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Fix http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=20581
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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.115 <date>8 May 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87    
88    
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
112     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
113 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
114     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
115 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
116 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
117 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
118 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
119 zhen 1.26 <table>
120 zhen 1.16 <tr>
121     <th>stage tarball</th>
122     <th>requirements for installation</th>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <ti>1</ti>
126 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
127 zhen 1.16 </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>2</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>3</ti>
134     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137     </body>
138     </section>
139     </chapter>
140     <chapter>
141     <title>Booting</title>
142     <section>
143     <body>
144 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
145 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
146 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Available kernels.</th>
151     <th>description</th>
152     </tr>
153    
154     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
156 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
157 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
159     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
161     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
162    
163     </table>
164    
165     <p>
166     <table>
167     <tr>
168     <th>Available boot options.</th>
169     <th>description</th>
170     </tr>
171 antifa 1.106
172     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
173     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
174 antifa 1.105
175 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177    
178     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
179     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
180    
181     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
182     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
183    
184 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
185     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
186    
187 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
188     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
189    
190 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
191     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
192    
193     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
194     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
195    
196 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198 antifa 1.105
199     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
200     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
201    
202 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
203     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
204 antifa 1.105
205     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
206     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
207    
208     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
209     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
210    
211     </table></p>
212 drobbins 1.70
213 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
221 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
222 zhen 1.6 </p>
223 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 zhen 1.6 </p>
227 zhen 1.16 </body>
228     </section>
229     </chapter>
230     <chapter>
231     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238     type:
239     </p>
240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247     </p>
248 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 zhen 1.6 <note>
255 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 zhen 1.52 </note>
257 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259     </p>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
317    
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 zhen 1.6 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
389     Type in the following commands, replacing
390     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
391     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
392     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
393     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
394     </p>
395 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
396 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
397     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
398 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
399 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
400 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
401     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
402     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
403     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
404 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
405 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
406 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
407     nameserver 10.0.0.1
408     nameserver 10.0.0.2
409 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
410 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
411 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
412 zhen 1.16 </body>
413     </section>
414     <section>
415     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
416     <body>
417 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
418 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
419 zhen 1.6 </p>
420 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
421 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
422 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
423 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
424     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
425     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
426     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
427 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
428 zhen 1.16 </body>
429     </section>
430 drobbins 1.70 <section>
431 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
432     <body>
433 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
434 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
435 zhen 1.16 </body>
436     </section>
437 peesh 1.104 <section>
438     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
439     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
440     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
441     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
442     </body>
443     </section>
444 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
445     <chapter>
446 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
447     <section>
448     <body>
449     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
450     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
451     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
452     # <c>date</c>
453     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
454     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
455     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
456     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
457     </pre>
458     </body>
459     </section>
460     </chapter>
461     <chapter>
462 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
463 zhen 1.16 <section>
464 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
465 zhen 1.16 <body>
466 drobbins 1.86 <p>
467     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
468 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
469 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
470     install.
471     </p>
472     <p>
473     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
474     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
475     </p>
476     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
477     /dev/hda
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p>
481     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
482     </p>
483    
484     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
485     /dev/sda
486     </pre>
487    
488     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
489     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
490     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
491     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
492     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
493     </body>
494     </section>
495     <section>
496     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
497     <body>
498     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
499     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
500     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
501    
502     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
503     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
504     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
505     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
506 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
507 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
508     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
509     up the full disk. </p>
510    
511     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
512     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
513    
514     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
515     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
516    
517     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
518     # fdisk /dev/hda
519     </pre>
520     <p>
521     or
522     </p>
523     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
524     # fdisk /dev/sda
525     </pre>
526    
527     <impo>
528     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
529     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
530     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
531     lost.</b>
532     </impo>
533    
534     <p>
535     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
536     </p>
537    
538     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
539     Command (m for help):
540     </pre>
541    
542    
543     <p>
544     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
545     </p>
546    
547     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
548     Command (m for help): p
549    
550     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
551     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
552    
553     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
554     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
555     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
556     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
557     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
558     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
559     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
560     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
561     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
562     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
563    
564     Command (m for help):
565     </pre>
566    
567     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
568     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
569     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
570    
571     <p>
572     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
573     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
574     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
575     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
576     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
577     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
578     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
579     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
580     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
581     </p>
582    
583     <p>
584     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
585     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
586    
587     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
588     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
589 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
590 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
591     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
592    
593     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
594     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
595     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
596 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
597     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
598     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
599 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
600 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
601 drobbins 1.86 </p>
602     </body>
603     </section>
604     <section>
605     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
606     <body>
607    
608 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
609 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
610     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
611     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
612     look like this: </p>
613    
614     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
615     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
616     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
617     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
618    
619     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
620     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
621     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
622     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
623    
624     Command (m for help):
625     </pre>
626    
627     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
628     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
629     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
630     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
631     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
632     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
633     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
634 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
635     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
636 drobbins 1.86
637 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
638     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
639     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
640     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
641     cylinder 1024.
642     </p>
643    
644 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
645     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
646     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
647 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
648     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
649 drobbins 1.86
650     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
651     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
652     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
653     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
654    
655    
656     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
657     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
658     Linux:</p>
659    
660     <table>
661     <tr>
662     <th>Partition</th>
663     <th>Size</th>
664     <th>Type</th>
665     <th>example device</th>
666     </tr>
667     <tr>
668     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
669 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
670     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to te size; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
671 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
672     </tr>
673     <tr>
674     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
675     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
676     in your system.</ti>
677     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
678     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
679     </tr>
680     <tr>
681     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
682     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
683     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
684     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
685     </tr>
686     </table>
687    
688     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
689 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
690 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
691     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
692     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
693     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
694    
695     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
696     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
697     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
698     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
699     from the wrong drive.</impo>
700    
701     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
702     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
703     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
704    
705     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
706     Command (m for help): d
707     Partition number (1-4): 1
708     </pre>
709 zhen 1.54
710 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
711     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
712     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
713     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
714     deleted.</p>
715     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
716     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
717     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
718 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
719 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
720     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
721 drobbins 1.86 -->
722     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
723     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
724     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
725     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
726    
727     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
728     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
729     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
730     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
731    
732     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
733    
734     Command (m for help):
735     </pre>
736    
737     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
738     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
739     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
740     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
741 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
742     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
743    
744     <note>
745     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
746     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
747     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
748     for the last cylinder.
749     </note>
750 drobbins 1.86
751     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
752     Command (m for help): n
753     Command action
754     e extended
755     p primary partition (1-4)
756     p
757     Partition number (1-4): 1
758     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
759     Using default value 1
760 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
761 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
762    
763     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
764    
765     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
766     Command (m for help): p
767    
768     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
769     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
770     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
771    
772     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
773     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
774     </pre>
775    
776     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
777     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
778     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
779     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
780     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
781     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
782     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
783     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
784    
785     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
786     Command (m for help): p
787    
788     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
789     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
790     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
791    
792     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
793     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
794     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
795     </pre>
796    
797     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
798     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
799 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
800 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
801     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
802     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
803     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
804     this:</p>
805    
806     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
807     Command (m for help): p
808    
809     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
810     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
811     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
812    
813     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
814     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
815     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
816     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
817     </pre>
818    
819     <p>
820     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
821     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
822     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
823     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
824     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
825     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
826     install.
827     </p>
828    
829     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
830     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
831     </body>
832     </section>
833     <section>
834     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
835     <body>
836     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
837     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
838     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
839     </p>
840    
841     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
842     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
843     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
844    
845     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
846     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
847     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
848     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
849     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
850     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
851     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
852    
853     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
854     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
855     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
856 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
857     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
858     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
859     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
860     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
861     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
862 drobbins 1.86
863     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
864     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
865     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
866     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
867     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
868     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
869     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
870     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
871     non-boot partitions.</p>
872    
873     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
874     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
875     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
876     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
877     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
878     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
879     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
880     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
881    
882     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
883     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
884     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
885     point.</p>
886    
887     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
888     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
889     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
890     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
891    
892     <!-- Corner case, confusing
893 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
894 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
895 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
896     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
897 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
898 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
899 zhen 1.6 </p>
900 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
901     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
902     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
903     </pre>
904     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
905 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
906     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
907     </warn>
908 drobbins 1.86 -->
909    
910     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
911     all our partitions for use:</p>
912    
913     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
914     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
915     # mkswap /dev/hda2
916     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
917     </pre>
918    
919 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
920     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
921     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
922     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
923     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
924     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
925    
926     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
927     during the installation process:</p>
928 drobbins 1.86
929 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
930 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
931 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
932 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
933 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
934 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
935 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
936 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
937 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
938 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
939 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
940     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
941     </pre>
942     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
943     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
944 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
945 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
946     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
947     </pre>
948 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
949 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
950 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
951 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
952     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
953     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
954     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
955     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
956     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
957     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
958     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
959 drobbins 1.86
960 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
961 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
962 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
963 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
964 zhen 1.16 </body>
965     </section>
966     </chapter>
967     <chapter>
968     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
969     <section>
970     <body>
971 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
972 zhen 1.6 provides later:
973     </p>
974 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
975 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
976 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
977 drobbins 1.86
978 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
979 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
980 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
981     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
982     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
983     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
984     </p>
985    
986     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
987 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
988 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
989 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
990     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
991     not sure what to do.
992 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
993    
994 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
995 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
996     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
997     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
998     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
999 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1000 drobbins 1.86
1001     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1002 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1003 zhen 1.16 </body>
1004     </section>
1005     </chapter>
1006     <chapter>
1007 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1008 zhen 1.16 <section>
1009 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1010 zhen 1.16 <body>
1011 zhen 1.55
1012 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1013     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1014     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1015    
1016     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1017 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1018 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1019     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1020     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1021     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1022     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1023     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1024    
1025     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1026     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1027     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1028     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1029     tarball" section.</p>
1030    
1031 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1032 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1033 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1034 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1035 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1036     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1037     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1038     Save the file and quit the browser
1039    
1040     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1041     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1042 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1043 zhen 1.16 </body>
1044     </section>
1045     <section>
1046 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1047 zhen 1.16 <body>
1048 drobbins 1.86
1049     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1050     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1051     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1052     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1053     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1054    
1055     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1056     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1057    
1058 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1059 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1060 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1061     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1062     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1063 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1064 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1065    
1066     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1067 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1068 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1069     </section>
1070     <section>
1071     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1072     <body>
1073     <p>
1074     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1075     Gentoo Linux system.
1076     </p>
1077 swift 1.112
1078     <note>
1079     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1080 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1081 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1082     the problem.
1083     </note>
1084 drobbins 1.86
1085     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1086 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1087 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1088     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1089     # <c>env-update</c>
1090     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1091     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1092 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1093     </pre>
1094 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1095     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1096     </p>
1097 zhen 1.16 </body>
1098     </section>
1099     </chapter>
1100     <chapter>
1101 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1102 zhen 1.16 <section>
1103     <body>
1104 drobbins 1.86
1105     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1106     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1107     The Portage tree
1108 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1109 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1110 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1111    
1112 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1113 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1114 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1115 zhen 1.60
1116 zhen 1.16 </body>
1117     </section>
1118     </chapter>
1119     <chapter>
1120     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1121     <section>
1122     <body>
1123 drobbins 1.86
1124     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1125     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1126     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1127     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1128     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1129     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1130     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1131     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1132     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1133     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1134     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1135    
1136     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1137     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1138     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1139     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1140     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1141     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1142     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1143     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1144     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1145 drobbins 1.70
1146 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1147     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1148     a simple visual editor.
1149     </p>
1150 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1151     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1152 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1153 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1154 zhen 1.16 <note>
1155 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1156 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1157 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1158 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1159     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1160 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1161 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1162 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1163     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1164 zhen 1.6 </note>
1165 zhen 1.16 </body>
1166     </section>
1167     </chapter>
1168     <chapter>
1169 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1170 zhen 1.16 <section>
1171     <body>
1172 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1173 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1174 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1175 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1176     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1177 zhen 1.18 </p>
1178 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1179 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1180 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1181     as follows:</p>
1182 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1183 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1184     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1185 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1186 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1187 zhen 1.6 </p>
1188 zhen 1.16 <note>
1189 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1190     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1191     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1192     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1193     </note>
1194 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1195 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1196 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1197 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1198 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1199     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1200 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1201 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1202 zhen 1.6 </p>
1203 zhen 1.16 </body>
1204     </section>
1205     </chapter>
1206     <chapter>
1207 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1208 zhen 1.16 <section>
1209     <body>
1210 drobbins 1.86
1211     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1212     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1213     </note>
1214    
1215     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1216 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1217 zhen 1.6 </p>
1218 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1219     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1220     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1221     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1222    
1223 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1224 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1225 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1226 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1227 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1228 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1229 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1230     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1231 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1232 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1233     </p>
1234 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1235     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1236     your time zone" section.
1237 zhen 1.18 </p>
1238     </body>
1239     </section>
1240     </chapter>
1241     <chapter>
1242     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1243     <section>
1244     <body>
1245 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1246     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1247 drobbins 1.108
1248 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1249     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1250 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1251 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1252     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1253     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1254     In any case, feel free to skip these
1255     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1256     </p>
1257 zhen 1.57
1258 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1259 drobbins 1.86 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"</c>
1260     # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1261     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1262     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1263     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1264     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1265 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1266 seemant 1.79 </body>
1267     </section>
1268     </chapter>
1269     <chapter>
1270 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1271 seemant 1.79 <section>
1272     <body>
1273 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1274     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1275     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1276     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1277     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1278 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1279 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1280 zhen 1.16 </body>
1281     </section>
1282     </chapter>
1283     <chapter>
1284 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1285 zhen 1.16 <section>
1286     <body>
1287     <note>
1288 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1289     </note>
1290 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1291 zhen 1.6 offer:
1292     </p>
1293 zhen 1.16 <table>
1294     <tr>
1295     <th>ebuild</th>
1296     <th>description</th>
1297     </tr>
1298     <tr>
1299     <ti>
1300     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1301     </ti>
1302 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1303 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1304     <tr>
1305     <ti>
1306     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1307     </ti>
1308 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1309 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1310     <tr>
1311     <ti>
1312     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1313     </ti>
1314     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1315     </tr>
1316     <tr>
1317     <ti>
1318     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1319     </ti>
1320     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1321     </tr>
1322     <tr>
1323     <ti>
1324     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1325     </ti>
1326 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1327 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1328     </table>
1329 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1330     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1331     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1332 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1333 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1334 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1335 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1336 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1337 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1338 zhen 1.6 </p>
1339 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1340 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1341 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1342     to the correct one before proceeding.
1343     </p>
1344 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1345 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1346     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1347     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1348     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1349 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1350 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1351 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1352 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1353     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1354     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1355     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1356     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1357     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1358     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1359     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1360     ...
1361    
1362     File systems ---&gt;
1363     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1364     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1365     ...
1366     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1367     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1368     ...
1369     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1370     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1371     ...
1372     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1373     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1374     ...
1375     [*] /proc file system support
1376     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1377     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1378     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1379     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1380     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1381     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1382     ...
1383     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1384     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1385     ...
1386     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1387     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1388     </pre>
1389 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1390 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1391     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1392     support for IDE RAID
1393     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1394     </p>
1395 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1396 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1397 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1398     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1399     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1400 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1401     </p>
1402 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1403     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1404     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1405     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1406     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1407     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1408     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1409 zhen 1.6 </p>
1410 zhen 1.16 <note>
1411 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1412     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1413 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1414 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1415     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1416     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1417 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1418     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1419 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1420     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1421 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1422 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1423 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1424     </note>
1425 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1426 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1427     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1428     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1429     newer alternatives.
1430     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1431     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1432     </p>
1433 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1434 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1435     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1436     <comment>or</comment>
1437     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1438     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1439     <comment>or</comment>
1440     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1441     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1442     <comment>or</comment>
1443     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1444     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1445 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1446 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1447 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1448     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1449     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1450     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1451     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1452     in real time, as expected),
1453     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1454 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1455     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1456 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1457 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1458     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1459     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1460     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1461     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1462     </pre>
1463 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1464     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1465 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1466     </p>
1467 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1468 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1469 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1470 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1471     <comment>or</comment>
1472     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1473 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1474 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1475     <comment>or</comment>
1476     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1477 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1478     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1479     </pre>
1480     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1481 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1482 zhen 1.6 </p>
1483 zhen 1.16 </body>
1484     </section>
1485     </chapter>
1486     <chapter>
1487 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing miscellany necessary packages</title>
1488 zhen 1.16 <section>
1489     <body>
1490     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1491 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1492 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1493 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1494 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1495 zhen 1.40
1496     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1497     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1498     X support later.
1499     </note>
1500 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1501 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1502     for the first time.
1503     </note>
1504 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1505 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1506 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1507 zhen 1.6 </p>
1508 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1509 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1510 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1511 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1512 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1513 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1514 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1515 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1516 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1517 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1518 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1519 zhen 1.6 </p>
1520 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1521 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1522 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1523 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1524 zhen 1.10 to work.
1525     </warn>
1526 zhen 1.16 </body>
1527     </section>
1528     </chapter>
1529     <chapter>
1530 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1531 zhen 1.16 <section>
1532     <body>
1533     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1534 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1535 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1536     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1537     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1538     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1539     </p>
1540 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1541     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1542 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1543     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1544 drobbins 1.1 #
1545 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1546 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1547 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1548 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1549    
1550 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1551 drobbins 1.1
1552     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1553     </comment>
1554     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1555     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1556     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1557     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1558     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1559 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1560 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1561 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1562     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1563     </warn>
1564 zhen 1.16 </body>
1565     </section>
1566     </chapter>
1567     <chapter>
1568 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1569 zhen 1.16 <section>
1570     <body>
1571     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1572 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1573 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1574 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1575 zhen 1.56
1576     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1577     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1578     </p>
1579 zhen 1.16 </body>
1580     </section>
1581     </chapter>
1582     <chapter>
1583 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1584 zhen 1.16 <section>
1585     <body>
1586     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1587 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1588     </p>
1589 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1590 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1591 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1592 zhen 1.16 </body>
1593     </section>
1594     </chapter>
1595     <chapter>
1596 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1597 zhen 1.16 <section>
1598     <body>
1599 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1600 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1601     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1602 zhen 1.6 </p>
1603 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1604 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1605     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1606     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1607 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1608 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1609 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1610     </note>
1611 zhen 1.16 </body>
1612     </section>
1613     </chapter>
1614     <chapter>
1615     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1616     <section>
1617     <body>
1618     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1619 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1620     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1621     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1622     it as a module:
1623     </p>
1624 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1625     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1626 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1627 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1628 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1629 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1630 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1631 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1632     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1633 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1634 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1635     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1636 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1637 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1638     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1639     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1640 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1641 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1642 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1643 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1644 zhen 1.6 </p>
1645 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1646 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1647     need pcmcia
1648     }
1649 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1650 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1651 zhen 1.10 </p>
1652 zhen 1.16 </body>
1653     </section>
1654     </chapter>
1655     <chapter>
1656     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1657     <section>
1658     <body>
1659 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1660 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1661 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1662 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1663 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1664     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1665     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1666     possibilities).
1667     </p>
1668 zhen 1.16 </body>
1669     </section>
1670     </chapter>
1671     <chapter>
1672 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1673 zhen 1.49 <section>
1674     <title>Notes</title>
1675     <body>
1676     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1677     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1678     LILO as their bootloaders.
1679     </p>
1680     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1681 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1682 zhen 1.49 </p>
1683 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1684     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1685 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1686     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1687 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1688 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1689 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1690    
1691 zhen 1.49 </body>
1692     </section>
1693 zhen 1.16 <section>
1694 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1695 zhen 1.16 <body>
1696     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1697 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1698     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1699 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1700 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1701     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1702     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1703     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1704 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1705 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1706    
1707     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1708     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1709     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1710     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1711 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1712 zhen 1.6 </p>
1713 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1714 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1715 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1716 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1717 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1718 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1719 zhen 1.6 this time.
1720     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1721     grub setup for RAID controllers
1722     </impo>
1723 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1724 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1725     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1726     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1727     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1728     I want to type are:
1729     </p>
1730 zhen 1.68
1731 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1732 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1733     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1734 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1735 zhen 1.68
1736 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1737 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1738 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1739     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1740 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1741 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1742 zhen 1.68
1743 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1744 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1745     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1746     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1747     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1748     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1749     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1750     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1751     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1752 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1753 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1754 zhen 1.52 </p>
1755 zhen 1.6
1756     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1757     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1758     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1759     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1760     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1761     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1762    
1763     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1764     to make the right choice.
1765     </note>
1766    
1767 zhen 1.52 <p>
1768 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1769     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1770 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1771 zhen 1.6 </p>
1772 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1773 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1774     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1775 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1776 zhen 1.6 </p>
1777 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1778 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1779     timeout 30
1780     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1781    
1782     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1783     root (hd0,0)
1784 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1785 drobbins 1.1
1786 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1787 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1788     root (hd0,0)
1789 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1790 drobbins 1.1
1791     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1792 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1793 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1794 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1795 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1796 zhen 1.16 <note>
1797 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1798     </note>
1799 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1800 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1801 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1802     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1803 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1804 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1805 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1806     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1807     </p>
1808 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1809 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1810     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1811     loader.
1812 zhware 1.9 </note>
1813 zhen 1.16 <note>
1814 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1815 zhen 1.6 </note>
1816 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1817 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1818     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1819     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1820     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1821     </p>
1822 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1823 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1824     devfs is enabled by default.
1825     </note>
1826 zhen 1.16 </body>
1827     </section>
1828 zhen 1.49 <section>
1829     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1830 zhen 1.16 <body>
1831 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1832 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1833 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1834 zhen 1.16 </p>
1835     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1836     </p>
1837 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1838 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1839 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1840 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1841 zhen 1.16 </p>
1842 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1843 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1844     map=/boot/map
1845     install=/boot/boot.b
1846     prompt
1847     timeout=50
1848     lba32
1849     default=linux
1850    
1851 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1852 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1853     read-only
1854 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1855 zhen 1.16
1856     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1857     other=/dev/hda1
1858     label=dos
1859 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1860 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1861 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1862     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1863     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1864     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1865     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1866 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1867 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1868     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1869     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1870     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1871     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1872     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1873     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1874     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1875     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1876 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1877 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1878     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1879     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1880     altered during the boot process. </li>
1881     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1882 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1883 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1884     into the MBR:
1885     </p>
1886 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1887 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1888 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1889 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1890     </p>
1891     </body>
1892     </section>
1893     </chapter>
1894     <chapter>
1895 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1896 zhen 1.16 <section>
1897     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1898     <body>
1899 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1900 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1901 peesh 1.103 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1902 drobbins 1.21 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1903     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1904     make a GRUB
1905     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1906 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1907 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1908 zhen 1.6 </p>
1909 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1910 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1911     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1912     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1913     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1914     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1915 zhen 1.66 # <c>umount /mnt/floppy</c>
1916 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1917    
1918     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1919     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1920     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1921 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1922 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1923 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1924 zhen 1.16 </body>
1925     </section>
1926     <section>
1927     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1928     <body>
1929     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1930     </p>
1931 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1932 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1933     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1934 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1935 zhen 1.16 </body>
1936     </section>
1937     </chapter>
1938     <chapter>
1939     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1940     <section>
1941     <body>
1942 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1943    
1944 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1945     and reboot the system:
1946     </p>
1947 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1948 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1949     # <c>exit</c>
1950 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1951 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1952     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1953     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1954     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1955     # <c>reboot</c>
1956 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1957 zhen 1.16 <note>
1958 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1959     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1960     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1961     </note>
1962 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1963 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1964     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1965 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1966 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1967 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1968 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1969 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1970     that will
1971     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1972     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1973     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1974 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1975 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1976 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1977 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1978     </p>
1979 zhen 1.16 </body>
1980     </section>
1981     </chapter>
1982     <chapter>
1983     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1984     <section>
1985     <body>
1986     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1987 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1988     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1989     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1990     </p>
1991 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1992 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1993 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1994 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1995     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1996 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
1997 zhen 1.6 </p>
1998 zhen 1.16 <ul>
1999     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2000     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2001     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2002     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2003     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2004     </ul>
2005     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2006 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2007     </p>
2008 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2009     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2010 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2011 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2012     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2013     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2014     </ul>
2015     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2016 zhen 1.6 </p>
2017 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2018 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2019     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2020 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2021 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2022 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2023     to see additional configuration options.
2024     </p>
2025 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2026 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2027     </p>
2028 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2029     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2030     </pre>
2031 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2032 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2033 zhen 1.16 </body>
2034     </section>
2035     </chapter>
2036 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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