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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 jhhudso 1.74 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc3 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
43 jhhudso 1.74 Linux 1.4_rc3. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
44 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
45     scratch.
46     </abstract>
47 zhen 1.93 <version>2.6</version>
48 zhen 1.92 <date>20 March 2003</date>
49 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
50     <title>About the Install</title>
51     <section>
52     <body>
53 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
54 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
55 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
56     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
57     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
58     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
59 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
60 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
61 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
62 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
63 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
64     slow under those conditions.)</p>
65 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
66 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
67 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
68 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
69 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
70 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
71     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
72     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
73 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
74     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
75 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
76     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
77 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
78     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
79     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
80 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
81    
82    
83 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
84 peesh 1.100 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
85     the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
86 drobbins 1.22 </p>
87 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
88 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
89     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
90 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
91     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
92     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
93 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
94 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
95 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
96 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
97 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
98 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
99 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
100 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
101 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
102 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
103 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
104     </impo>
105 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
106     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
107 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
108     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
109 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
110 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
111 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
112 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
113 zhen 1.26 <table>
114 zhen 1.16 <tr>
115     <th>stage tarball</th>
116     <th>requirements for installation</th>
117     </tr>
118     <tr>
119     <ti>1</ti>
120 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
121 zhen 1.16 </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <ti>2</ti>
124 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
125 zhen 1.16 </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <ti>3</ti>
128     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
129     </tr>
130     </table>
131     </body>
132     </section>
133     </chapter>
134     <chapter>
135     <title>Booting</title>
136     <section>
137     <body>
138 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
139 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
140 drobbins 1.70 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by typing <c>gentoo opt1 opt2</c> and then hitting Enter. To see
141     a detailed description of available boot options, press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
142    
143 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
144     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
145     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
146     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
147     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
148 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
149 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
150     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
151     follow the prompts.
152 zhen 1.6 </p>
153 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
154 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
155 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
156 zhen 1.6 </p>
157 zhen 1.16 </body>
158     </section>
159     </chapter>
160     <chapter>
161     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
162     <section>
163     <body>
164     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
165 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
166 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
167     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
168     type:
169     </p>
170 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
171 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
172 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
173 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
174 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
175 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
176 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
177     </p>
178 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
179 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
180 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
181 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
182 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
183 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
184 zhen 1.6 <note>
185 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
186 zhen 1.52 </note>
187 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
188 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
189     </p>
190 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
191 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
192     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
193 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
194 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
195 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
196     </pre>
197 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
198 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
199 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
200     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
201 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
202 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
203     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
204     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
205     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
206     </pre>
207 zhen 1.16 </body>
208     </section>
209     </chapter>
210 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
211 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
212     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
213     <section>
214     <body>
215 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
216 zhen 1.6 </p>
217 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
218 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
219 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
220 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
221     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
222     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
223 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
224 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
225 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
226 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
227     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
228 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
229 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
230 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
231     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
232 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
233 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
234 zhen 1.16 </body>
235     </section>
236     </chapter>
237 drobbins 1.70 -->
238 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
239     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
240 drobbins 1.70 <section>
241     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
242     <body>
243 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
244 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
245     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
246     among others.</p>
247    
248     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
249     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
250     </p>
251 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
252 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
253     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
254     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
255     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
256     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
257     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
258     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
259     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
260     Interrupt:11
261 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
262 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
263     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
264     resolution is working correctly, etc.
265     </p>
266 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
267 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
268 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
269 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
270     </body>
271     </section>
272 zhen 1.16 <section>
273     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
274     <body>
275 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
276 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
277 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
278     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
279     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
280 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
281 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
282     # <c> adsl-start </c>
283 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
284 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
285 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
286     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
287 zhen 1.16 </body>
288     </section>
289     <section>
290     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
291     <body>
292 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
293 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
294 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
295 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
296 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
297 zhen 1.16 </body>
298     </section>
299     <section>
300     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
301     <body>
302     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
303     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
304 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
305     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
306     </pre>
307 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
308 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
309     </note>
310 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
311 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
312 zhen 1.16 </body>
313     </section>
314     <section>
315     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
316     <body>
317     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
318 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
319     Type in the following commands, replacing
320     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
321     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
322     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
323     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
324     </p>
325 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
326 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
327     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
328 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
329 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
330 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
331 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
332 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
333 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
334     nameserver 10.0.0.1
335     nameserver 10.0.0.2
336 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
337 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
338 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
339 zhen 1.16 </body>
340     </section>
341     <section>
342     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
343     <body>
344     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
345 zhen 1.6 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
346     </p>
347 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
348 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
349 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
350     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
351 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
352 zhen 1.16 </body>
353     </section>
354 drobbins 1.70 <section>
355 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
356     <body>
357 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
358 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
359 zhen 1.16 </body>
360     </section>
361     </chapter>
362     <chapter>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
364     <section>
365     <body>
366     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
367     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
368     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
369     # <c>date</c>
370     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
371     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
372     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
373     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
374     </pre>
375     </body>
376     </section>
377     </chapter>
378     <chapter>
379 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
380 zhen 1.16 <section>
381 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
382 zhen 1.16 <body>
383 drobbins 1.86 <p>
384     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
385 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
386 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
387     install.
388     </p>
389     <p>
390     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
391     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
392     </p>
393     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
394     /dev/hda
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
399     </p>
400    
401     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
402     /dev/sda
403     </pre>
404    
405     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
406     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
407     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
408     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
409     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
410     </body>
411     </section>
412     <section>
413     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
414     <body>
415     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
416     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
417     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
418    
419     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
420     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
421     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
422     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
423 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
424 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
425     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
426     up the full disk. </p>
427    
428     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
429     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
430    
431     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
432     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
433    
434     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
435     # fdisk /dev/hda
436     </pre>
437     <p>
438     or
439     </p>
440     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
441     # fdisk /dev/sda
442     </pre>
443    
444     <impo>
445     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
446     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
447     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
448     lost.</b>
449     </impo>
450    
451     <p>
452     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
456     Command (m for help):
457     </pre>
458    
459    
460     <p>
461     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
462     </p>
463    
464     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
465     Command (m for help): p
466    
467     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
468     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
469    
470     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
471     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
472     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
473     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
474     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
475     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
476     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
477     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
478     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
479     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
480    
481     Command (m for help):
482     </pre>
483    
484     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
485     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
486     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
487    
488     <p>
489     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
490     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
491     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
492     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
493     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
494     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
495     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
496     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
497     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
498     </p>
499    
500     <p>
501     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
502     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
503    
504     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
505     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
506 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
507 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
508     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
509    
510     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
511     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
512     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
513     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
514     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
515     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
516 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
517 drobbins 1.86 </p>
518     </body>
519     </section>
520     <section>
521     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
522     <body>
523    
524 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
525 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
526     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
527     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
528     look like this: </p>
529    
530     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
531     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
532     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
533     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
534    
535     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
536     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
537     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
538     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
539    
540     Command (m for help):
541     </pre>
542    
543     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
544     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
545     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
546     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
547     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
548     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
549     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
550 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
551     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
552 drobbins 1.86
553 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
554     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
555     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
556     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
557     cylinder 1024.
558     </p>
559    
560 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
561     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
562     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
563 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
564     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
565 drobbins 1.86
566     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
567     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
568     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
569     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
570    
571    
572     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
573     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
574     Linux:</p>
575    
576     <table>
577     <tr>
578     <th>Partition</th>
579     <th>Size</th>
580     <th>Type</th>
581     <th>example device</th>
582     </tr>
583     <tr>
584     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
585     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
586     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
587     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
588     </tr>
589     <tr>
590     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
591     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
592     in your system.</ti>
593     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
594     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
595     </tr>
596     <tr>
597     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
598     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
599     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
600     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
601     </tr>
602     </table>
603    
604     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
605 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
606 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
607     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
608     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
609     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
610    
611     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
612     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
613     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
614     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
615     from the wrong drive.</impo>
616    
617     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
618     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
619     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
620    
621     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
622     Command (m for help): d
623     Partition number (1-4): 1
624     </pre>
625 zhen 1.54
626 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
627     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
628     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
629     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
630     deleted.</p>
631     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
632     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
633     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
634 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
635 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
636     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
637 drobbins 1.86 -->
638     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
639     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
640     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
641     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
642    
643     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
644     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
645     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
646     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
647    
648     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
649    
650     Command (m for help):
651     </pre>
652    
653     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
654     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
655     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
656     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
657     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
658     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
659    
660     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
661     Command (m for help): n
662     Command action
663     e extended
664     p primary partition (1-4)
665     p
666     Partition number (1-4): 1
667     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
668     Using default value 1
669     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
670     </pre>
671    
672     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
673    
674     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
675     Command (m for help): p
676    
677     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
678     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
679     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
680    
681     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
682     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
683     </pre>
684    
685     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
686     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
687     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
688     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
689     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
690     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
691     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
692     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
693    
694     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
695     Command (m for help): p
696    
697     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
698     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
699     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
700    
701     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
702     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
703     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
704     </pre>
705    
706     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
707     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
708 zhen 1.93 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
709 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
710     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
711     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
712     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
713     this:</p>
714    
715     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
716     Command (m for help): p
717    
718     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
719     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
720     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
721    
722     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
723     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
724     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
725     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
726     </pre>
727    
728     <p>
729     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
730     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
731     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
732     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
733     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
734     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
735     install.
736     </p>
737    
738     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
739     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
740     </body>
741     </section>
742     <section>
743     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
744     <body>
745     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
746     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
747     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
748     </p>
749    
750     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
751     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
752     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
753    
754     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
755     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
756     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
757     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
758     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
759     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
760     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
761    
762     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
763     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
764     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
765 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
766     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
767     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
768     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
769     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
770     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
771 drobbins 1.86
772     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
773     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
774     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
775     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
776     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
777     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
778     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
779     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
780     non-boot partitions.</p>
781    
782     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
783     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
784     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
785     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
786     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
787     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
788     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
789     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
790    
791     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
792     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
793     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
794     point.</p>
795    
796     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
797     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
798     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
799     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
800    
801     <!-- Corner case, confusing
802 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
803 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
804 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
805     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
806 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
807 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
808 zhen 1.6 </p>
809 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
810     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
811     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
812     </pre>
813     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
814 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
815     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
816     </warn>
817 drobbins 1.86 -->
818    
819     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
820     all our partitions for use:</p>
821    
822     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
823     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
824     # mkswap /dev/hda2
825     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
826     </pre>
827    
828 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
829     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
830     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
831     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
832     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
833     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
834    
835     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
836     during the installation process:</p>
837 drobbins 1.86
838 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
839 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
840 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
841 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
842 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
843 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
844 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
845 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
846 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
847 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
848 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
849     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
850     </pre>
851     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
852     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
853 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
854 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
855     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
856     </pre>
857 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
858 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
859 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
860 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
861     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
862     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
863     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
864     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
865     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
866     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
867     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
868 drobbins 1.86
869 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
870 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
871 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
872 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
873 zhen 1.16 </body>
874     </section>
875     </chapter>
876     <chapter>
877     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
878     <section>
879     <body>
880 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
881 zhen 1.6 provides later:
882     </p>
883 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
884 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
885 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
886 drobbins 1.86
887 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
888 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
889 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
890     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
891     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
892     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
893     </p>
894    
895     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
896     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
897     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
898     We will get to that in a bit.
899     </impo>
900    
901 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
902 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
903     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
904     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
905     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
906 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
907 drobbins 1.86
908     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
909 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
910 zhen 1.16 </body>
911     </section>
912     </chapter>
913     <chapter>
914 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
915 zhen 1.16 <section>
916 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
917 zhen 1.16 <body>
918 zhen 1.55
919 drobbins 1.86 <p>
920     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
921     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
922    
923     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
924     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
925     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
926     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
927     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
928     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
929     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
930     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
931    
932     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
933     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
934     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
935     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
936     tarball" section.</p>
937    
938 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
939 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
940 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
941 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
942 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
943     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
944     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
945     Save the file and quit the browser
946    
947     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
948     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
949 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
950 zhen 1.16 </body>
951     </section>
952     <section>
953 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
954 zhen 1.16 <body>
955 drobbins 1.86
956     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
957     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
958     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
959     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
960     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
961    
962     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
963     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
964    
965 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
966 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
967 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
968     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
969     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
970 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
971 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
972    
973     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
974 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
975 drobbins 1.86 </body>
976     </section>
977     <section>
978     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
979     <body>
980     <p>
981     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
982     Gentoo Linux system.
983     </p>
984    
985     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
986 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
987 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
988     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
989     # <c>env-update</c>
990     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
991     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
992 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
993     </pre>
994 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
995     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
996     </p>
997 zhen 1.16 </body>
998     </section>
999     </chapter>
1000     <chapter>
1001 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1002 zhen 1.16 <section>
1003     <body>
1004 drobbins 1.86
1005     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1006     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1007     The Portage tree
1008 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1009 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1010 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1011    
1012 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1013 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1014 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1015 zhen 1.60
1016 zhen 1.16 </body>
1017     </section>
1018     </chapter>
1019     <chapter>
1020     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1021     <section>
1022     <body>
1023 drobbins 1.86
1024     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1025     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1026     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1027     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1028     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1029     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1030     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1031     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1032     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1033     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1034     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1035    
1036     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1037     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1038     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1039     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1040     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1041     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1042     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1043     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1044     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1045 drobbins 1.70
1046 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1047     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1048     a simple visual editor.
1049     </p>
1050 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1051     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1052 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1053 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1054 zhen 1.16 <note>
1055 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1056 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1057 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1058 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1059     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1060 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1061 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1062 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1063     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1064 zhen 1.6 </note>
1065 zhen 1.16 </body>
1066     </section>
1067     </chapter>
1068     <chapter>
1069 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1070 zhen 1.16 <section>
1071     <body>
1072 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1073 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1074 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1075 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1076     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1077 zhen 1.18 </p>
1078 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1079 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1080 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1081     as follows:</p>
1082 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1083 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1084     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1085 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1086 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1087 zhen 1.6 </p>
1088 zhen 1.16 <note>
1089 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1090     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1091     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1092     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1093     </note>
1094 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1095 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1096 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1097 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1098 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1099     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1100 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1101 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1102 zhen 1.6 </p>
1103 zhen 1.16 </body>
1104     </section>
1105     </chapter>
1106     <chapter>
1107 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1108 zhen 1.16 <section>
1109     <body>
1110 drobbins 1.86
1111     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1112     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1113     </note>
1114    
1115     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1116 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1117 zhen 1.6 </p>
1118 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1119 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1120 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1121 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1122 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1123 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1124 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1125     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1126 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1127 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1128     </p>
1129     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1130     a couple of choices on how to continue
1131     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1132     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1133 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1134 zhen 1.18 </p>
1135     </body>
1136     </section>
1137     </chapter>
1138     <chapter>
1139     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1140     <section>
1141     <body>
1142 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1143     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1144     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1145     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1146     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1147     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1148     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1149     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1150     In any case, feel free to skip these
1151     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1152     </p>
1153 zhen 1.57
1154 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1155 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1156     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1157     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1158     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1159     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1160     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1161 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1162 seemant 1.79 </body>
1163     </section>
1164     </chapter>
1165     <chapter>
1166 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1167 seemant 1.79 <section>
1168     <body>
1169 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1170     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1171     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1172     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1173     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1174 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1175 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1176 zhen 1.16 </body>
1177     </section>
1178     </chapter>
1179     <chapter>
1180 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1181 zhen 1.16 <section>
1182     <body>
1183     <note>
1184 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1185     </note>
1186 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1187 zhen 1.6 offer:
1188     </p>
1189 zhen 1.16 <table>
1190     <tr>
1191     <th>ebuild</th>
1192     <th>description</th>
1193     </tr>
1194     <tr>
1195     <ti>
1196     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1197     </ti>
1198 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1199 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1200     <tr>
1201     <ti>
1202     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1203     </ti>
1204 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1205 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1206     <tr>
1207     <ti>
1208     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1209     </ti>
1210     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1211     </tr>
1212     <tr>
1213     <ti>
1214     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1215     </ti>
1216     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1217     </tr>
1218     <tr>
1219     <ti>
1220     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1221     </ti>
1222 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1223 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1224     </table>
1225 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1226     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1227     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1228 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1229 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1230 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1231 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1232 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1233 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1234 zhen 1.6 </p>
1235 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1236 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1237 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1238     to the correct one before proceeding.
1239     </p>
1240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1242     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1243     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1244     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1245 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1246 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1247 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1248 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1249     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1250     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1251     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1252     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1253     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1254     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1255     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1256     ...
1257    
1258     File systems ---&gt;
1259     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1260     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1261     ...
1262     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1263     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1264     ...
1265     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1266     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1267     ...
1268     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1269     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1270     ...
1271     [*] /proc file system support
1272     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1273     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1274     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1275     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1276     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1277     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1278     ...
1279     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1280     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1281     ...
1282     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1283     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1284     </pre>
1285 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1286 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1287     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1288     support for IDE RAID
1289     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1290     </p>
1291 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1292 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1293 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1294     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1295     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1296 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1297     </p>
1298 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1299     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1300     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1301     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1302     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1303     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1304     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1305 zhen 1.6 </p>
1306 zhen 1.16 <note>
1307 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1308     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1309 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1310 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1311     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1312     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1313 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1314     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1315 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1316     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1317 peesh 1.85 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1318     that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1319 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1320     </note>
1321 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1322 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1323     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1324     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1325     newer alternatives.
1326     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1327     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1328     </p>
1329 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1330 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1331     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1332     <comment>or</comment>
1333     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1334     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1335     <comment>or</comment>
1336     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1337     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1338     <comment>or</comment>
1339     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1340     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1341 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1342 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1343 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1344     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1345     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1346     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1347     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1348     in real time, as expected),
1349     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1350 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1351     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1352 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1353 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1354     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1355 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1356     </p>
1357 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1358 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1359 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1360 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1361     <comment>or</comment>
1362     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1363 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1365     <comment>or</comment>
1366     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1367 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1368     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1369     </pre>
1370     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1371 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1372 zhen 1.6 </p>
1373 zhen 1.16 </body>
1374     </section>
1375     </chapter>
1376     <chapter>
1377 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1378 zhen 1.16 <section>
1379     <body>
1380     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1381 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1382 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1383 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1384 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1385 zhen 1.40
1386     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1387     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1388     X support later.
1389     </note>
1390 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1391 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1392     for the first time.
1393     </note>
1394 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1395 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1396 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1397 zhen 1.6 </p>
1398 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1399 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1400 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1401 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1402 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1403 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1404 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1405 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1406 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1407 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1408 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1409 zhen 1.6 </p>
1410 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1411 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1412 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1413 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1414 zhen 1.10 to work.
1415     </warn>
1416 zhen 1.16 </body>
1417     </section>
1418     </chapter>
1419     <chapter>
1420 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1421 zhen 1.16 <section>
1422     <body>
1423     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1424 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1425 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1426     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1427     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1428     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1429     </p>
1430 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1431     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1432 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1433     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1434 drobbins 1.1 #
1435 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1436 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1437 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1438 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1439    
1440 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1441 drobbins 1.1
1442     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1443     </comment>
1444     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1445     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1446     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1447     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1448     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1449 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1450 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1451 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1452     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1453     </warn>
1454 zhen 1.16 </body>
1455     </section>
1456     </chapter>
1457     <chapter>
1458 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1459 zhen 1.16 <section>
1460     <body>
1461     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1462 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1463 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1464 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1465 zhen 1.56
1466     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1467     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1468     </p>
1469 zhen 1.16 </body>
1470     </section>
1471     </chapter>
1472     <chapter>
1473 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1474 zhen 1.16 <section>
1475     <body>
1476     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1477 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1478     </p>
1479 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1480 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1481 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1482 zhen 1.16 </body>
1483     </section>
1484     </chapter>
1485     <chapter>
1486 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1487 zhen 1.16 <section>
1488     <body>
1489 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1490 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1491     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1492 zhen 1.6 </p>
1493 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1494 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1495     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1496     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1497 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1498 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1499 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1500     </note>
1501 zhen 1.16 </body>
1502     </section>
1503     </chapter>
1504     <chapter>
1505     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1506     <section>
1507     <body>
1508     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1509 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1510     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1511     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1512     it as a module:
1513     </p>
1514 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1515     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1516 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1517 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1518 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1519 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1520 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1521 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1522     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1523 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1524 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1525 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1526 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1527 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1528     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1529     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1530 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1531 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1532 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1533 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1534 zhen 1.6 </p>
1535 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1536 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1537     need pcmcia
1538     }
1539 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1540 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1541 zhen 1.10 </p>
1542 zhen 1.16 </body>
1543     </section>
1544     </chapter>
1545     <chapter>
1546     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1547     <section>
1548     <body>
1549 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1550 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1551 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1552 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1553 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1554     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1555     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1556     possibilities).
1557     </p>
1558 zhen 1.16 </body>
1559     </section>
1560     </chapter>
1561     <chapter>
1562 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1563 zhen 1.49 <section>
1564     <title>Notes</title>
1565     <body>
1566     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1567     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1568     LILO as their bootloaders.
1569     </p>
1570     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1571 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1572 zhen 1.49 </p>
1573 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1574     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1575 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1576     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1577 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1578 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1579 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1580    
1581 zhen 1.49 </body>
1582     </section>
1583 zhen 1.16 <section>
1584 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1585 zhen 1.16 <body>
1586     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1587 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1588     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1589 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1590 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1591     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1592     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1593     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1594 peesh 1.99 a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hard drive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1595 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1596    
1597     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1598     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1599     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1600     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1601 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1602 zhen 1.6 </p>
1603 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1604 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1605 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1606 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1607 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1608 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1609 zhen 1.6 this time.
1610     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1611     grub setup for RAID controllers
1612     </impo>
1613 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1614 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1615     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1616     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1617     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1618     I want to type are:
1619     </p>
1620 zhen 1.68
1621 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1622 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1623     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1624 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1625 zhen 1.68
1626 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1627 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1628 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1629     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1630 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1631 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1632 zhen 1.68
1633 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1634 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1635     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1636     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1637     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1638     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1639     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1640     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1641     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1642 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1643 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1644 zhen 1.52 </p>
1645 zhen 1.6
1646     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1647     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1648     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1649     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1650     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1651     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1652    
1653     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1654     to make the right choice.
1655     </note>
1656    
1657 zhen 1.52 <p>
1658 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1659     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1660 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1661 zhen 1.6 </p>
1662 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1663 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1664     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1665 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1666 zhen 1.6 </p>
1667 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1668 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1669     timeout 30
1670     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1671    
1672     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1673     root (hd0,0)
1674 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1675 drobbins 1.1
1676 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1677 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1678     root (hd0,0)
1679 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1680 drobbins 1.1
1681     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1682 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1683 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1684 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1685 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1686 zhen 1.16 <note>
1687 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1688     </note>
1689 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1690 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1691 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1692     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1693 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1694 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1695 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1696     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1697     </p>
1698 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1699 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1700     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1701     loader.
1702 zhware 1.9 </note>
1703 zhen 1.16 <note>
1704 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1705 zhen 1.6 </note>
1706 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1707 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1708     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1709     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1710     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1711     </p>
1712 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1713 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1714     devfs is enabled by default.
1715     </note>
1716 zhen 1.16 </body>
1717     </section>
1718 zhen 1.49 <section>
1719     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1720 zhen 1.16 <body>
1721 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1722 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1723 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1724 zhen 1.16 </p>
1725     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1726     </p>
1727 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1728 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1729 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1730 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1731 zhen 1.16 </p>
1732 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1733 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1734     map=/boot/map
1735     install=/boot/boot.b
1736     prompt
1737     timeout=50
1738     lba32
1739     default=linux
1740    
1741     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1742     label=linux
1743     read-only
1744 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1745 zhen 1.16
1746     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1747     other=/dev/hda1
1748     label=dos
1749 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1750 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1751 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1752     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1753     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1754     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1755     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1756 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1757 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1758     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1759     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1760     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1761     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1762     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1763     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1764     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1765     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1766     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1767     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1768     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1769     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1770     altered during the boot process. </li>
1771     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1772 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1773 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1774     into the MBR:
1775     </p>
1776 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1777 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1778 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1779 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1780     </p>
1781     </body>
1782     </section>
1783     </chapter>
1784     <chapter>
1785 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1786 zhen 1.16 <section>
1787     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1788     <body>
1789 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1790 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1791 drobbins 1.21 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> make a GRUB boot
1792     disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1793     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1794     make a GRUB
1795     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1796 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1797 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1798 zhen 1.6 </p>
1799 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1800 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1801     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1802     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1803     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1804     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1805 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1806 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1807    
1808     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1809     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1810     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1811 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1812 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1813 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1814 zhen 1.16 </body>
1815     </section>
1816     <section>
1817     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1818     <body>
1819     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1820     </p>
1821 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1822 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1823     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1824 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1825 zhen 1.16 </body>
1826     </section>
1827     </chapter>
1828     <chapter>
1829     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1830     <section>
1831     <body>
1832 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1833    
1834 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1835     and reboot the system:
1836     </p>
1837 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1838 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1839     # <c>exit</c>
1840 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1841 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1842     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1843     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1844     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1845     # <c>reboot</c>
1846 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1847 zhen 1.16 <note>
1848 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1849     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1850     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1851     </note>
1852 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1853 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1854     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1855 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1856 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1857 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1858 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1859 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1860     that will
1861     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1862     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1863     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1864 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1865 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1866 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1867 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1868     </p>
1869 zhen 1.16 </body>
1870     </section>
1871     </chapter>
1872     <chapter>
1873     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1874     <section>
1875     <body>
1876     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1877 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1878     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1879     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1880     </p>
1881 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1882 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1883 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1884 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1885     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1886 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1887 zhen 1.6 </p>
1888 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1889     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1890     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1891     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1892     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1893     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1894     </ul>
1895     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1896 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1897     </p>
1898 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1899     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1900 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1901 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1902     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1903     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1904     </ul>
1905     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1906 zhen 1.6 </p>
1907 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1908 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1909     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1910 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1911 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1912 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1913     to see additional configuration options.
1914     </p>
1915 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1916 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1917     </p>
1918 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1919     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1920     </pre>
1921 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1922 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1923 zhen 1.16 </body>
1924     </section>
1925     </chapter>
1926 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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