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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.112 <date>6 May 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87    
88    
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
112     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
113 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
114     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
115 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
116 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
117 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
118 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
119 zhen 1.26 <table>
120 zhen 1.16 <tr>
121     <th>stage tarball</th>
122     <th>requirements for installation</th>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <ti>1</ti>
126 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
127 zhen 1.16 </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>2</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>3</ti>
134     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137     </body>
138     </section>
139     </chapter>
140     <chapter>
141     <title>Booting</title>
142     <section>
143     <body>
144 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
145 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
146 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Available kernels.</th>
151     <th>description</th>
152     </tr>
153    
154     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
156 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
157 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
159     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
161     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
162    
163     </table>
164    
165     <p>
166     <table>
167     <tr>
168     <th>Available boot options.</th>
169     <th>description</th>
170     </tr>
171 antifa 1.106
172     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
173     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
174 antifa 1.105
175 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177    
178     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
179     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
180    
181     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
182     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
183    
184 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
185     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
186    
187 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
188     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
189    
190 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
191     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
192    
193     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
194     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
195    
196 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198 antifa 1.105
199     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
200     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
201    
202 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
203     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
204 antifa 1.105
205     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
206     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
207    
208     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
209     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
210    
211     </table></p>
212 drobbins 1.70
213 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
221 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
222 zhen 1.6 </p>
223 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 zhen 1.6 </p>
227 zhen 1.16 </body>
228     </section>
229     </chapter>
230     <chapter>
231     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238     type:
239     </p>
240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247     </p>
248 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 zhen 1.6 <note>
255 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 zhen 1.52 </note>
257 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259     </p>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
317    
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
389     Type in the following commands, replacing
390     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
391     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
392     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
393     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
394     </p>
395 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
396 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
397     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
398 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
399 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
400 zhen 1.6 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
401 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
402 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
403 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
404     nameserver 10.0.0.1
405     nameserver 10.0.0.2
406 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
407 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
408 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
409 zhen 1.16 </body>
410     </section>
411     <section>
412     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
413     <body>
414     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
415 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
416 zhen 1.6 </p>
417 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
418 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
419 seo 1.42 # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
420     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;$http_proxy&quot; </c>
421 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
422 zhen 1.16 </body>
423     </section>
424 drobbins 1.70 <section>
425 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
426     <body>
427 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
428 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
429 zhen 1.16 </body>
430     </section>
431 peesh 1.104 <section>
432     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
433     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
434     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
435     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
436     </body>
437     </section>
438 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
439     <chapter>
440 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
441     <section>
442     <body>
443     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
444     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
445     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
446     # <c>date</c>
447     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
448     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
449     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
450     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
451     </pre>
452     </body>
453     </section>
454     </chapter>
455     <chapter>
456 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
457 zhen 1.16 <section>
458 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
459 zhen 1.16 <body>
460 drobbins 1.86 <p>
461     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
462 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
463 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
464     install.
465     </p>
466     <p>
467     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
468     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
469     </p>
470     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
471     /dev/hda
472     </pre>
473    
474     <p>
475     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
476     </p>
477    
478     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
479     /dev/sda
480     </pre>
481    
482     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
483     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
484     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
485     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
486     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
487     </body>
488     </section>
489     <section>
490     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
491     <body>
492     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
493     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
494     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
495    
496     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
497     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
498     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
499     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
500 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
501 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
502     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
503     up the full disk. </p>
504    
505     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
506     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
507    
508     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
509     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
510    
511     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
512     # fdisk /dev/hda
513     </pre>
514     <p>
515     or
516     </p>
517     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
518     # fdisk /dev/sda
519     </pre>
520    
521     <impo>
522     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
523     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
524     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
525     lost.</b>
526     </impo>
527    
528     <p>
529     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
530     </p>
531    
532     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
533     Command (m for help):
534     </pre>
535    
536    
537     <p>
538     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
542     Command (m for help): p
543    
544     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
545     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
546    
547     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
548     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
549     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
550     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
551     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
552     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
553     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
554     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
555     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
556     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
557    
558     Command (m for help):
559     </pre>
560    
561     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
562     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
563     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
564    
565     <p>
566     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
567     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
568     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
569     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
570     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
571     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
572     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
573     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
574     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
575     </p>
576    
577     <p>
578     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
579     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
580    
581     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
582     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
583 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
584 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
585     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
586    
587     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
588     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
589     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
590     partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, and '82' is the correct
591     partition type for Linux swap partitions. You set the partition type using the
592     <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
593 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
594 drobbins 1.86 </p>
595     </body>
596     </section>
597     <section>
598     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
599     <body>
600    
601 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
602 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
603     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
604     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
605     look like this: </p>
606    
607     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
608     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
609     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
610     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
611    
612     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
613     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
614     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
615     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
616    
617     Command (m for help):
618     </pre>
619    
620     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
621     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
622     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
623     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
624     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
625     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
626     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
627 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
628     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
629 drobbins 1.86
630 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
631     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
632     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
633     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
634     cylinder 1024.
635     </p>
636    
637 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
638     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
639     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
640 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
641     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
642 drobbins 1.86
643     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
644     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
645     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
646     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
647    
648    
649     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
650     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
651     Linux:</p>
652    
653     <table>
654     <tr>
655     <th>Partition</th>
656     <th>Size</th>
657     <th>Type</th>
658     <th>example device</th>
659     </tr>
660     <tr>
661     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
662     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
663     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
664     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
665     </tr>
666     <tr>
667     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
668     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
669     in your system.</ti>
670     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
671     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
672     </tr>
673     <tr>
674     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
675     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
676     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
677     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
678     </tr>
679     </table>
680    
681     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
682 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
683 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
684     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
685     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
686     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
687    
688     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
689     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
690     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
691     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
692     from the wrong drive.</impo>
693    
694     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
695     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
696     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
697    
698     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
699     Command (m for help): d
700     Partition number (1-4): 1
701     </pre>
702 zhen 1.54
703 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
704     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
705     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
706     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
707     deleted.</p>
708     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
709     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
710     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
711 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
712 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
713     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
714 drobbins 1.86 -->
715     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
716     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
717     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
718     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
719    
720     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
721     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
722     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
723     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
724    
725     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
726    
727     Command (m for help):
728     </pre>
729    
730     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
731     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
732     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
733     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
734     enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+100M</c> to create a
735     partition 100MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
736    
737     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
738     Command (m for help): n
739     Command action
740     e extended
741     p primary partition (1-4)
742     p
743     Partition number (1-4): 1
744     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
745     Using default value 1
746     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +100M
747     </pre>
748    
749     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
750    
751     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
752     Command (m for help): p
753    
754     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
755     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
756     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
757    
758     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
759     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
760     </pre>
761    
762     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
763     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
764     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
765     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
766     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
767     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
768     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
769     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
770    
771     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
772     Command (m for help): p
773    
774     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
775     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
776     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
777    
778     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
779     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
780     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
781     </pre>
782    
783     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
784     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
785 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
786 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
787     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
788     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
789     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
790     this:</p>
791    
792     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
793     Command (m for help): p
794    
795     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
796     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
797     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
798    
799     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
800     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
801     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
802     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
803     </pre>
804    
805     <p>
806     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
807     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
808     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
809     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
810     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
811     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
812     install.
813     </p>
814    
815     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
816     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
817     </body>
818     </section>
819     <section>
820     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
821     <body>
822     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
823     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
824     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
825     </p>
826    
827     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
828     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
829     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
830    
831     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
832     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
833     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
834     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
835     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
836     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
837     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
838    
839     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
840     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
841     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
842 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
843     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
844     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
845     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
846     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
847     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
848 drobbins 1.86
849     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
850     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
851     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
852     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
853     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
854     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
855     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
856     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
857     non-boot partitions.</p>
858    
859     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
860     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
861     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
862     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
863     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
864     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
865     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
866     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
867    
868     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
869     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
870     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
871     point.</p>
872    
873     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
874     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
875     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
876     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
877    
878     <!-- Corner case, confusing
879 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
880 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
881 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
882     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
883 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
884 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
885 zhen 1.6 </p>
886 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
887     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
888     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
889     </pre>
890     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
891 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
892     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
893     </warn>
894 drobbins 1.86 -->
895    
896     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
897     all our partitions for use:</p>
898    
899     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
900     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
901     # mkswap /dev/hda2
902     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
903     </pre>
904    
905 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
906     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
907     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
908     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
909     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
910     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
911    
912     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
913     during the installation process:</p>
914 drobbins 1.86
915 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
916 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
917 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
918 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
919 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
920 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
921 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
922 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
923 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
924 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
925 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
926     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
927     </pre>
928     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
929     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
930 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
931 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
932     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
933     </pre>
934 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
935 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
936 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
937 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
938     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
939     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
940     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
941     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
942     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
943     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
944     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
945 drobbins 1.86
946 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
947 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
948 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
949 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
950 zhen 1.16 </body>
951     </section>
952     </chapter>
953     <chapter>
954     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
955     <section>
956     <body>
957 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
958 zhen 1.6 provides later:
959     </p>
960 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
961 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
962 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
963 drobbins 1.86
964 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
965 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
966 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
967     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
968     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
969     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
970     </p>
971    
972     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
973 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
974 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
975 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
976     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
977     not sure what to do.
978 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
979    
980 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
981 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
982     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
983     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
984     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
985 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
986 drobbins 1.86
987     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
988 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
989 zhen 1.16 </body>
990     </section>
991     </chapter>
992     <chapter>
993 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
994 zhen 1.16 <section>
995 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
996 zhen 1.16 <body>
997 zhen 1.55
998 drobbins 1.86 <p>
999     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1000     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1001    
1002     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1003 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1004 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1005     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1006     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1007     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1008     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1009     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1010    
1011     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1012     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1013     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1014     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1015     tarball" section.</p>
1016    
1017 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1018 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1019 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1020 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1021 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1022     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1023     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1024     Save the file and quit the browser
1025    
1026     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1027     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1028 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1029 zhen 1.16 </body>
1030     </section>
1031     <section>
1032 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1033 zhen 1.16 <body>
1034 drobbins 1.86
1035     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1036     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1037     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1038     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1039     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1040    
1041     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1042     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1043    
1044 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1045 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1046 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1047     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1048     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1049 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1050 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1051    
1052     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1053 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1054 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1055     </section>
1056     <section>
1057     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1058     <body>
1059     <p>
1060     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1061     Gentoo Linux system.
1062     </p>
1063 swift 1.112
1064     <note>
1065     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1066 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1067 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1068     the problem.
1069     </note>
1070 drobbins 1.86
1071     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1072 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1073 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1074     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1075     # <c>env-update</c>
1076     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1077     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1078 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1079     </pre>
1080 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1081     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1082     </p>
1083 zhen 1.16 </body>
1084     </section>
1085     </chapter>
1086     <chapter>
1087 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1088 zhen 1.16 <section>
1089     <body>
1090 drobbins 1.86
1091     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1092     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1093     The Portage tree
1094 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1095 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1096 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1097    
1098 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1099 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1100 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1101 zhen 1.60
1102 zhen 1.16 </body>
1103     </section>
1104     </chapter>
1105     <chapter>
1106     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1107     <section>
1108     <body>
1109 drobbins 1.86
1110     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1111     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1112     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1113     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1114     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1115     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1116     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1117     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1118     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1119     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1120     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1121    
1122     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1123     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1124     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1125     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1126     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1127     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1128     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1129     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1130     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1131 drobbins 1.70
1132 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1133     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1134     a simple visual editor.
1135     </p>
1136 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1137     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1138 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1139 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1140 zhen 1.16 <note>
1141 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1142 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1143 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1144 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1145     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1146 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1147 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1148 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1149     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1150 zhen 1.6 </note>
1151 zhen 1.16 </body>
1152     </section>
1153     </chapter>
1154     <chapter>
1155 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1156 zhen 1.16 <section>
1157     <body>
1158 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1159 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1160 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1161 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1162     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1163 zhen 1.18 </p>
1164 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1165 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1166 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1167     as follows:</p>
1168 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1169 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1170     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1171 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1172 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1173 zhen 1.6 </p>
1174 zhen 1.16 <note>
1175 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1176     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1177     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1178     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1179     </note>
1180 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1181 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1182 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1183 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1184 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1185     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1186 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1187 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1188 zhen 1.6 </p>
1189 zhen 1.16 </body>
1190     </section>
1191     </chapter>
1192     <chapter>
1193 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1194 zhen 1.16 <section>
1195     <body>
1196 drobbins 1.86
1197     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1198     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1199     </note>
1200    
1201     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1202 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1203 zhen 1.6 </p>
1204 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1205     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1206     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1207     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1208    
1209 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1210 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1211 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1212 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1213 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1214 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1215 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1216     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1217 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1218 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1219     </p>
1220 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1221     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1222     your time zone" section.
1223 zhen 1.18 </p>
1224     </body>
1225     </section>
1226     </chapter>
1227     <chapter>
1228     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1229     <section>
1230     <body>
1231 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1232     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1233 drobbins 1.108
1234 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1235     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1236 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1237 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1238     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1239     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1240     In any case, feel free to skip these
1241     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1242     </p>
1243 zhen 1.57
1244 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1245 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1246     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1247     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1248     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1249     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1250     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1251 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1252 seemant 1.79 </body>
1253     </section>
1254     </chapter>
1255     <chapter>
1256 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1257 seemant 1.79 <section>
1258     <body>
1259 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1260     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1261     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1262     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1263     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1264 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1265 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1266 zhen 1.16 </body>
1267     </section>
1268     </chapter>
1269     <chapter>
1270 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1271 zhen 1.16 <section>
1272     <body>
1273     <note>
1274 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1275     </note>
1276 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1277 zhen 1.6 offer:
1278     </p>
1279 zhen 1.16 <table>
1280     <tr>
1281     <th>ebuild</th>
1282     <th>description</th>
1283     </tr>
1284     <tr>
1285     <ti>
1286     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1287     </ti>
1288 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1289 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1290     <tr>
1291     <ti>
1292     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1293     </ti>
1294 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1295 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1296     <tr>
1297     <ti>
1298     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1299     </ti>
1300     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1301     </tr>
1302     <tr>
1303     <ti>
1304     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1305     </ti>
1306     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1307     </tr>
1308     <tr>
1309     <ti>
1310     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1311     </ti>
1312 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1313 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1314     </table>
1315 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1316     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1317     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1318 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1319 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1320 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1321 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1322 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1323 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1324 zhen 1.6 </p>
1325 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1326 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1327 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1328     to the correct one before proceeding.
1329     </p>
1330 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1331 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1332     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1333     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1334     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1335 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1336 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1337 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1338 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1339     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1340     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1341     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1342     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1343     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1344     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1345     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1346     ...
1347    
1348     File systems ---&gt;
1349     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1350     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1351     ...
1352     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1353     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1354     ...
1355     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1356     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1357     ...
1358     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1359     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1360     ...
1361     [*] /proc file system support
1362     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1363     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1364     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1365     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1366     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1367     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1368     ...
1369     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1370     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1371     ...
1372     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1373     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1374     </pre>
1375 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1376 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1377     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1378     support for IDE RAID
1379     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1380     </p>
1381 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1382 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1383 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1384     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1385     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1386 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1387     </p>
1388 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1389     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1390     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1391     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1392     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1393     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1394     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1395 zhen 1.6 </p>
1396 zhen 1.16 <note>
1397 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1398     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1399 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1400 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1401     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1402     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1403 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1404     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1405 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1406     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1407 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1408 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1409 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1410     </note>
1411 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1412 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1413     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1414     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1415     newer alternatives.
1416     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1417     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1418     </p>
1419 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1420 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1421     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1422     <comment>or</comment>
1423     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1424     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1425     <comment>or</comment>
1426     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1427     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1428     <comment>or</comment>
1429     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1430     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1431 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1432 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1433 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1434     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1435     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1436     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1437     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1438     in real time, as expected),
1439     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1440 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1441     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1442 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1443 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1444     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1445 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1446     </p>
1447 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1448 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1449 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1450 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1451     <comment>or</comment>
1452     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1453 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1454 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1455     <comment>or</comment>
1456     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1457 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1458     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1459     </pre>
1460     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1461 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1462 zhen 1.6 </p>
1463 zhen 1.16 </body>
1464     </section>
1465     </chapter>
1466     <chapter>
1467 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1468 zhen 1.16 <section>
1469     <body>
1470     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1471 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1472 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1473 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1474 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1475 zhen 1.40
1476     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1477     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1478     X support later.
1479     </note>
1480 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1481 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1482     for the first time.
1483     </note>
1484 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1485 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1486 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1487 zhen 1.6 </p>
1488 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1489 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1490 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1491 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1492 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1493 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1494 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1495 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1496 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1497 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1498 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1499 zhen 1.6 </p>
1500 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1501 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1502 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1503 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1504 zhen 1.10 to work.
1505     </warn>
1506 zhen 1.16 </body>
1507     </section>
1508     </chapter>
1509     <chapter>
1510 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1511 zhen 1.16 <section>
1512     <body>
1513     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1514 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1515 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1516     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1517     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1518     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1519     </p>
1520 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1521     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1522 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1523     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1524 drobbins 1.1 #
1525 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1526 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1527 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1528 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1529    
1530 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1531 drobbins 1.1
1532     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1533     </comment>
1534     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1535     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1536     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1537     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1538     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1539 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1540 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1541 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1542     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1543     </warn>
1544 zhen 1.16 </body>
1545     </section>
1546     </chapter>
1547     <chapter>
1548 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1549 zhen 1.16 <section>
1550     <body>
1551     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1552 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1553 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1554 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1555 zhen 1.56
1556     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1557     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1558     </p>
1559 zhen 1.16 </body>
1560     </section>
1561     </chapter>
1562     <chapter>
1563 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1564 zhen 1.16 <section>
1565     <body>
1566     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1567 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1568     </p>
1569 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1570 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1571 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1572 zhen 1.16 </body>
1573     </section>
1574     </chapter>
1575     <chapter>
1576 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1577 zhen 1.16 <section>
1578     <body>
1579 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1580 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1581     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1582 zhen 1.6 </p>
1583 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1584 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1585     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1586     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1587 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1588 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1589 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1590     </note>
1591 zhen 1.16 </body>
1592     </section>
1593     </chapter>
1594     <chapter>
1595     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1596     <section>
1597     <body>
1598     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1599 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1600     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1601     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1602     it as a module:
1603     </p>
1604 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1605     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1606 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1607 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1608 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1609 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1610 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1611 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1612     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1613 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1614 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1615 zhen 1.6 scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1616 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1617 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1618     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1619     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1620 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1621 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1622 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1623 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1624 zhen 1.6 </p>
1625 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1626 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1627     need pcmcia
1628     }
1629 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1630 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1631 zhen 1.10 </p>
1632 zhen 1.16 </body>
1633     </section>
1634     </chapter>
1635     <chapter>
1636     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1637     <section>
1638     <body>
1639 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1640 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1641 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1642 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1643 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1644     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1645     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1646     possibilities).
1647     </p>
1648 zhen 1.16 </body>
1649     </section>
1650     </chapter>
1651     <chapter>
1652 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1653 zhen 1.49 <section>
1654     <title>Notes</title>
1655     <body>
1656     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1657     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1658     LILO as their bootloaders.
1659     </p>
1660     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1661 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1662 zhen 1.49 </p>
1663 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1664     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1665 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1666     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1667 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1668 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1669 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1670    
1671 zhen 1.49 </body>
1672     </section>
1673 zhen 1.16 <section>
1674 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1675 zhen 1.16 <body>
1676     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1677 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1678     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1679 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1680 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1681     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1682     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1683     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1684 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1685 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1686    
1687     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1688     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1689     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1690     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1691 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1692 zhen 1.6 </p>
1693 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1694 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1695 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1696 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1697 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1698 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1699 zhen 1.6 this time.
1700     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1701     grub setup for RAID controllers
1702     </impo>
1703 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1704 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1705     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1706     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1707     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1708     I want to type are:
1709     </p>
1710 zhen 1.68
1711 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1712 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1713     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1714 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1715 zhen 1.68
1716 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1717 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1718 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1719     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1720 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1721 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1722 zhen 1.68
1723 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1724 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1725     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1726     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1727     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1728     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1729     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1730     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1731     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1732 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1733 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1734 zhen 1.52 </p>
1735 zhen 1.6
1736     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1737     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1738     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1739     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1740     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1741     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1742    
1743     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1744     to make the right choice.
1745     </note>
1746    
1747 zhen 1.52 <p>
1748 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1749     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1750 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1751 zhen 1.6 </p>
1752 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1753 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1754     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1755 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1756 zhen 1.6 </p>
1757 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1758 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1759     timeout 30
1760     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1761    
1762     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1763     root (hd0,0)
1764 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1765 drobbins 1.1
1766 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1767 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1768     root (hd0,0)
1769 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1770 drobbins 1.1
1771     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1772 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1773 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1774 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1775 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1776 zhen 1.16 <note>
1777 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1778     </note>
1779 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1780 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1781 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1782     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1783 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1784 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1785 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1786     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1787     </p>
1788 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1789 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1790     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1791     loader.
1792 zhware 1.9 </note>
1793 zhen 1.16 <note>
1794 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1795 zhen 1.6 </note>
1796 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1797 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1798     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1799     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1800     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1801     </p>
1802 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1803 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1804     devfs is enabled by default.
1805     </note>
1806 zhen 1.16 </body>
1807     </section>
1808 zhen 1.49 <section>
1809     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1810 zhen 1.16 <body>
1811 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1812 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1813 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1814 zhen 1.16 </p>
1815     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1816     </p>
1817 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1818 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1819 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1820 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1821 zhen 1.16 </p>
1822 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1823 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1824     map=/boot/map
1825     install=/boot/boot.b
1826     prompt
1827     timeout=50
1828     lba32
1829     default=linux
1830    
1831 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1832 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1833     read-only
1834 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1835 zhen 1.16
1836     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1837     other=/dev/hda1
1838     label=dos
1839 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1840 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1841 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1842     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1843     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1844     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1845     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1846 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1847 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1848     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1849     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1850     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1851     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1852     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1853     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1854     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1855     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1856 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1857 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1858     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1859     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1860     altered during the boot process. </li>
1861     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1862 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1863 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1864     into the MBR:
1865     </p>
1866 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1867 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1868 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1869 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1870     </p>
1871     </body>
1872     </section>
1873     </chapter>
1874     <chapter>
1875 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1876 zhen 1.16 <section>
1877     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1878     <body>
1879 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1880 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1881 peesh 1.103 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1882 drobbins 1.21 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1883     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1884     make a GRUB
1885     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1886 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1887 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1888 zhen 1.6 </p>
1889 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1890 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1891     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1892     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1893     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1894     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1895 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1896 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1897    
1898     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1899     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1900     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1901 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1902 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1903 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1904 zhen 1.16 </body>
1905     </section>
1906     <section>
1907     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1908     <body>
1909     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1910     </p>
1911 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1912 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1913     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1914 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1915 zhen 1.16 </body>
1916     </section>
1917     </chapter>
1918     <chapter>
1919     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1920     <section>
1921     <body>
1922 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1923    
1924 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1925     and reboot the system:
1926     </p>
1927 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1928 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1929     # <c>exit</c>
1930 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1931 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1932     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1933     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1934     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1935     # <c>reboot</c>
1936 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1937 zhen 1.16 <note>
1938 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1939     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1940     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1941     </note>
1942 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1943 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1944     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1945 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1946 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1947 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1948 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1949 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1950     that will
1951     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1952     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1953     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1954 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1955 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1956 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1957 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1958     </p>
1959 zhen 1.16 </body>
1960     </section>
1961     </chapter>
1962     <chapter>
1963     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1964     <section>
1965     <body>
1966     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1967 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1968     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1969     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1970     </p>
1971 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1972 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1973 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1974 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1975     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1976 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1977 zhen 1.6 </p>
1978 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1979     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1980     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
1981     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1982     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1983     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1984     </ul>
1985     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1986 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
1987     </p>
1988 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1989     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1990 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1991 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1992     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1993     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
1994     </ul>
1995     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1996 zhen 1.6 </p>
1997 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1998 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1999     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2000 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2001 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2002 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2003     to see additional configuration options.
2004     </p>
2005 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2006 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2007     </p>
2008 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2009     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2010     </pre>
2011 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2012 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2013 zhen 1.16 </body>
2014     </section>
2015     </chapter>
2016 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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