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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
46 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
47 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
48     scratch.
49     </abstract>
50 zhen 1.93 <version>2.6</version>
51 peesh 1.104 <date>10 Apr 2003</date>
52 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
53     <title>About the Install</title>
54     <section>
55     <body>
56 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
57 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
58 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
59     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
60     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
61     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
62 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
63 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
64 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
65 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
66 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
67     slow under those conditions.)</p>
68 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
69 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
70 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
71 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
72 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
73 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
74     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
75     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
76 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
77     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
78 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
79     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
80 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
81     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
82     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
83 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
86 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
87 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
88 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
89 drobbins 1.22 </p>
90 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
91 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
92     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
93 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
94     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
95     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
96 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
97 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
98 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
99 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
100 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
101 seemant 1.78 Gentoo 1.4_rc3 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_rc4 will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
102 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
103 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
104 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
105 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
106 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
107     </impo>
108 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
109     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
110 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
111     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
112 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
113 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
114 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
115 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
116 zhen 1.26 <table>
117 zhen 1.16 <tr>
118     <th>stage tarball</th>
119     <th>requirements for installation</th>
120     </tr>
121     <tr>
122     <ti>1</ti>
123 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
124 zhen 1.16 </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <ti>2</ti>
127 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
128 zhen 1.16 </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <ti>3</ti>
131     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
132     </tr>
133     </table>
134     </body>
135     </section>
136     </chapter>
137     <chapter>
138     <title>Booting</title>
139     <section>
140     <body>
141 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
142 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
143 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
145     <table>
146     <tr>
147     <th>Available kernels.</th>
148     <th>description</th>
149     </tr>
151     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
152     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
153     <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 frambuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
154     <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
156     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
157     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
160     </table>
162     <p>
163     <table>
164     <tr>
165     <th>Available boot options.</th>
166     <th>description</th>
167     </tr>
168 antifa 1.106
169     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
170     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
171 antifa 1.105
172 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
173     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
175     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
176     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
178     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
179     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
181 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
182     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
184 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
185     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
187 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
188     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
190     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
191     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
193 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
194     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
195 antifa 1.105
196     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
199 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
200     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
201 antifa 1.105
202     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
203     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
205     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
206     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
208     </table></p>
209 drobbins 1.70
210 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
211     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
212     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
213     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
214     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
215 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
216 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
217     Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type passwd and
218     follow the prompts.
219 zhen 1.6 </p>
220 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
221 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
222 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
223 zhen 1.6 </p>
224 zhen 1.16 </body>
225     </section>
226     </chapter>
227     <chapter>
228     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
229     <section>
230     <body>
231     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
232 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
233 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
234     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
235     type:
236     </p>
237 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
238 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
239 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
240 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
241 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
242 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
243 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
244     </p>
245 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
246 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
247 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
248 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
249 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
250 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
251 zhen 1.6 <note>
252 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
253 zhen 1.52 </note>
254 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
255 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
256     </p>
257 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
258 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
259     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
262 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
263     </pre>
264 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
265 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
266 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
267     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
268 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
269 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
270     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
271     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
272     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
273     </pre>
274 zhen 1.16 </body>
275     </section>
276     </chapter>
277 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
278 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
279     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
280     <section>
281     <body>
282 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
283 zhen 1.6 </p>
284 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
285 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
286 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
287 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
288     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
289     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
290 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
291 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
292 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
293 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
294     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
295 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
296 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
297 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
298     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
299 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
300 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
301 zhen 1.16 </body>
302     </section>
303     </chapter>
304 drobbins 1.70 -->
305 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
306     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
307 drobbins 1.70 <section>
308     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
309     <body>
310 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
311 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
312     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
313     among others.</p>
315     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
316     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
317     </p>
318 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
319 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
320     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
321     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
323     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
324     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
325     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
326     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
327     Interrupt:11
328 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
329 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
330     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
331     resolution is working correctly, etc.
332     </p>
333 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
334 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
335 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
336 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
337     </body>
338     </section>
339 zhen 1.16 <section>
340     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
341     <body>
342 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
343 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
344 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
345     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
346     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
347 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
348 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
349     # <c> adsl-start </c>
350 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
351 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
352 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
353     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
354 zhen 1.16 </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
358     <body>
359 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
360 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
361 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
362 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
363 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
364 zhen 1.16 </body>
365     </section>
366     <section>
367     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
368     <body>
369     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
370     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
371 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
372     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
373     </pre>
374 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
375 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
376     </note>
377 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
378 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
379 zhen 1.16 </body>
380     </section>
381     <section>
382     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
383     <body>
384     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
385 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
386     Type in the following commands, replacing
387     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
388     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
389     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
390     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
391     </p>
392 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
393 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
394     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1</c>
395 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
396 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
397 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
398 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
399 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
400 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
401     nameserver
402     nameserver
403 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
404 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
405 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
406 zhen 1.16 </body>
407     </section>
408     <section>
409     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
410     <body>
411     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
412 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
413 zhen 1.6 </p>
414 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
415 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
416 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
417     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
418 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
419 zhen 1.16 </body>
420     </section>
421 drobbins 1.70 <section>
422 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
423     <body>
424 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
425 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
426 zhen 1.16 </body>
427     </section>
428 peesh 1.104 <section>
429     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
430     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
431     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
432     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
433     </body>
434     </section>
435 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
436     <chapter>
437 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
438     <section>
439     <body>
440     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
441     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
442     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
443     # <c>date</c>
444     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
445     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
446     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
447     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
448     </pre>
449     </body>
450     </section>
451     </chapter>
452     <chapter>
453 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
454 zhen 1.16 <section>
455 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
456 zhen 1.16 <body>
457 drobbins 1.86 <p>
458     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
459 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
460 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
461     install.
462     </p>
463     <p>
464     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
465     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
466     </p>
467     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
468     /dev/hda
469     </pre>
471     <p>
472     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
473     </p>
475     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
476     /dev/sda
477     </pre>
479     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
480     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
481     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
482     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
483     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
484     </body>
485     </section>
486     <section>
487     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
488     <body>
489     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
490     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
491     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
493     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
494     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
495     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
496     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
497 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
498 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
499     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
500     up the full disk. </p>
502     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
503     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
505     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
506     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
508     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
509     # fdisk /dev/hda
510     </pre>
511     <p>
512     or
513     </p>
514     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
515     # fdisk /dev/sda
516     </pre>
518     <impo>
519     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
520     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
521     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
522     lost.</b>
523     </impo>
525     <p>
526     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
527     </p>
529     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
530     Command (m for help):
531     </pre>
534     <p>
535     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
536     </p>
538     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
539     Command (m for help): p
541     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
542     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
544     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
545     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
546     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
547     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
548     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
549     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
550     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
551     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
552     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
553     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
555     Command (m for help):
556     </pre>
558     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
559     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
560     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
562     <p>
563     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
564     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
565     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
566     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
567     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
568     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
569     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
570     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
571     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
572     </p>
574     <p>
575     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
576     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
578     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
579     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
580 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
581 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
582     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
584     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
585     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
586     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
587     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
588     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
589     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
590 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
591 drobbins 1.86 </p>
592     </body>
593     </section>
594     <section>
595     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
596     <body>
598 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
599 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
600     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
601     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
602     look like this: </p>
604     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
605     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
606     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
607     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
609     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
610     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
611     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
612     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
614     Command (m for help):
615     </pre>
617     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
618     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
619     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
620     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
621     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
622     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
623     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
624 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
625     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
626 drobbins 1.86
627 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
628     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
629     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
630     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
631     cylinder 1024.
632     </p>
634 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
635     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
636     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
637 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
638     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
639 drobbins 1.86
640     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
641     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
642     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
643     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
646     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
647     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
648     Linux:</p>
650     <table>
651     <tr>
652     <th>Partition</th>
653     <th>Size</th>
654     <th>Type</th>
655     <th>example device</th>
656     </tr>
657     <tr>
658     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
659     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
660     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
661     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
662     </tr>
663     <tr>
664     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
665     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
666     in your system.</ti>
667     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
668     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
669     </tr>
670     <tr>
671     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
672     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
673     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
674     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
675     </tr>
676     </table>
678     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
679 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
680 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
681     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
682     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
683     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
685     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
686     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
687     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
688     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
689     from the wrong drive.</impo>
691     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
692     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
693     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
695     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
696     Command (m for help): d
697     Partition number (1-4): 1
698     </pre>
699 zhen 1.54
700 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
701     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
702     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
703     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
704     deleted.</p>
705     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
706     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
707     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
708 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
709 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
710     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
711 drobbins 1.86 -->
712     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
713     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
714     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
715     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
717     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
718     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
719     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
720     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
722     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
724     Command (m for help):
725     </pre>
727     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
728     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
729     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
730     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
731     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
732     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
734     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
735     Command (m for help): n
736     Command action
737     e extended
738     p primary partition (1-4)
739     p
740     Partition number (1-4): 1
741     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
742     Using default value 1
743     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
744     </pre>
746     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
748     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
749     Command (m for help): p
751     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
752     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
753     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
755     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
756     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
757     </pre>
759     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
760     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
761     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
762     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
763     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
764     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
765     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
766     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
768     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
769     Command (m for help): p
771     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
772     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
773     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
775     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
776     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
777     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
778     </pre>
780     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
781     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
782 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
783 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
784     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
785     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
786     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
787     this:</p>
789     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
790     Command (m for help): p
792     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
793     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
794     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
796     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
797     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
798     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
799     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
800     </pre>
802     <p>
803     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
804     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
805     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
806     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
807     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
808     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
809     install.
810     </p>
812     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
813     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
814     </body>
815     </section>
816     <section>
817     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
818     <body>
819     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
820     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
821     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
822     </p>
824     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
825     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
826     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
828     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
829     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
830     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
831     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
832     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
833     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
834     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
836     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
837     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
838     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
839 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
840     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
841     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
842     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
843     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
844     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
845 drobbins 1.86
846     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
847     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
848     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
849     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
850     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
851     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
852     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
853     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
854     non-boot partitions.</p>
856     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
857     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
858     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
859     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
860     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
861     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
862     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
863     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
865     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
866     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
867     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
868     point.</p>
870     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
871     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
872     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
873     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
875     <!-- Corner case, confusing
876 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
877 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
878 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
879     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
880 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
881 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
882 zhen 1.6 </p>
883 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
884     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
885     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
886     </pre>
887     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
888 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
889     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
890     </warn>
891 drobbins 1.86 -->
893     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
894     all our partitions for use:</p>
896     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
897     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
898     # mkswap /dev/hda2
899     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
900     </pre>
902 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
903     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
904     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
905     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
906     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
907     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
909     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
910     during the installation process:</p>
911 drobbins 1.86
912 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
913 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
914 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
915 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
916 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
917 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
918 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
919 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
920 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
921 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
922 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
923     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
924     </pre>
925     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
926     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
927 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
928 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
929     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
930     </pre>
931 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
932 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
933 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
934 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
935     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
936     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
937     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
938     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
939     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
940     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
941     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
942 drobbins 1.86
943 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
944 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
945 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
946 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
947 zhen 1.16 </body>
948     </section>
949     </chapter>
950     <chapter>
951     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
952     <section>
953     <body>
954 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
955 zhen 1.6 provides later:
956     </p>
957 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
958 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
959 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
960 drobbins 1.86
961 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
962 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
963 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
964     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
965     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
966     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
967     </p>
969     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
970 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
971 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
972 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
973     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
974     not sure what to do.
975 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
977 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
978 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
979     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
980     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
981     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
982 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
983 drobbins 1.86
984     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
985 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
986 zhen 1.16 </body>
987     </section>
988     </chapter>
989     <chapter>
990 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
991 zhen 1.16 <section>
992 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
993 zhen 1.16 <body>
994 zhen 1.55
995 drobbins 1.86 <p>
996     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
997     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
999     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1000     method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc3.tar.bz2</path> image.
1001     If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1002     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1003     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1004     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1005     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1006     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1008     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1009     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1010     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1011     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1012     tarball" section.</p>
1014 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1015 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1016 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1017 zhen 1.80 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc3/x86/</c>
1018 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1019     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1020     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1021     Save the file and quit the browser
1023     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1024     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1025 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1026 zhen 1.16 </body>
1027     </section>
1028     <section>
1029 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1030 zhen 1.16 <body>
1031 drobbins 1.86
1032     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1033     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1034     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1035     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1036     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1038     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1039     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1041 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1042 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1043 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1044     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1045     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1046 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1047 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1049     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1050 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1051 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1052     </section>
1053     <section>
1054     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1055     <body>
1056     <p>
1057     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1058     Gentoo Linux system.
1059     </p>
1061     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1062 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1063 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1064     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1065     # <c>env-update</c>
1066     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1067     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1068 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1069     </pre>
1070 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1071     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1072     </p>
1073 zhen 1.16 </body>
1074     </section>
1075     </chapter>
1076     <chapter>
1077 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1078 zhen 1.16 <section>
1079     <body>
1080 drobbins 1.86
1081     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1082     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1083     The Portage tree
1084 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1085 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1086 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1088 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1089 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1090 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1091 zhen 1.60
1092 zhen 1.16 </body>
1093     </section>
1094     </chapter>
1095     <chapter>
1096     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1097     <section>
1098     <body>
1099 drobbins 1.86
1100     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1101     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1102     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1103     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1104     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1105     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1106     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1107     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1108     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1109     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1110     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1112     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1113     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1114     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1115     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1116     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1117     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1118     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1119     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1120     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1121 drobbins 1.70
1122 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1123     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1124     a simple visual editor.
1125     </p>
1126 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1127     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1128 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1129 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1130 zhen 1.16 <note>
1131 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1132 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1133 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1134 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1135     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1136 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1137 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1138 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1139     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1140 zhen 1.6 </note>
1141 zhen 1.16 </body>
1142     </section>
1143     </chapter>
1144     <chapter>
1145 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1146 zhen 1.16 <section>
1147     <body>
1148 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1149 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1150 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1151 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1152     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1153 zhen 1.18 </p>
1154 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1155 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1156 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1157     as follows:</p>
1158 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1159 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1160     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1161 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1162 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1163 zhen 1.6 </p>
1164 zhen 1.16 <note>
1165 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1166     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1167     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1168     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1169     </note>
1170 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1171 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1172 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1173 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1174 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1175     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1176 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1177 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1178 zhen 1.6 </p>
1179 zhen 1.16 </body>
1180     </section>
1181     </chapter>
1182     <chapter>
1183 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1184 zhen 1.16 <section>
1185     <body>
1186 drobbins 1.86
1187     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1188     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1189     </note>
1191     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1192 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1193 zhen 1.6 </p>
1194 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1195 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1196 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1197 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1198 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1199 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1200 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1201     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1202 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1203 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1204     </p>
1205     <p>When this process completes, your system will be the equivalent of a stage3 system. You have
1206     a couple of choices on how to continue
1207     at this point. You can move onto the stage3 instructions and complete those. Doing that will
1208     get your system right up to date with what is in the current Portage tree. This is not necessary,
1209 jhhudso 1.75 but it is highly recommended.
1210 zhen 1.18 </p>
1211     </body>
1212     </section>
1213     </chapter>
1214     <chapter>
1215     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1216     <section>
1217     <body>
1218 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1219     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1220     <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1221     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1222     for you, you can update your stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1223     by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1224     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1225     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1226     In any case, feel free to skip these
1227     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1228     </p>
1229 zhen 1.57
1230 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1231 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1232     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1233     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1234     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1235     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1236     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1237 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1238 seemant 1.79 </body>
1239     </section>
1240     </chapter>
1241     <chapter>
1242 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1243 seemant 1.79 <section>
1244     <body>
1245 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1246     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1247     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1248     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1249     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1250 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1251 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1252 zhen 1.16 </body>
1253     </section>
1254     </chapter>
1255     <chapter>
1256 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1257 zhen 1.16 <section>
1258     <body>
1259     <note>
1260 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1261     </note>
1262 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1263 zhen 1.6 offer:
1264     </p>
1265 zhen 1.16 <table>
1266     <tr>
1267     <th>ebuild</th>
1268     <th>description</th>
1269     </tr>
1270     <tr>
1271     <ti>
1272     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1273     </ti>
1274 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1275 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1276     <tr>
1277     <ti>
1278     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1279     </ti>
1280 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1281 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1282     <tr>
1283     <ti>
1284     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1285     </ti>
1286     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1287     </tr>
1288     <tr>
1289     <ti>
1290     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1291     </ti>
1292     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1293     </tr>
1294     <tr>
1295     <ti>
1296     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1297     </ti>
1298 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1299 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1300     </table>
1301 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1302     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1303     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1304 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1305 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1306 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1307 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1308 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1309 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1310 zhen 1.6 </p>
1311 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1312 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1313 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1314     to the correct one before proceeding.
1315     </p>
1316 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1317 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1318     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1319     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1320     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1321 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1322 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1323 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1324 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1325     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1326     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1327     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1328     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1329     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1330     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1331     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1332     ...
1334     File systems ---&gt;
1335     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1336     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1337     ...
1338     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1339     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1340     ...
1341     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1342     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1343     ...
1344     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1345     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1346     ...
1347     [*] /proc file system support
1348     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1349     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1350     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1351     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1352     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1353     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1354     ...
1355     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1356     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1357     ...
1358     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1359     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1360     </pre>
1361 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1362 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1363     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1364     support for IDE RAID
1365     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1366     </p>
1367 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1368 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1369 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1370     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1371     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1372 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1373     </p>
1374 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1375     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1376     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1377     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1378     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1379     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1380     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1381 zhen 1.6 </p>
1382 zhen 1.16 <note>
1383 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1384     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1385 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1386 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1387     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1388     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1389 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1390     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1391 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1392     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1393 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1394 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1395 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1396     </note>
1397 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1398 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1399     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1400     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1401     newer alternatives.
1402     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1403     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1404     </p>
1405 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1406 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1407     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1408     <comment>or</comment>
1409     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1410     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1411     <comment>or</comment>
1412     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1413     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1414     <comment>or</comment>
1415     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1416     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1417 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1418 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1419 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1420     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1421     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1422     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1423     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1424     in real time, as expected),
1425     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1426 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1427     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1428 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1429 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1430     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1431 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1432     </p>
1433 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1434 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1435 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1436 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1437     <comment>or</comment>
1438     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1439 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1440 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1441     <comment>or</comment>
1442     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1443 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1444     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1445     </pre>
1446     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1447 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1448 zhen 1.6 </p>
1449 zhen 1.16 </body>
1450     </section>
1451     </chapter>
1452     <chapter>
1453 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1454 zhen 1.16 <section>
1455     <body>
1456     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1457 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1458 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1459 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1460 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1461 zhen 1.40
1462     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1463     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1464     X support later.
1465     </note>
1466 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1467 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1468     for the first time.
1469     </note>
1470 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1471 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1472 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1473 zhen 1.6 </p>
1474 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1475 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1476 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1477 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1478 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1479 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1480 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1481 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1482 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1483 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1484 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1485 zhen 1.6 </p>
1486 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1487 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1488 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1489 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1490 zhen 1.10 to work.
1491     </warn>
1492 zhen 1.16 </body>
1493     </section>
1494     </chapter>
1495     <chapter>
1496 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1497 zhen 1.16 <section>
1498     <body>
1499     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1500 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1501 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1502     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1503     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1504     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1505     </p>
1506 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1507     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1508 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1509     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1510 drobbins 1.1 #
1511 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1512 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1513 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1514 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1516 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1517 drobbins 1.1
1518     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1519     </comment>
1520     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1521     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1522     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1523     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1524     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1525 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1526 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1527 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1528     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1529     </warn>
1530 zhen 1.16 </body>
1531     </section>
1532     </chapter>
1533     <chapter>
1534 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1535 zhen 1.16 <section>
1536     <body>
1537     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1538 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1539 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1540 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1541 zhen 1.56
1542     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1543     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1544     </p>
1545 zhen 1.16 </body>
1546     </section>
1547     </chapter>
1548     <chapter>
1549 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1550 zhen 1.16 <section>
1551     <body>
1552     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1553 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1554     </p>
1555 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1556 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1557 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1558 zhen 1.16 </body>
1559     </section>
1560     </chapter>
1561     <chapter>
1562 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1563 zhen 1.16 <section>
1564     <body>
1565 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1566 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1567     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1568 zhen 1.6 </p>
1569 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1570 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1571     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1572 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1573 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1574 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1575 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1576     </note>
1577 zhen 1.16 </body>
1578     </section>
1579     </chapter>
1580     <chapter>
1581     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1582     <section>
1583     <body>
1584     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1585 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1586     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1587     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1588     it as a module:
1589     </p>
1590 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1591     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1592 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1593 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1594 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1595 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1596 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1597 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1598     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1599 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1600 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1601 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1602 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1603 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1604     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1605     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1606 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1607 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1608 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1609 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1610 zhen 1.6 </p>
1611 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1612 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1613     need pcmcia
1614     }
1615 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1616 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1617 zhen 1.10 </p>
1618 zhen 1.16 </body>
1619     </section>
1620     </chapter>
1621     <chapter>
1622     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1623     <section>
1624     <body>
1625 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1626 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1627 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1628 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1629 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1630     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1631     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1632     possibilities).
1633     </p>
1634 zhen 1.16 </body>
1635     </section>
1636     </chapter>
1637     <chapter>
1638 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1639 zhen 1.49 <section>
1640     <title>Notes</title>
1641     <body>
1642     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1643     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1644     LILO as their bootloaders.
1645     </p>
1646     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1647 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1648 zhen 1.49 </p>
1649 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1650     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1651 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1652     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1653 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1654 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1655 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1657 zhen 1.49 </body>
1658     </section>
1659 zhen 1.16 <section>
1660 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1661 zhen 1.16 <body>
1662     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1663 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1664     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1665 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1666 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1667     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1668     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1669     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1670 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1671 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1673     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1674     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1675     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1676     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1677 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1678 zhen 1.6 </p>
1679 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1680 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1681 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1682 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1683 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1684 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1685 zhen 1.6 this time.
1686     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1687     grub setup for RAID controllers
1688     </impo>
1689 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1690 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1691     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1692     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1693     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1694     I want to type are:
1695     </p>
1696 zhen 1.68
1697 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1698 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1699     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1700 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1701 zhen 1.68
1702 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1703 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1704 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1705     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1706 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1707 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1708 zhen 1.68
1709 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1710 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1711     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1712     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1713     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1714     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1715     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1716     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1717     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1718 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1719 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1720 zhen 1.52 </p>
1721 zhen 1.6
1722     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1723     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1724     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1725     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1726     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1727     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1729     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1730     to make the right choice.
1731     </note>
1733 zhen 1.52 <p>
1734 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1735     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1736 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1737 zhen 1.6 </p>
1738 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1739 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1740     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1741 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1742 zhen 1.6 </p>
1743 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1744 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1745     timeout 30
1746     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1748     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1749     root (hd0,0)
1750 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1751 drobbins 1.1
1752 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1753 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1754     root (hd0,0)
1755 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1756 drobbins 1.1
1757     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1758 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1759 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1760 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1761 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1762 zhen 1.16 <note>
1763 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1764     </note>
1765 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1766 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1767 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1768     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1769 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1770 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1771 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1772     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1773     </p>
1774 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1775 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1776     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1777     loader.
1778 zhware 1.9 </note>
1779 zhen 1.16 <note>
1780 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1781 zhen 1.6 </note>
1782 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1783 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1784     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1785     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1786     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1787     </p>
1788 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1789 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1790     devfs is enabled by default.
1791     </note>
1792 zhen 1.16 </body>
1793     </section>
1794 zhen 1.49 <section>
1795     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1796 zhen 1.16 <body>
1797 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1798 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1799 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1800 zhen 1.16 </p>
1801     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1802     </p>
1803 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1804 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1805 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1806 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1807 zhen 1.16 </p>
1808 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1809 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1810     map=/boot/map
1811     install=/boot/boot.b
1812     prompt
1813     timeout=50
1814     lba32
1815     default=linux
1817     image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20
1818     label=linux
1819     read-only
1820 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1821 zhen 1.16
1822     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1823     other=/dev/hda1
1824     label=dos
1825 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1826 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1827 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1828     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1829     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1830     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1831     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1832 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1833 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1834     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1835     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1836     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1837     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1838     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1839     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1840     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1841     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1842     <li><i>image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.20</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1843     <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1844     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1845     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1846     altered during the boot process. </li>
1847     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1848 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1849 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1850     into the MBR:
1851     </p>
1852 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1853 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1854 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1855 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1856     </p>
1857     </body>
1858     </section>
1859     </chapter>
1860     <chapter>
1861 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1862 zhen 1.16 <section>
1863     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1864     <body>
1865 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1866 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1867 peesh 1.103 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1868 drobbins 1.21 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1869     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1870     make a GRUB
1871     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1872 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1873 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1874 zhen 1.6 </p>
1875 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1876 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1877     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1878     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1879     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1880     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1881 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1882 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1884     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1885     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1886     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1887 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1888 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1889 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1890 zhen 1.16 </body>
1891     </section>
1892     <section>
1893     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1894     <body>
1895     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1896     </p>
1897 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1898 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1899     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1900 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1901 zhen 1.16 </body>
1902     </section>
1903     </chapter>
1904     <chapter>
1905     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1906     <section>
1907     <body>
1908 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1910 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1911     and reboot the system:
1912     </p>
1913 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1914 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1915     # <c>exit</c>
1916 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1917 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1918     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1919     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1920     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1921     # <c>reboot</c>
1922 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1923 zhen 1.16 <note>
1924 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1925     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1926     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1927     </note>
1928 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1929 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1930     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1931 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1932 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1933 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1934 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1935 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1936     that will
1937     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1938     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1939     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1940 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1941 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1942 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1943 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1944     </p>
1945 zhen 1.16 </body>
1946     </section>
1947     </chapter>
1948     <chapter>
1949     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1950     <section>
1951     <body>
1952     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1953 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1954     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1955     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1956     </p>
1957 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1958 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1959 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1960 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1961     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1962 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1963 zhen 1.6 </p>
1964 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1965     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1966     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1967     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1968     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1969     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1970     </ul>
1971     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1972 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1973     </p>
1974 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1975     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1976 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1977 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1978     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1979     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1980     </ul>
1981     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1982 zhen 1.6 </p>
1983 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1984 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1985     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1986 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1987 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1988 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1989     to see additional configuration options.
1990     </p>
1991 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1992 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1993     </p>
1994 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1995     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
1996     </pre>
1997 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1998 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1999 zhen 1.16 </body>
2000     </section>
2001     </chapter>
2002 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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