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Added 1.4_rc4 LiveCD additional kernels and boot options

1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
46 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
47 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
48     scratch.
49     </abstract>
50 zhen 1.93 <version>2.6</version>
51 peesh 1.104 <date>10 Apr 2003</date>
52 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
53     <title>About the Install</title>
54     <section>
55     <body>
56 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
57 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
58 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
59     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
60     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
61     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
62 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
63 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
64 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
65 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
66 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
67     slow under those conditions.)</p>
68 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
69 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
70 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
71 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
72 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
73 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
74     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
75     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
76 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
77     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
78 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
79     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
80 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
81     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
82     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
83 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
84    
85    
86 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
87 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
88 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
89 drobbins 1.22 </p>
90 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
91 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
92     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
93 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
94     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
95     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
96 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
97 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
98 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
99 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
100 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
101 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
102 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
103 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
104 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
105 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
106 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
107     </impo>
108 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
109     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
110 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
111     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
112 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
113 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
114 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
115 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
116 zhen 1.26 <table>
117 zhen 1.16 <tr>
118     <th>stage tarball</th>
119     <th>requirements for installation</th>
120     </tr>
121     <tr>
122     <ti>1</ti>
123 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 zhen 1.16 </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <ti>2</ti>
127 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
128 zhen 1.16 </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <ti>3</ti>
131     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
132     </tr>
133     </table>
134     </body>
135     </section>
136     </chapter>
137     <chapter>
138     <title>Booting</title>
139     <section>
140     <body>
141 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
142 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
143 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
144    
145     <table>
146     <tr>
147     <th>Available kernels.</th>
148     <th>description</th>
149     </tr>
150    
151     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
152     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
153     <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 frambuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
154     <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
156     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
157     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
159    
160     </table>
161    
162     <p>
163     <table>
164     <tr>
165     <th>Available boot options.</th>
166     <th>description</th>
167     </tr>
168    
169     <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
170     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
171    
172     <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
173     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
174    
175     <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177    
178     <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
179     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
180    
181     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
182     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
183    
184     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
185     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
186    
187     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
188     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
189    
190     <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
191     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
192    
193     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
194     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
195    
196     <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198    
199     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
200     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
201    
202     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
203     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
204    
205     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
206     <ti>disables autoloading of evms modules</ti></tr>
207    
208     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
209     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
210    
211     </table></p>
212 drobbins 1.70
213 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
221     follow the prompts.
222 zhen 1.6 </p>
223 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 zhen 1.6 </p>
227 zhen 1.16 </body>
228     </section>
229     </chapter>
230     <chapter>
231     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238     type:
239     </p>
240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247     </p>
248 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 zhen 1.6 <note>
255 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 zhen 1.52 </note>
257 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259     </p>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
317    
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
389     Type in the following commands, replacing
390     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
391     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
392     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
393     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
394     </p>
395 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
396 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
397     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
398 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
399 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
400 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
401 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
402 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
403 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
404     nameserver 10.0.0.1
405     nameserver 10.0.0.2
406 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
407 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
408 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
409 zhen 1.16 </body>
410     </section>
411     <section>
412     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
413     <body>
414     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
415 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
416 zhen 1.6 </p>
417 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
418 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
419 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
420     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
421 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
422 zhen 1.16 </body>
423     </section>
424 drobbins 1.70 <section>
425 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
426     <body>
427 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
428 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
429 zhen 1.16 </body>
430     </section>
431 peesh 1.104 <section>
432     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
433     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
434     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
435     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
436     </body>
437     </section>
438 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
439     <chapter>
440 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
441     <section>
442     <body>
443     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
444     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
445     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
446     # <c>date</c>
447     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
448     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
449     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
450     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
451     </pre>
452     </body>
453     </section>
454     </chapter>
455     <chapter>
456 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
457 zhen 1.16 <section>
458 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
459 zhen 1.16 <body>
460 drobbins 1.86 <p>
461     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
462 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
463 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
464     install.
465     </p>
466     <p>
467     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
468     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
469     </p>
470     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
471     /dev/hda
472     </pre>
473    
474     <p>
475     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
479     /dev/sda
480     </pre>
481    
482     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
483     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
484     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
485     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
486     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
487     </body>
488     </section>
489     <section>
490     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
491     <body>
492     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
493     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
494     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
495    
496     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
497     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
498     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
499     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
500 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
501 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
502     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
503     up the full disk. </p>
504    
505     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
506     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
507    
508     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
509     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
510    
511     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
512     # fdisk /dev/hda
513     </pre>
514     <p>
515     or
516     </p>
517     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
518     # fdisk /dev/sda
519     </pre>
520    
521     <impo>
522     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
523     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
524     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
525     lost.</b>
526     </impo>
527    
528     <p>
529     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
530     </p>
531    
532     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
533     Command (m for help):
534     </pre>
535    
536    
537     <p>
538     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
542     Command (m for help): p
543    
544     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
545     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
546    
547     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
548     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
549     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
550     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
551     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
552     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
553     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
554     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
555     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
556     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
557    
558     Command (m for help):
559     </pre>
560    
561     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
562     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
563     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
564    
565     <p>
566     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
567     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
568     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
569     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
570     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
571     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
572     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
573     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
574     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
575     </p>
576    
577     <p>
578     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
579     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
580    
581     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
582     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
583 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
584 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
585     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
586    
587     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
588     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
589     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
590     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
591     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
592     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
593 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
594 drobbins 1.86 </p>
595     </body>
596     </section>
597     <section>
598     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
599     <body>
600    
601 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
602 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
603     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
604     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
605     look like this: </p>
606    
607     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
608     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
609     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
610     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
611    
612     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
613     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
614     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
615     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
616    
617     Command (m for help):
618     </pre>
619    
620     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
621     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
622     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
623     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
624     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
625     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
626     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
627 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
628     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
629 drobbins 1.86
630 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
631     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
632     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
633     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
634     cylinder 1024.
635     </p>
636    
637 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
638     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
639     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
640 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
641     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
642 drobbins 1.86
643     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
644     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
645     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
646     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
647    
648    
649     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
650     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
651     Linux:</p>
652    
653     <table>
654     <tr>
655     <th>Partition</th>
656     <th>Size</th>
657     <th>Type</th>
658     <th>example device</th>
659     </tr>
660     <tr>
661     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
662     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
663     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
664     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
665     </tr>
666     <tr>
667     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
668     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
669     in your system.</ti>
670     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
671     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
672     </tr>
673     <tr>
674     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
675     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
676     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
677     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
678     </tr>
679     </table>
680    
681     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
682 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
683 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
684     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
685     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
686     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
687    
688     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
689     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
690     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
691     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
692     from the wrong drive.</impo>
693    
694     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
695     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
696     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
697    
698     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
699     Command (m for help): d
700     Partition number (1-4): 1
701     </pre>
702 zhen 1.54
703 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
704     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
705     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
706     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
707     deleted.</p>
708     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
709     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
710     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
711 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
712 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
713     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
714 drobbins 1.86 -->
715     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
716     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
717     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
718     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
719    
720     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
721     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
722     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
723     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
724    
725     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
726    
727     Command (m for help):
728     </pre>
729    
730     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
731     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
732     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
733     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
734     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
735     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
736    
737     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
738     Command (m for help): n
739     Command action
740     e extended
741     p primary partition (1-4)
742     p
743     Partition number (1-4): 1
744     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
745     Using default value 1
746     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
747     </pre>
748    
749     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
750    
751     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
752     Command (m for help): p
753    
754     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
755     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
756     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
757    
758     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
759     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
760     </pre>
761    
762     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
763     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
764     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
765     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
766     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
767     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
768     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
769     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
770    
771     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
772     Command (m for help): p
773    
774     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
775     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
776     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
777    
778     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
779     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
780     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
781     </pre>
782    
783     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
784     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
785 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
786 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
787     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
788     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
789     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
790     this:</p>
791    
792     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
793     Command (m for help): p
794    
795     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
796     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
797     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
798    
799     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
800     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
801     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
802     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
803     </pre>
804    
805     <p>
806     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
807     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
808     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
809     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
810     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
811     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
812     install.
813     </p>
814    
815     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
816     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
817     </body>
818     </section>
819     <section>
820     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
821     <body>
822     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
823     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
824     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
825     </p>
826    
827     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
828     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
829     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
830    
831     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
832     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
833     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
834     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
835     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
836     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
837     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
838    
839     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
840     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
841     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
842 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
843     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
844     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
845     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
846     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
847     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
848 drobbins 1.86
849     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
850     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
851     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
852     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
853     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
854     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
855     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
856     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
857     non-boot partitions.</p>
858    
859     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
860     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
861     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
862     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
863     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
864     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
865     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
866     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
867    
868     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
869     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
870     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
871     point.</p>
872    
873     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
874     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
875     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
876     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
877    
878     <!-- Corner case, confusing
879 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
880 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
881 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
882     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
883 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
884 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
885 zhen 1.6 </p>
886 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
887     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
888     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
889     </pre>
890     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
891 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
892     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
893     </warn>
894 drobbins 1.86 -->
895    
896     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
897     all our partitions for use:</p>
898    
899     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
900     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
901     # mkswap /dev/hda2
902     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
903     </pre>
904    
905 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
906     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
907     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
908     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
909     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
910     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
911    
912     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
913     during the installation process:</p>
914 drobbins 1.86
915 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
916 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
917 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
918 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
919 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
920 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
921 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
922 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
923 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
924 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
925 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
926     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
927     </pre>
928     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
929     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
930 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
931 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
932     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
933     </pre>
934 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
935 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
936 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
937 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
938     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
939     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
940     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
941     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
942     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
943     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
944     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
945 drobbins 1.86
946 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
947 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
948 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
949 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
950 zhen 1.16 </body>
951     </section>
952     </chapter>
953     <chapter>
954     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
955     <section>
956     <body>
957 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
958 zhen 1.6 provides later:
959     </p>
960 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
961 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
962 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
963 drobbins 1.86
964 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
965 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
966 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
967     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
968     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
969     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
970     </p>
971    
972     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
973 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
974 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
975 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
976     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
977     not sure what to do.
978 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
979    
980 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
981 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
982     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
983     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
984     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
985 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
986 drobbins 1.86
987     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
988 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
989 zhen 1.16 </body>
990     </section>
991     </chapter>
992     <chapter>
993 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
994 zhen 1.16 <section>
995 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
996 zhen 1.16 <body>
997 zhen 1.55
998 drobbins 1.86 <p>
999     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1000     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1001    
1002     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1003     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
1004     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1005     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1006     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1007     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1008     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1009     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1010    
1011     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1012     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1013     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1014     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1015     tarball" section.</p>
1016    
1017 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1018 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1019 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1020 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
1021 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1022     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1023     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1024     Save the file and quit the browser
1025    
1026     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1027     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1028 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1029 zhen 1.16 </body>
1030     </section>
1031     <section>
1032 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1033 zhen 1.16 <body>
1034 drobbins 1.86
1035     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1036     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1037     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1038     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1039     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1040    
1041     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1042     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1043    
1044 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1045 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1046 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1047     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1048     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1049 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1050 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1051    
1052     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1053 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1054 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1055     </section>
1056     <section>
1057     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1058     <body>
1059     <p>
1060     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1061     Gentoo Linux system.
1062     </p>
1063    
1064     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1065 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1066 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1067     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1068     # <c>env-update</c>
1069     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1070     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1071 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1072     </pre>
1073 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1074     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1075     </p>
1076 zhen 1.16 </body>
1077     </section>
1078     </chapter>
1079     <chapter>
1080 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1081 zhen 1.16 <section>
1082     <body>
1083 drobbins 1.86
1084     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1085     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1086     The Portage tree
1087 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1088 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1089 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1090    
1091 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1092 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1093 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1094 zhen 1.60
1095 zhen 1.16 </body>
1096     </section>
1097     </chapter>
1098     <chapter>
1099     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1100     <section>
1101     <body>
1102 drobbins 1.86
1103     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1104     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1105     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1106     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1107     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1108     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1109     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1110     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1111     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1112     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1113     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1114    
1115     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1116     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1117     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1118     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1119     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1120     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1121     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1122     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1123     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1124 drobbins 1.70
1125 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1126     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1127     a simple visual editor.
1128     </p>
1129 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1130     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1131 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1132 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1133 zhen 1.16 <note>
1134 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1135 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1136 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1137 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1138     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1139 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1140 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1141 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1142     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1143 zhen 1.6 </note>
1144 zhen 1.16 </body>
1145     </section>
1146     </chapter>
1147     <chapter>
1148 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1149 zhen 1.16 <section>
1150     <body>
1151 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1152 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1153 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1154 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1155     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1156 zhen 1.18 </p>
1157 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1158 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1159 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1160     as follows:</p>
1161 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1162 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1163     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1164 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1165 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1166 zhen 1.6 </p>
1167 zhen 1.16 <note>
1168 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1169     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1170     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1171     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1172     </note>
1173 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1174 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1175 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1176 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1177 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1178     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1179 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1180 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1181 zhen 1.6 </p>
1182 zhen 1.16 </body>
1183     </section>
1184     </chapter>
1185     <chapter>
1186 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1187 zhen 1.16 <section>
1188     <body>
1189 drobbins 1.86
1190     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1191     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1192     </note>
1193    
1194     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1195 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1196 zhen 1.6 </p>
1197 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1198 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1199 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1200 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1201 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1202 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1203 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1204     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1205 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1206 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1207     </p>
1208     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1209     a couple of choices on how to continue
1210     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1211     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1212 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1213 zhen 1.18 </p>
1214     </body>
1215     </section>
1216     </chapter>
1217     <chapter>
1218     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1219     <section>
1220     <body>
1221 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1222     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1223     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1224     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1225     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1226     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1227     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1228     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1229     In any case, feel free to skip these
1230     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1231     </p>
1232 zhen 1.57
1233 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1234 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1235     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1236     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1237     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1238     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1239     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1240 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1241 seemant 1.79 </body>
1242     </section>
1243     </chapter>
1244     <chapter>
1245 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1246 seemant 1.79 <section>
1247     <body>
1248 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1249     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1250     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1251     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1252     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1253 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1254 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1255 zhen 1.16 </body>
1256     </section>
1257     </chapter>
1258     <chapter>
1259 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1260 zhen 1.16 <section>
1261     <body>
1262     <note>
1263 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1264     </note>
1265 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1266 zhen 1.6 offer:
1267     </p>
1268 zhen 1.16 <table>
1269     <tr>
1270     <th>ebuild</th>
1271     <th>description</th>
1272     </tr>
1273     <tr>
1274     <ti>
1275     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1276     </ti>
1277 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1278 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1279     <tr>
1280     <ti>
1281     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1282     </ti>
1283 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1284 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1285     <tr>
1286     <ti>
1287     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1288     </ti>
1289     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1290     </tr>
1291     <tr>
1292     <ti>
1293     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1294     </ti>
1295     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1296     </tr>
1297     <tr>
1298     <ti>
1299     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1300     </ti>
1301 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1302 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1303     </table>
1304 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1305     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1306     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1307 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1308 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1309 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1310 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1311 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1312 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1313 zhen 1.6 </p>
1314 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1315 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1316 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1317     to the correct one before proceeding.
1318     </p>
1319 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1320 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1321     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1322     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1323     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1324 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1325 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1326 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1327 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1328     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1329     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1330     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1331     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1332     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1333     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1334     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1335     ...
1336    
1337     File systems ---&gt;
1338     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1339     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1340     ...
1341     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1342     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1343     ...
1344     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1345     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1346     ...
1347     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1348     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1349     ...
1350     [*] /proc file system support
1351     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1352     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1353     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1354     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1355     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1356     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1357     ...
1358     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1359     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1360     ...
1361     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1362     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1363     </pre>
1364 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1365 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1366     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1367     support for IDE RAID
1368     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1369     </p>
1370 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1371 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1372 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1373     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1374     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1375 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1376     </p>
1377 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1378     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1379     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1380     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1381     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1382     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1383     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1384 zhen 1.6 </p>
1385 zhen 1.16 <note>
1386 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1387     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1388 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1389 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1390     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1391     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1392 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1393     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1394 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1395     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1396 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1397 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1398 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1399     </note>
1400 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1401 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1402     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1403     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1404     newer alternatives.
1405     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1406     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1407     </p>
1408 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1409 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1410     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1411     <comment>or</comment>
1412     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1413     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1414     <comment>or</comment>
1415     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1416     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1417     <comment>or</comment>
1418     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1419     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1420 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1421 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1422 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1423     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1424     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1425     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1426     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1427     in real time, as expected),
1428     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1429 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1430     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1431 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1432 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1433     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1434 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1435     </p>
1436 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1437 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1438 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1439 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1440     <comment>or</comment>
1441     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1442 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1443 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1444     <comment>or</comment>
1445     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1446 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1447     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1448     </pre>
1449     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1450 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1451 zhen 1.6 </p>
1452 zhen 1.16 </body>
1453     </section>
1454     </chapter>
1455     <chapter>
1456 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1457 zhen 1.16 <section>
1458     <body>
1459     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1460 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1461 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1462 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1463 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1464 zhen 1.40
1465     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1466     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1467     X support later.
1468     </note>
1469 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1470 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1471     for the first time.
1472     </note>
1473 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1474 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1475 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1476 zhen 1.6 </p>
1477 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1478 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1479 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1480 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1481 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1482 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1483 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1484 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1485 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1486 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1487 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1488 zhen 1.6 </p>
1489 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1490 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1491 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1492 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1493 zhen 1.10 to work.
1494     </warn>
1495 zhen 1.16 </body>
1496     </section>
1497     </chapter>
1498     <chapter>
1499 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1500 zhen 1.16 <section>
1501     <body>
1502     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1503 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1504 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1505     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1506     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1507     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1508     </p>
1509 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1510     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1511 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1512     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1513 drobbins 1.1 #
1514 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1515 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1516 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1517 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1518    
1519 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1520 drobbins 1.1
1521     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1522     </comment>
1523     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1524     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1525     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1526     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1527     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1528 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1529 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1530 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1531     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1532     </warn>
1533 zhen 1.16 </body>
1534     </section>
1535     </chapter>
1536     <chapter>
1537 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1538 zhen 1.16 <section>
1539     <body>
1540     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1541 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1542 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1543 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1544 zhen 1.56
1545     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1546     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1547     </p>
1548 zhen 1.16 </body>
1549     </section>
1550     </chapter>
1551     <chapter>
1552 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1553 zhen 1.16 <section>
1554     <body>
1555     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1556 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1557     </p>
1558 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1559 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1560 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1561 zhen 1.16 </body>
1562     </section>
1563     </chapter>
1564     <chapter>
1565 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1566 zhen 1.16 <section>
1567     <body>
1568 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1569 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1570     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1571 zhen 1.6 </p>
1572 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1573 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1574     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1575     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1576 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1577 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1578 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1579     </note>
1580 zhen 1.16 </body>
1581     </section>
1582     </chapter>
1583     <chapter>
1584     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1585     <section>
1586     <body>
1587     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1588 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1589     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1590     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1591     it as a module:
1592     </p>
1593 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1594     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1595 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1596 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1597 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1598 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1599 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1600 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1601     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1602 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1603 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1604 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1605 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1606 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1607     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1608     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1609 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1610 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1611 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1612 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1613 zhen 1.6 </p>
1614 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1615 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1616     need pcmcia
1617     }
1618 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1619 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1620 zhen 1.10 </p>
1621 zhen 1.16 </body>
1622     </section>
1623     </chapter>
1624     <chapter>
1625     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1626     <section>
1627     <body>
1628 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1629 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1630 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1631 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1632 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1633     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1634     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1635     possibilities).
1636     </p>
1637 zhen 1.16 </body>
1638     </section>
1639     </chapter>
1640     <chapter>
1641 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1642 zhen 1.49 <section>
1643     <title>Notes</title>
1644     <body>
1645     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1646     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1647     LILO as their bootloaders.
1648     </p>
1649     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1650 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1651 zhen 1.49 </p>
1652 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1653     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1654 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1655     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1656 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1657 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1658 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1659    
1660 zhen 1.49 </body>
1661     </section>
1662 zhen 1.16 <section>
1663 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1664 zhen 1.16 <body>
1665     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1666 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1667     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1668 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1669 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1670     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1671     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1672     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1673 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1674 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1675    
1676     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1677     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1678     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1679     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1680 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1681 zhen 1.6 </p>
1682 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1683 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1684 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1685 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1686 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1687 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1688 zhen 1.6 this time.
1689     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1690     grub setup for RAID controllers
1691     </impo>
1692 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1693 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1694     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1695     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1696     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1697     I want to type are:
1698     </p>
1699 zhen 1.68
1700 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1701 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1702     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1703 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1704 zhen 1.68
1705 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1706 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1707 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1708     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1709 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1710 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1711 zhen 1.68
1712 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1713 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1714     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1715     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1716     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1717     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1718     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1719     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1720     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1721 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1722 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1723 zhen 1.52 </p>
1724 zhen 1.6
1725     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1726     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1727     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1728     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1729     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1730     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1731    
1732     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1733     to make the right choice.
1734     </note>
1735    
1736 zhen 1.52 <p>
1737 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1738     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1739 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1740 zhen 1.6 </p>
1741 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1742 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1743     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1744 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1745 zhen 1.6 </p>
1746 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1747 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1748     timeout 30
1749     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1750    
1751     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1752     root (hd0,0)
1753 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1754 drobbins 1.1
1755 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1756 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1757     root (hd0,0)
1758 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1759 drobbins 1.1
1760     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1761 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1762 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1763 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1764 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1765 zhen 1.16 <note>
1766 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1767     </note>
1768 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1769 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1770 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1771     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1772 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1773 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1774 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1775     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1776     </p>
1777 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1778 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1779     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1780     loader.
1781 zhware 1.9 </note>
1782 zhen 1.16 <note>
1783 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1784 zhen 1.6 </note>
1785 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1786 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1787     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1788     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1789     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1790     </p>
1791 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1792 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1793     devfs is enabled by default.
1794     </note>
1795 zhen 1.16 </body>
1796     </section>
1797 zhen 1.49 <section>
1798     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1799 zhen 1.16 <body>
1800 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1801 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1802 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1803 zhen 1.16 </p>
1804     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1805     </p>
1806 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1807 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1808 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1809 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1810 zhen 1.16 </p>
1811 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1812 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1813     map=/boot/map
1814     install=/boot/boot.b
1815     prompt
1816     timeout=50
1817     lba32
1818     default=linux
1819    
1820     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1821     label=linux
1822     read-only
1823 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1824 zhen 1.16
1825     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1826     other=/dev/hda1
1827     label=dos
1828 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1829 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1830 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1831     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1832     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1833     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1834     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1835 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1836 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1837     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1838     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1839     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1840     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1841     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1842     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1843     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1844     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1845     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1846     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1847     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1848     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1849     altered during the boot process. </li>
1850     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1851 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1852 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1853     into the MBR:
1854     </p>
1855 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1856 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1857 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1858 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1859     </p>
1860     </body>
1861     </section>
1862     </chapter>
1863     <chapter>
1864 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1865 zhen 1.16 <section>
1866     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1867     <body>
1868 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1869 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1870 peesh 1.103 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1871 drobbins 1.21 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1872     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1873     make a GRUB
1874     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1875 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1876 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1877 zhen 1.6 </p>
1878 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1879 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1880     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1881     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1882     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1883     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1884 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1885 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1886    
1887     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1888     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1889     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1890 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1891 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1892 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1893 zhen 1.16 </body>
1894     </section>
1895     <section>
1896     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1897     <body>
1898     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1899     </p>
1900 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1901 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1902     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1903 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1904 zhen 1.16 </body>
1905     </section>
1906     </chapter>
1907     <chapter>
1908     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1909     <section>
1910     <body>
1911 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1912    
1913 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1914     and reboot the system:
1915     </p>
1916 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1917 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1918     # <c>exit</c>
1919 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1920 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1921     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1922     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1923     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1924     # <c>reboot</c>
1925 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1926 zhen 1.16 <note>
1927 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1928     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1929     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1930     </note>
1931 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1932 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1933     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1934 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1935 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1936 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1937 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1938 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1939     that will
1940     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1941     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1942     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1943 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1944 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1945 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1946 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1947     </p>
1948 zhen 1.16 </body>
1949     </section>
1950     </chapter>
1951     <chapter>
1952     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1953     <section>
1954     <body>
1955     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1956 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1957     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1958     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1959     </p>
1960 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1961 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1962 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1963 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1964     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1965 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1966 zhen 1.6 </p>
1967 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1968     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1969     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1970     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1971     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1972     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1973     </ul>
1974     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1975 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1976     </p>
1977 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1978     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1979 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1980 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1981     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1982     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1983     </ul>
1984     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1985 zhen 1.6 </p>
1986 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1987 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1988     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1989 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1990 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1991 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1992     to see additional configuration options.
1993     </p>
1994 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1995 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1996     </p>
1997 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1998     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1999     </pre>
2000 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2001 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2002 zhen 1.16 </body>
2003     </section>
2004     </chapter>
2005 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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