     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
655     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
656     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
657     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
658     </p>
659    
660     <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
661     firewall.
662     </p>
663 drobbins 1.1
664 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
665 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
666 zhen 1.6 </pre>
667 drobbins 1.1
668 zhen 1.6 <note>
669     People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
670     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
671     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
672     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
673     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
674     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
675     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
676     in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
677     </note>
678 stocke2 1.8 </body>
679     </section>
680     </chapter>
681    
682    
683    
684     <chapter>
685     <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
686     <section>
687    
688     <body>
689    
690     <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
691     for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
692     do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
693     current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
694     <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
695     very fast machines.
696     </p>
697 zhen 1.6
698     <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
699     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
700     for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
701     These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
702     </p>
703 drobbins 1.1
704 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
705 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
706     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
707 zhen 1.6 </pre>
708 drobbins 1.1
709 zhen 1.6 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
710     </p>
711    
712     <note>
713     Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
714     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
715     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
716     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
717     </note>
718 drobbins 1.1
719 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
720 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
721 zhen 1.6 </pre>
722 drobbins 1.1
723 zhen 1.6 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
724     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
725     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
726     Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state.
727     </p>
728    
729     </body>
730     </section>
731     </chapter>
732    
733     <chapter>
734     <title>Timezone</title>
735     <section>
736    
737     <body>
738    
739     <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage
740     tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly,
741     let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.
742     </impo>
743    
744     <p>At this point, you should have a stage2 system that's ready for final configuration.
745     We'll start this process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
746     the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
747     </p>
748    
749     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
750     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
751     </p>
752 drobbins 1.1
753 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
754 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
755 zhen 1.6 </pre>
756 drobbins 1.1
757 zhen 1.6 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
758     are correct.
759     </p>
760    
761     </body>
762     </section>
763     </chapter>
764    
765     <chapter>
766     <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
767     <section>
768    
769     <body>
770     <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2
771     (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
772     it's time to build or install the rest of the base
773     system.
774     </p>
775    
776     <note>
777     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
778     </note>
779 drobbins 1.1
780 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
781 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
782     # <c>emerge -p system</c>
783     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
784     # <c>emerge system</c>
785 zhen 1.6 </pre>
786 drobbins 1.1
787 zhen 1.6 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
788     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
789     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
790     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
791    
792     <p>It's going to take a while
793     to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
794     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
795     way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
796     Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
797     you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.
798     </p>
799    
800     </body>
801     </section>
802     </chapter>
803    
804     <chapter>
805     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
806     <section>
807     <body>
808    
809     <note>
810     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
811     </note>
812    
813     <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
814     offer:
815     </p>
816 drobbins 1.1
817     <table>
818     <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
819     <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
820     <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
821     <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
822     <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
823     <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
824     </table>
825    
826 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable.
827     Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
828     <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>.
829     It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
830     </warn>
831 drobbins 1.1
832 zhen 1.6 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
833 drobbins 1.1
834 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
835 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
836 zhen 1.6 </pre>
837 drobbins 1.1
838 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
839     </p>
840 drobbins 1.1
841 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
842 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
843     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
844     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
845     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
846     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
847     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
848 zhen 1.6 </pre>
849 drobbins 1.1
850 zhen 1.6 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
851     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
852     compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
853     level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
854     option to see several of these selections.
855     Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
856     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
857     need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
858     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
859     "SGI XFS filesystem support"
860     option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
861     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
862     want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
863     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
864     kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
865     </warn>
866    
867     <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
868     For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
869     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
870     support for IDE RAID
871     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
872     </p>
873    
874     <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
875     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
876     "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
877     "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
878     are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
879     that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
880     </p>
881    
882     <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
883     kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
884     devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
885     under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
886     "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
887     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
888     >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
889     </p>
890    
891     <note>
892     For those who prefer it,
893     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
894     Such stability will come at a price:
895     you will lose many of the nifty features that
896     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
897     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
898     patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
899     Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
900     2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
901     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
902     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
903     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
904     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
905     </note>
906    
907     <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
908     logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
909     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
910     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
911     newer alternatives.
912     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
913     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
914     </p>
915 drobbins 1.1
916    
917 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
918 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
919     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
920     <comment>or</comment>
921     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
922     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
923     <comment>or</comment>
924     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
925     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
926     <comment>or</comment>
927     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
928     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
929 zhen 1.6 </pre>
930 drobbins 1.1
931 zhen 1.6 <warn>
932     In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
933     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
934     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
935     for a sample configuration file.
936     </warn>
937    
938     <impo>
939     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
940     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
941     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
942     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
943     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
944     in real time, as expected),
945     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
946     again.
947     </impo>
948    
949     <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
950     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
951     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
952     </p>
953 drobbins 1.1
954 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
955 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
956     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
957     <comment>or</comment>
958     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
959     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
960     <comment>or</comment>
961     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
962 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
963 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
964     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
965 zhen 1.6 </pre>
966 drobbins 1.1
967 zhen 1.6 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
968     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
969     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
970     <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>.
971     </p>
972    
973     </body>
974     </section>
975     </chapter>
976    
977     <chapter>
978     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
979     <section>
980     <body>
981 drobbins 1.1
982 zhen 1.6 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
983     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
984 drobbins 1.1
985 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
986 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
987 zhen 1.6 </pre>
988 drobbins 1.1
989 zhen 1.6 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
990     You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
991     for the first time.
992     </note>
993 drobbins 1.1
994    
995 zhen 1.6 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
996     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
997     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
998     </p>
999 drobbins 1.1
1000 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1001 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1002     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1003     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1004     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1005     # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1006 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1007 drobbins 1.1
1008    
1009 zhen 1.6 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1010     real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1011     </p>
1012 drobbins 1.1
1013 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1014 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1015 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1016 drobbins 1.1
1017 zhen 1.10 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</c> after installation to get PCMCIA
1018     to work.
1019     </warn>
1020    
1021 zhen 1.6 </body>
1022     </section>
1023     </chapter>
1024    
1025     <chapter>
1026     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1027     <section>
1028    
1029     <body>
1030    
1031     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1032     a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1033     The first file we need to
1034     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1035     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1036     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1037     </p>
1038    
1039     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
1040     "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1041     <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
1042 drobbins 1.1 <comment>
1043     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1044     #
1045     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1046     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1047     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1048     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1049    
1050     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1051    
1052     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1053     </comment>
1054     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1055     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1056     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1057     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1058     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1059 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1060 drobbins 1.1
1061 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1062     This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1063     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1064     </warn>
1065 drobbins 1.1
1066 zhen 1.6 </body>
1067     </section>
1068    
1069     <section>
1070     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1071    
1072     <body>
1073    
1074     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1075    
1076     <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
1077 drobbins 1.1 # <i>passwd</i>
1078 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1079    
1080     </body>
1081     </section>
1082 drobbins 1.1
1083 zhen 1.6 <section>
1084     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1085 drobbins 1.1
1086 zhen 1.6 <body>
1087     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1088     i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1089     </p>
1090 drobbins 1.1
1091 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
1092 drobbins 1.1 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
1093 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1094 drobbins 1.1
1095 zhen 1.6 </body>
1096     </section>
1097 drobbins 1.1
1098 zhen 1.6 <section>
1099     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1100    
1101     <body>
1102     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1103     It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1104     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1105     </p>
1106 drobbins 1.1
1107 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
1108 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1109     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1110     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1111 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1112 drobbins 1.1
1113 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1114     actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1115     </note>
1116 drobbins 1.1
1117 zhen 1.6 </body>
1118     </section>
1119 drobbins 1.1
1120 zhen 1.6 <section>
1121     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1122    
1123     <body>
1124 drobbins 1.1
1125    
1126 zhen 1.6 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1127     <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1128     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1129     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1130     it as a module:
1131     </p>
1132 drobbins 1.1
1133 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1134 drobbins 1.1 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1135     card. </comment>
1136     3c59x
1137 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1138 drobbins 1.1
1139 zhen 1.6 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1140     first boot: </p>
1141 drobbins 1.1
1142 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1143 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1144     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1145 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1146 drobbins 1.1
1147    
1148 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1149     scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1150 drobbins 1.1
1151 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1152 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1153     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1154     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1155 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1156 drobbins 1.1
1157    
1158 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1159     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1160 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1161 zhen 1.6 </p>
1162 drobbins 1.1
1163 zhen 1.10 <pre caption = "PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1164 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1165     need pcmcia
1166     }
1167 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1168 drobbins 1.1
1169 zhen 1.10 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1170     </p>
1171 drobbins 1.1
1172 zhen 1.6 </body>
1173     </section>
1174 drobbins 1.1
1175 zhen 1.6 <section>
1176     <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1177 drobbins 1.1
1178 zhen 1.6 <body>
1179    
1180 zhen 1.10 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1181 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1182 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1183 drobbins 1.1
1184 zhen 1.6 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1185     All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1186     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1187     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1188     possibilities).
1189     </p>
1190    
1191     </body>
1192     </section>
1193    
1194     <section>
1195     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1196    
1197     <body>
1198    
1199     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1200     refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1201     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1202     Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1203     Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1204     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1205     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1206     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1207     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1208     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1209    
1210     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1211     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1212     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1213     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1214     it's time to install GRUB.
1215     </p>
1216 drobbins 1.1
1217 zhen 1.6 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1218 drobbins 1.1
1219 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1220 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1221 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1222 drobbins 1.1
1223 zhen 1.6 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1224     this time.
1225     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1226     grub setup for RAID controllers
1227     </impo>
1228    
1229     <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1230     command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1231     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1232     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1233     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1234     I want to type are:
1235     </p>
1236 drobbins 1.1
1237 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1238 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1239     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1240     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1241 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1242 drobbins 1.1
1243 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1244     the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1245     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1246     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1247     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1248     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1249     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1250     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1251     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1252     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1253     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1254    
1255     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1256     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1257     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1258     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1259     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1260     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1261    
1262     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1263     to make the right choice.
1264     </note>
1265    
1266     Gentoo Linux is now
1267     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1268     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1269     </p>
1270    
1271     <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1272     <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1273     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1274 drobbins 1.1
1275 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1276     </p>
1277 drobbins 1.1
1278 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1279 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1280     timeout 30
1281     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1282    
1283     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1284     root (hd0,0)
1285     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1286    
1287     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1288     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1289     root (hd0,0)
1290     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1291    
1292     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1293     title=Windows NT Workstation
1294     root (hd0,5)
1295     chainloader +1
1296 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1297 drobbins 1.1
1298 zhen 1.6 <note>
1299     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1300     </note>
1301    
1302     <impo>
1303     If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1304     actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1305     line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1306     </impo>
1307    
1308     <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1309     tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1310     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1311     </p>
1312    
1313     <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1314     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1315     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1316     loader.
1317 zhware 1.9 </note>
1318     <note>
1319     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1320 zhen 1.6 </note>
1321    
1322     <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1323     add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1324     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1325     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1326     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1327     </p>
1328    
1329     <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1330     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1331     devfs is enabled by default.
1332     </note>
1333    
1334     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1335     disk. With hardware RAID
1336     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1337     will make a GRUB
1338     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1339     to the MBR. Make your
1340     bootdisk like this:
1341     </p>
1342 drobbins 1.1
1343 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1344 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1345     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1346     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1347     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1348     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1349    
1350     # <c>grub</c>
1351    
1352     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1353     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1354     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1355 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1356 drobbins 1.1
1357    
1358 zhen 1.6 </body>
1359     </section>
1360     </chapter>
1361    
1362     <chapter>
1363     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1364     <section>
1365    
1366     <body>
1367     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1368     udpate necessary configuration files,
1369     safely unmount your partitions
1370     and reboot the system:
1371     </p>
1372 drobbins 1.1
1373 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1374 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1375     # <c>exit</c>
1376     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1377     # <c>cd / </c>
1378     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1379     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1380     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1381     # <c>reboot</c>
1382 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1383 drobbins 1.1
1384 zhen 1.6 <note>
1385     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1386     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1387     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1388     </note>
1389    
1390     <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1391     use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1392     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1393     time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1394    
1395     <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1396     consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1397     (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1398     We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1399     that will
1400     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1401     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1402     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1403 zhen 1.10 <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1404     involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1405     <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1406 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1407     </p>
1408    
1409     </body>
1410     </section>
1411     </chapter>
1412    
1413     <chapter>
1414     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1415     <section>
1416    
1417     <body>
1418    
1419     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1420     a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1421     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1422     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1423     </p>
1424    
1425     <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1426     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1427     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1428     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1429     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1430     right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:
1431     </p>
1432     <ul>
1433     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1434     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1435     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1436     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1437     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1438     </ul>
1439    
1440     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1441     (just as it is to the developers).
1442     </p>
1443    
1444     <ul>
1445     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1446     information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1447     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1448     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1449     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1450     </ul>
1451 drobbins 1.1
1452 zhen 1.6 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1453     </p>
1454 drobbins 1.1
1455 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1456 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1457     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1458 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1459 drobbins 1.1
1460 zhen 1.6 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1461     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1462     to see additional configuration options.
1463     </p>
1464    
1465     <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1466     (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1467     </p>
1468 drobbins 1.1
1469 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1470     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1471     </pre>
1472 drobbins 1.1
1473 zhen 1.6 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1474     viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1475 drobbins 1.1
1476    
1477 zhen 1.6 </body>
1478     </section>
1479 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1480    
1481    
1482    
1483    
1484     </guide>

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