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Fix http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=16647
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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.117 <date>10 May 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87    
88    
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
112     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
113 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
114     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
115 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
116 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
117 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
118 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
119 zhen 1.26 <table>
120 zhen 1.16 <tr>
121     <th>stage tarball</th>
122     <th>requirements for installation</th>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <ti>1</ti>
126 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
127 zhen 1.16 </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>2</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>3</ti>
134     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137     </body>
138     </section>
139     </chapter>
140     <chapter>
141     <title>Booting</title>
142     <section>
143     <body>
144 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
145 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
146 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Available kernels.</th>
151     <th>description</th>
152     </tr>
153    
154     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
156 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
157 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
159     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
161     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
162    
163     </table>
164    
165     <p>
166     <table>
167     <tr>
168     <th>Available boot options.</th>
169     <th>description</th>
170     </tr>
171 antifa 1.106
172     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
173     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
174 antifa 1.105
175 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177    
178     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
179     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
180    
181     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
182     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
183    
184 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
185     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
186    
187 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
188     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
189    
190 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
191     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
192    
193     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
194     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
195    
196 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198 antifa 1.105
199     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
200     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
201    
202 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
203     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
204 antifa 1.105
205     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
206     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
207    
208     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
209     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
210    
211     </table></p>
212 drobbins 1.70
213 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
221 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
222 zhen 1.6 </p>
223 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 zhen 1.6 </p>
227 zhen 1.16 </body>
228     </section>
229     </chapter>
230     <chapter>
231     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238     type:
239     </p>
240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247     </p>
248 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 zhen 1.6 <note>
255 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 zhen 1.52 </note>
257 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259     </p>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
317    
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
389    
390     <table>
391     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
392     <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
393     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
394     <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
395     <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti></tr>
396     </table>
397    
398     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
399 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
400     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
401     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
402     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
403     </p>
404 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
405 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
406 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</c>
407 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
408 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
409 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
410     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
411     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
412     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
413 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
414 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
415 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
416     nameserver 10.0.0.1
417     nameserver 10.0.0.2
418 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
419 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
420 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
421 zhen 1.16 </body>
422     </section>
423     <section>
424     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
425     <body>
426 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
427 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
428 zhen 1.6 </p>
429 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
430 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
431 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
432 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
433     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
434     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
435     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
436 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
437 zhen 1.16 </body>
438     </section>
439 drobbins 1.70 <section>
440 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
441     <body>
442 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
443 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
444 zhen 1.16 </body>
445     </section>
446 peesh 1.104 <section>
447     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
448     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
449     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
450     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
451     </body>
452     </section>
453 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
454     <chapter>
455 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
456     <section>
457     <body>
458     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
459     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
460     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
461     # <c>date</c>
462     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
463     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
464     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
465     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
466     </pre>
467     </body>
468     </section>
469     </chapter>
470     <chapter>
471 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
472 zhen 1.16 <section>
473 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
474 zhen 1.16 <body>
475 drobbins 1.86 <p>
476     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
477 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
478 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
479     install.
480     </p>
481     <p>
482     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
483     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
484     </p>
485     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
486     /dev/hda
487     </pre>
488    
489     <p>
490     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
491     </p>
492    
493     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
494     /dev/sda
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
498     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
499     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
500     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
501     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
502     </body>
503     </section>
504     <section>
505     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
506     <body>
507     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
508     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
509     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
510    
511     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
512     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
513     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
514     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
515 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
516 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
517     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
518     up the full disk. </p>
519    
520     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
521     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
522    
523     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
524     <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c></note>
525    
526     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
527     # fdisk /dev/hda
528     </pre>
529     <p>
530     or
531     </p>
532     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
533     # fdisk /dev/sda
534     </pre>
535    
536     <impo>
537     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
538     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
539     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
540     lost.</b>
541     </impo>
542    
543     <p>
544     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
545     </p>
546    
547     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
548     Command (m for help):
549     </pre>
550    
551    
552     <p>
553     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
554     </p>
555    
556     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
557     Command (m for help): p
558    
559     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
560     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
561    
562     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
563     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
564     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
565     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
566     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
567     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
568     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
569     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
570     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
571     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
572    
573     Command (m for help):
574     </pre>
575    
576     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
577     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
578     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
579    
580     <p>
581     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
582     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
583     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
584     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
585     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
586     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
587     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
588     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
589     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
590     </p>
591    
592     <p>
593     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
594     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
595    
596     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
597     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
598 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
599 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
600     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
601    
602     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
603     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
604     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
605 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
606     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
607     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
608 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
609 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
610 drobbins 1.86 </p>
611     </body>
612     </section>
613     <section>
614     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
615     <body>
616    
617 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
618 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
619     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
620     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
621     look like this: </p>
622    
623     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
624     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
625     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
626     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
627    
628     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
629     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
630     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
631     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
632    
633     Command (m for help):
634     </pre>
635    
636     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
637     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
638     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
639     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
640     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
641     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
642     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
643 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
644     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
645 drobbins 1.86
646 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
647     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
648     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
649     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
650     cylinder 1024.
651     </p>
652    
653 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
654     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
655     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
656 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
657     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
658 drobbins 1.86
659     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
660     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
661     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
662     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
663    
664    
665     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
666     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
667     Linux:</p>
668    
669     <table>
670     <tr>
671     <th>Partition</th>
672     <th>Size</th>
673     <th>Type</th>
674     <th>example device</th>
675     </tr>
676     <tr>
677     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
678 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
679     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to te size; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
680 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
681     </tr>
682     <tr>
683     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
684     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
685     in your system.</ti>
686     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
687     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
688     </tr>
689     <tr>
690     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
691     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
692     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
693     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
694     </tr>
695     </table>
696    
697     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
698 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
699 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
700     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
701     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
702     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
703    
704     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
705     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
706     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
707     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
708     from the wrong drive.</impo>
709    
710     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
711     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
712     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
713    
714     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
715     Command (m for help): d
716     Partition number (1-4): 1
717     </pre>
718 zhen 1.54
719 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
720     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
721     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
722     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
723     deleted.</p>
724     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
725     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
726     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
727 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
728 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
729     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
730 drobbins 1.86 -->
731     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
732     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
733     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
734     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
735    
736     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
737     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
738     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
739     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
740    
741     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
742    
743     Command (m for help):
744     </pre>
745    
746     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
747     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
748     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
749     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
750 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
751     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
752    
753     <note>
754     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
755     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
756     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
757     for the last cylinder.
758     </note>
759 drobbins 1.86
760     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
761     Command (m for help): n
762     Command action
763     e extended
764     p primary partition (1-4)
765     p
766     Partition number (1-4): 1
767     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
768     Using default value 1
769 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
770 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
771    
772     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
773    
774     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
775     Command (m for help): p
776    
777     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
778     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
779     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
780    
781     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
782     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
783     </pre>
784    
785     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
786     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
787     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
788     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
789     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
790     <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
791     type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
792     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
793    
794     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
795     Command (m for help): p
796    
797     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
798     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
799     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
800    
801     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
802     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
803     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
804     </pre>
805    
806     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
807     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
808 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
809 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
810     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
811     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
812     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
813     this:</p>
814    
815     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
816     Command (m for help): p
817    
818     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
819     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
820     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
821    
822     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
823     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
824     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
825     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
826     </pre>
827    
828     <p>
829     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
830     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
831     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
832     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
833     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
834     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
835     install.
836     </p>
837    
838     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
839     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
840     </body>
841     </section>
842     <section>
843     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
844     <body>
845     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
846     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
847     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
848     </p>
849    
850     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
851     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
852     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
853    
854     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
855     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
856     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
857     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
858     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
859     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
860     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
861    
862     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
863     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
864     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
865 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
866     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
867     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
868     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
869     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
870     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
871 drobbins 1.86
872     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
873     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
874     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
875     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
876     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
877     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
878     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
879     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
880     non-boot partitions.</p>
881    
882     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
883     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
884     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
885     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
886     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
887     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
888     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
889     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
890    
891     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
892     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
893     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
894     point.</p>
895    
896     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
897     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
898     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
899     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
900    
901     <!-- Corner case, confusing
902 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
903 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
904 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
905     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
906 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
907 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
908 zhen 1.6 </p>
909 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
910     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
911     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
912     </pre>
913     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
914 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
915     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
916     </warn>
917 drobbins 1.86 -->
918    
919     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
920     all our partitions for use:</p>
921    
922     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
923     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
924     # mkswap /dev/hda2
925     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
926     </pre>
927    
928 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
929     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
930     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
931     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
932     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
933     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
934    
935     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
936     during the installation process:</p>
937 drobbins 1.86
938 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
939 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
940 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
941 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
942 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
943 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
944 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
945 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
946 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
947 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
948 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
949     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
950     </pre>
951     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
952     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
953 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
954 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
955     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
956     </pre>
957 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
958 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
959 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
960 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
961     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
962     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
963     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
964     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
965     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
966     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
967     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
968 drobbins 1.86
969 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
970 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
971 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
972 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
973 zhen 1.16 </body>
974     </section>
975     </chapter>
976     <chapter>
977     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
978     <section>
979     <body>
980 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
981 zhen 1.6 provides later:
982     </p>
983 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
984 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
985 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
986 drobbins 1.86
987 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
988 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
989 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
990     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
991     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
992     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
993     </p>
994    
995     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
996 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
997 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
998 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
999     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1000     not sure what to do.
1001 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1002    
1003 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1004 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1005     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1006     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1007 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1008 drobbins 1.86
1009     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1010 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1011 zhen 1.16 </body>
1012     </section>
1013     </chapter>
1014     <chapter>
1015 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1016 zhen 1.16 <section>
1017 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1018 zhen 1.16 <body>
1019 zhen 1.55
1020 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1021     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1022     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1023    
1024     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1025 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1026 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1027     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1028     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1029     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1030     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1031     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1032    
1033     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1034     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1035     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1036     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1037     tarball" section.</p>
1038    
1039 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1040 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1041 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1042 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1043 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1044     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1045     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1046     Save the file and quit the browser
1047    
1048     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1049     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1050 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1051 zhen 1.16 </body>
1052     </section>
1053     <section>
1054 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1055 zhen 1.16 <body>
1056 drobbins 1.86
1057     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1058     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1059     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1060     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1061     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1062    
1063     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1064     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1065    
1066 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1067 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1068 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1069     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1070     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1071 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1072 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1073    
1074     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1075 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1076 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1077     </section>
1078     <section>
1079     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1080     <body>
1081     <p>
1082     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1083     Gentoo Linux system.
1084     </p>
1085 swift 1.112
1086     <note>
1087     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1088 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1089 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1090     the problem.
1091     </note>
1092 drobbins 1.86
1093     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1094 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1095 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1096     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1097     # <c>env-update</c>
1098     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1099     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1100 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1101     </pre>
1102 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1103     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1104     </p>
1105 zhen 1.16 </body>
1106     </section>
1107     </chapter>
1108     <chapter>
1109 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1110 zhen 1.16 <section>
1111     <body>
1112 drobbins 1.86
1113     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1114     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1115     The Portage tree
1116 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1117 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1118 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1119    
1120 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1121 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1122 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1123 zhen 1.60
1124 zhen 1.16 </body>
1125     </section>
1126     </chapter>
1127     <chapter>
1128     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1129     <section>
1130     <body>
1131 drobbins 1.86
1132     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1133     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1134     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1135     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1136     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1137     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1138     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1139     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1140     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1141     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1142     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1143    
1144     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1145     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1146     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1147     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1148     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1149     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1150     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1151     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1152     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1153 drobbins 1.70
1154 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1155     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1156     a simple visual editor.
1157     </p>
1158 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1159     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1160 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1161 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1162 zhen 1.16 <note>
1163 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1164 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1165 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1166 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1167     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1168 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1169 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1170 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1171     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1172 zhen 1.6 </note>
1173 zhen 1.16 </body>
1174     </section>
1175     </chapter>
1176     <chapter>
1177 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1178 zhen 1.16 <section>
1179     <body>
1180 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1181 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1182 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1183 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1184     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1185 zhen 1.18 </p>
1186 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1187 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1188 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1189     as follows:</p>
1190 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1191 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1192     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1193 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1194 zhen 1.16 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.
1195 zhen 1.6 </p>
1196 zhen 1.16 <note>
1197 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1198     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1199     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1200     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1201     </note>
1202 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1203 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1204 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1205 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1206 zhen 1.6 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
1207     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1208 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1209 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1210 zhen 1.6 </p>
1211 zhen 1.16 </body>
1212     </section>
1213     </chapter>
1214     <chapter>
1215 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1216 zhen 1.16 <section>
1217     <body>
1218 drobbins 1.86
1219     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1220     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1221     </note>
1222    
1223     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1224 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1225 zhen 1.6 </p>
1226 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1227     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1228     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1229     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1230    
1231 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1232 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1233 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1234 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1235 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1236 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1237 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1238     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1239 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1240 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1241     </p>
1242 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1243     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1244     your time zone" section.
1245 zhen 1.18 </p>
1246     </body>
1247     </section>
1248     </chapter>
1249     <chapter>
1250     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1251     <section>
1252     <body>
1253 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1254     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1255 drobbins 1.108
1256 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1257     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1258 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1259 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1260     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1261     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1262     In any case, feel free to skip these
1263     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1264     </p>
1265 zhen 1.57
1266 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1267 swift 1.117 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1268 drobbins 1.86 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1269     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1270     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1271     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1272     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1273 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1274 seemant 1.79 </body>
1275     </section>
1276     </chapter>
1277     <chapter>
1278 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1279 seemant 1.79 <section>
1280     <body>
1281 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1282     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1283     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1284     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1285     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1286 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1287 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1288 zhen 1.16 </body>
1289     </section>
1290     </chapter>
1291     <chapter>
1292 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1293 zhen 1.16 <section>
1294     <body>
1295     <note>
1296 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1297     </note>
1298 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You now need to merge Linux kernel sources. Here are the ones we currently
1299 zhen 1.6 offer:
1300     </p>
1301 zhen 1.16 <table>
1302     <tr>
1303     <th>ebuild</th>
1304     <th>description</th>
1305     </tr>
1306     <tr>
1307     <ti>
1308     <path>gentoo-sources</path>
1309     </ti>
1310 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel does not include XFS support.</ti>
1311 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1312     <tr>
1313     <ti>
1314     <path>xfs-sources</path>
1315     </ti>
1316 drobbins 1.21 <ti>Highly-compatible kernel with XFS support.</ti>
1317 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1318     <tr>
1319     <ti>
1320     <path>openmosix-sources</path>
1321     </ti>
1322     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti>
1323     </tr>
1324     <tr>
1325     <ti>
1326     <path>usermode-sources</path>
1327     </ti>
1328     <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. (&quot;Linux inside Linux&quot; technology)</ti>
1329     </tr>
1330     <tr>
1331     <ti>
1332     <path>vanilla-sources</path>
1333     </ti>
1334 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you would get from kernel.org</ti>
1335 zhen 1.16 </tr>
1336     </table>
1337 drobbins 1.21 <warn>
1338     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1339     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1340 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1341 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1342 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1343 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1344 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1345 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1346 zhen 1.6 </p>
1347 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1348 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1349 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1350     to the correct one before proceeding.
1351     </p>
1352 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Compiling the Linux Kernel">
1353 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1354     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1355     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1356     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1357 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1358 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1359 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1360 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1361     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1362     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1363     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1364     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1365     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1366     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1367     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1368     ...
1369    
1370     File systems ---&gt;
1371     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1372     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1373     ...
1374     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1375     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1376     ...
1377     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1378     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1379     ...
1380     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1381     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1382     ...
1383     [*] /proc file system support
1384     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1385     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1386     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1387     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1388     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1389     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1390     ...
1391     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1392     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1393     ...
1394     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1395     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1396     </pre>
1397 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1398 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1399     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1400     support for IDE RAID
1401     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1402     </p>
1403 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1404 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1405 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1406     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1407     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1408 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1409     </p>
1410 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1411     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1412     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1413     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1414     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1415     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1416     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1417 zhen 1.6 </p>
1418 zhen 1.16 <note>
1419 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1420     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1421 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1422 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1423     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1424     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1425 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1426     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1427 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1428     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1429 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1430 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1431 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1432     </note>
1433 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1434 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1435     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1436     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1437     newer alternatives.
1438     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1439     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1440     </p>
1441 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1442 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1443     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1444     <comment>or</comment>
1445     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1446     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1447     <comment>or</comment>
1448     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1449     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1450     <comment>or</comment>
1451     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1452     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1453 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1454 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1455 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1456     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1457     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1458     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1459     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1460     in real time, as expected),
1461     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1462 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1463     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1464 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1465 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1466     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1467     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1468     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1469     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1470     </pre>
1471 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1472     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1473 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1474     </p>
1475 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1476 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1477 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1478 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1479     <comment>or</comment>
1480     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1481 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1482 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1483     <comment>or</comment>
1484     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1485 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1486     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1487     </pre>
1488     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1489 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1490 zhen 1.6 </p>
1491 zhen 1.16 </body>
1492     </section>
1493     </chapter>
1494     <chapter>
1495 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1496 zhen 1.16 <section>
1497     <body>
1498     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1499 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1500 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1501 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1502 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1503 zhen 1.40
1504     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1505     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1506     X support later.
1507     </note>
1508 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1509 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1510     for the first time.
1511     </note>
1512 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1513 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1514 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1515 zhen 1.6 </p>
1516 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1517 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1518 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1519 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1520 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1521 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1522 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1523 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1524 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1525 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1526 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1527 zhen 1.6 </p>
1528 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1529 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1530 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1531 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1532 zhen 1.10 to work.
1533     </warn>
1534 zhen 1.16 </body>
1535     </section>
1536     </chapter>
1537     <chapter>
1538 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1539 zhen 1.16 <section>
1540     <body>
1541     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1542 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1543 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1544     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1545     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1546     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1547     </p>
1548 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1549     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1550 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1551     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1552 drobbins 1.1 #
1553 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1554 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1555 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1556 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1557    
1558 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1559 drobbins 1.1
1560     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1561     </comment>
1562     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1563     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1564     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1565     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1566     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1567 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1568 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1569 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1570     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1571     </warn>
1572 zhen 1.16 </body>
1573     </section>
1574     </chapter>
1575     <chapter>
1576 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1577 zhen 1.16 <section>
1578     <body>
1579     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1580 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1581 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1582 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1583 zhen 1.56
1584     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1585     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1586     </p>
1587 zhen 1.16 </body>
1588     </section>
1589     </chapter>
1590     <chapter>
1591 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1592 zhen 1.16 <section>
1593     <body>
1594     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1595 zhen 1.6 i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1596     </p>
1597 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1598 zhen 1.16 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/hostname</c>
1599 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1600 zhen 1.16 </body>
1601     </section>
1602     </chapter>
1603     <chapter>
1604 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1605 zhen 1.16 <section>
1606     <body>
1607 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1608 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1609     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1610 zhen 1.6 </p>
1611 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1612 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1613     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1614     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1615 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1616 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1617 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1618     </note>
1619 zhen 1.16 </body>
1620     </section>
1621     </chapter>
1622     <chapter>
1623     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1624     <section>
1625     <body>
1626     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1627 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1628     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1629     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1630     it as a module:
1631     </p>
1632 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1633     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1634 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1635 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1636 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1637 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1638 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1639 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1640     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1641 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1642 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1643     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1644 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1645 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1646     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1647     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1648 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1649 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1650 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1651 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1652 zhen 1.6 </p>
1653 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1654 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1655     need pcmcia
1656     }
1657 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1658 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1659 zhen 1.10 </p>
1660 zhen 1.16 </body>
1661     </section>
1662     </chapter>
1663     <chapter>
1664     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1665     <section>
1666     <body>
1667 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1668 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1669 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1670 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1671 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1672     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1673     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1674     possibilities).
1675     </p>
1676 zhen 1.16 </body>
1677     </section>
1678     </chapter>
1679     <chapter>
1680 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1681 zhen 1.49 <section>
1682     <title>Notes</title>
1683     <body>
1684     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1685     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1686     LILO as their bootloaders.
1687     </p>
1688     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1689 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1690 zhen 1.49 </p>
1691 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1692     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1693 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1694     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1695 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1696 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1697 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1698 swift 1.117 <p>
1699     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1700     </p>
1701     <table>
1702     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1703     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1704     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1705     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>892</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1706     </table>
1707 zhen 1.49 </body>
1708     </section>
1709 zhen 1.16 <section>
1710 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1711 zhen 1.16 <body>
1712     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1713 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1714     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1715 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1716 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1717     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1718     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1719     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1720 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1721 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1722    
1723     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1724     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1725     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1726     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1727 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1728 zhen 1.6 </p>
1729 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1730 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1731 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1732 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1733 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1734 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1735 zhen 1.6 this time.
1736     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1737     grub setup for RAID controllers
1738     </impo>
1739 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1740 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1741     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1742     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1743     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1744     I want to type are:
1745     </p>
1746 zhen 1.68
1747 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1748 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1749     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1750 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1751 zhen 1.68
1752 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1753 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1754 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1755     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1756 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1757 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1758 zhen 1.68
1759 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1760 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1761     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1762     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1763     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1764     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1765     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1766     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1767     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1768 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1769 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1770 zhen 1.52 </p>
1771 zhen 1.6
1772     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1773     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1774     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1775     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1776     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1777     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1778    
1779     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1780     to make the right choice.
1781     </note>
1782    
1783 zhen 1.52 <p>
1784 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1785     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1786 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1787 zhen 1.6 </p>
1788 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1789 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1790     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1791 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1792 zhen 1.6 </p>
1793 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1794 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1795     timeout 30
1796     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1797    
1798     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1799     root (hd0,0)
1800 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1801 drobbins 1.1
1802 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1803 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1804     root (hd0,0)
1805 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1806 drobbins 1.1
1807     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1808 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1809 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1810 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1811 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1812 zhen 1.16 <note>
1813 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1814     </note>
1815 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1816 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1817 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1818     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1819 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1820 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1821 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1822     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1823     </p>
1824 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1825 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1826     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1827     loader.
1828 zhware 1.9 </note>
1829 zhen 1.16 <note>
1830 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1831 zhen 1.6 </note>
1832 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1833 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1834     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1835     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1836     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1837     </p>
1838 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1839 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1840     devfs is enabled by default.
1841     </note>
1842 zhen 1.16 </body>
1843     </section>
1844 zhen 1.49 <section>
1845     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1846 zhen 1.16 <body>
1847 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1848 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1849 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1850 zhen 1.16 </p>
1851     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1852     </p>
1853 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1854 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1855 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1856 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1857 zhen 1.16 </p>
1858 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1859 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1860     map=/boot/map
1861     install=/boot/boot.b
1862     prompt
1863     timeout=50
1864     lba32
1865     default=linux
1866    
1867 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1868 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1869     read-only
1870 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1871 zhen 1.16
1872     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1873     other=/dev/hda1
1874     label=dos
1875 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1876 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1877 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1878     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1879     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1880     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1881     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1882 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1883 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1884     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1885     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1886     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1887     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1888     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1889     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1890     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1891     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1892 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1893 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1894     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1895     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1896     altered during the boot process. </li>
1897     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1898 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1899 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1900     into the MBR:
1901     </p>
1902 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1903 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1904 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1905 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1906     </p>
1907     </body>
1908     </section>
1909     </chapter>
1910     <chapter>
1911 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1912 zhen 1.16 <section>
1913     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1914     <body>
1915 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1916 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1917 peesh 1.103 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1918 drobbins 1.21 disk. With these types of hardware RAID,
1919     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1920     make a GRUB
1921     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1922 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1923 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1924 zhen 1.6 </p>
1925 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1926 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1927     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1928 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1929 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1930 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1931 zhen 1.16 </body>
1932     </section>
1933     <section>
1934     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1935     <body>
1936     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1937     </p>
1938 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Making a LILO Bootdisk">
1939 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1940     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1941 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1942 zhen 1.16 </body>
1943     </section>
1944     </chapter>
1945     <chapter>
1946     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1947     <section>
1948     <body>
1949 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1950    
1951 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1952     and reboot the system:
1953     </p>
1954 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1955 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1956     # <c>exit</c>
1957 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1958 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1959     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1960     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1961     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1962     # <c>reboot</c>
1963 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1964 zhen 1.16 <note>
1965 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1966     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1967     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1968     </note>
1969 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1970 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1971     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1972 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1973 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1974 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1975 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1976 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1977     that will
1978     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1979     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1980     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1981 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1982 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1983 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1984 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1985     </p>
1986 zhen 1.16 </body>
1987     </section>
1988     </chapter>
1989     <chapter>
1990     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1991     <section>
1992     <body>
1993     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1994 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1995     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1996     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1997     </p>
1998 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1999 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2000 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2001 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2002     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2003 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2004 zhen 1.6 </p>
2005 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2006     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2007     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2008     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2009     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2010     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2011     </ul>
2012     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2013 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2014     </p>
2015 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2016     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2017 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2018 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2019     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2020     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2021     </ul>
2022     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2023 zhen 1.6 </p>
2024 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2025 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2026     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2027 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2028 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2029 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2030     to see additional configuration options.
2031     </p>
2032 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2033 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2034     </p>
2035 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2036     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2037     </pre>
2038 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2039 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2040 zhen 1.16 </body>
2041     </section>
2042     </chapter>
2043 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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