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1 zhen 1.4 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 zhen 1.6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10     <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15    
16     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17     Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18     approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19     scratch.
20     </abstract>
21    
22     <version>2.1</version>
23     <date>20 November 2002</date>
24    
25     <chapter>
26     <title>About the Install</title>
27     <section>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
31     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
32     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
33     (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
34     modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
35     card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
36     network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files.
37     </p>
38    
39     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
40     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
41     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
42     slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
43     livecd ISO images from
44     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
45     easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
46     some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
47     optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
48     stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
49     stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd.
50     </p>
51    
52     <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
53     create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
54     If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
55     to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
56     them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
57     have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
58     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:
59     </p>
60    
61     <table>
62     <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
63     <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
64     <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
65     <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
66     </table>
67    
68     </body>
69     </section>
70     </chapter>
71    
72     <chapter>
73     <title>Booting</title>
74     <section>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
78     greeted with a lot of text output
79     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
80     Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
81     and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
82     password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
83     The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
84     to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
85     the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
86     You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
87     console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
88     hitting enter.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
92     and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
93     load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
94     devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
95     console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
96     hitting enter.
97     </p>
98    
99     </body>
100     </section>
101     </chapter>
102    
103     <chapter>
104     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
105     <section>
106     <body>
107    
108    
109     <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
110     autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
111     kernel modules.
112     </p>
113    
114     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
115     will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
116     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
117     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
118     type:
119     </p>
120 drobbins 1.1
121 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
122 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
123 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
124     </pre>
125 drobbins 1.1
126 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
127     during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
128     modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
129     </p>
130 drobbins 1.1
131 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
132 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
133     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
134 zhen 1.6 </pre>
135 drobbins 1.1
136 zhen 1.6 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
137     <note>
138     Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
139     </note>
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
143     ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
144     </p>
145 drobbins 1.1
146 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
147 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
148     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
149     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
150     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
151     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
152 zhen 1.6 </pre>
153 drobbins 1.1
154 zhen 1.6 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
155     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
156 drobbins 1.1
157 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
158 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
159     # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
160     <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
161     # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
162     <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
163 zhen 1.6 </pre>
164 drobbins 1.1
165 zhen 1.6 </body>
166     </section>
167     </chapter>
168 drobbins 1.1
169 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
170     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
171     <section>
172     <body>
173 drobbins 1.1
174 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
175     trickery.
176     </p>
177 drobbins 1.1
178 zhen 1.6 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
179     portion of the install. </warn>
180 drobbins 1.1
181 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
182 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
183     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
184     # <i>insmod ds</i>
185     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
186 zhen 1.6 </pre>
187 drobbins 1.1
188 zhen 1.6 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
189     few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
190     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
191     preferable. (Technically, you need not run
192     <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
193     But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
194     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
195     drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
196     remove it). </p>
197    
198     </body>
199     </section>
200     </chapter>
201    
202     <chapter>
203     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
204     <section>
205     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
206     <body>
207    
208     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
209     made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
210     script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
211     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
212     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
213    
214     <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
215     # <c> adsl-setup </c>
216     # <c> adsl-start </c>
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
220     your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
221     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
222    
223     </body>
224     </section>
225    
226     <section>
227     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
231     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
232     Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
233     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
234     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
235     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
236     script. </p>
237 drobbins 1.1
238 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
239 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
240 zhen 1.6 </pre>
241 drobbins 1.1
242 zhen 1.6 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
243 drobbins 1.1
244 zhen 1.6 </body>
245     </section>
246 drobbins 1.1
247 zhen 1.6 <section>
248     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
249     <body>
250 drobbins 1.1
251 zhen 1.6 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
252     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
253 drobbins 1.1
254 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
255 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
256 zhen 1.6 </pre>
257 drobbins 1.1
258 zhen 1.6 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
259     add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
260     </note>
261    
262     <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
263     are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </section>
267    
268     <section>
269     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
273     sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
274     Type in the following commands, replacing
275     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
276     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
277     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
278     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
279     </p>
280 drobbins 1.1
281 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
282 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
283     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
284 zhen 1.6 </pre>
285 drobbins 1.1
286 zhen 1.6 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
287     file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
288 drobbins 1.1
289 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
290 drobbins 1.1
291 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
292 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
293     nameserver 10.0.0.1
294     nameserver 10.0.0.2
295 zhen 1.6 </pre>
296    
297     <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
298     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
299     </body>
300     </section>
301    
302     <section>
303     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
304     <body>
305     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
306     you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
307     </p>
308 drobbins 1.1
309 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting a Proxy">
310 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
311     # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
312     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
313 zhen 1.6 </pre>
314 drobbins 1.1
315 zhen 1.6 </body>
316     </section>
317 drobbins 1.1
318 zhen 1.6 <section>
319     <title>Network Testing</title>
320     <body>
321     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
322     that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
323 drobbins 1.1
324 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
325 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
326     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
327     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
328     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
329     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
330     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
331     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
332     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
333     Interrupt:11
334 zhen 1.6 </pre>
335 drobbins 1.1
336 zhen 1.7 <p>You may want to also try pinging Gentoo.org's website, just to make sure that your packets are
337 zhen 1.6 reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working correctly, etc.
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption = "Further Network Testing">
341     # <c>ping www.gentoo.org </c>
342     </pre>
343    
344     </body>
345     </section>
346    
347     <section>
348     <title>Networking is go!</title>
349     <body>
350     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
351     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
352     </body>
353     </section>
354 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
355    
356 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
357     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
358     <section>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
362     to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
366     We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
367     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
368     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
369     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
370     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
371     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
372     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
373     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
374     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
375     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
376     </p>
377    
378     <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
379     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
380     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
381     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
382     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
383     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
384     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
385     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
386     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
387     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
388     is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
389     is highly unstable at this time.
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
393     for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
394     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
395     mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
396     if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
397     now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
398     Here are our basic recommended filesystem
399     sizes and types:
400     </p>
401    
402     <table>
403     <tr>
404     <th>Partition</th>
405     <th>Size</th>
406     <th>Type</th>
407     <th>example device</th>
408     </tr>
409     <tr>
410     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
411     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
412     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
413     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
414     </tr>
415     <tr>
416     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
417     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
418     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
419     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
420     </tr>
421     <tr>
422     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
423     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
424     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
425     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
426     </tr>
427     </table>
428    
429     <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the
430     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with
431     mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path>
432     for example. To do this you would do:
433     </p>
434 drobbins 1.1
435 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
436 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
437     <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
438 zhen 1.6 </pre>
439 drobbins 1.1
440 zhen 1.6 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
441     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
442 drobbins 1.1
443 zhen 1.6 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
444 zhware 1.9 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. By default cfdisk work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
445     <note>Changes to the partitions don't reflect on-the-fly, so please reboot after using fdisk or cfdisk.</note>
446 drobbins 1.1
447 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
448     different.
449     You will have the partitions like this:
450     <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
451     X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
452     array, then it will
453     be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
454     </note>
455 drobbins 1.1
456    
457 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
458     the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
459 drobbins 1.1
460 zhen 1.6 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
462 zhen 1.6 </pre>
463 drobbins 1.1
464 zhen 1.6 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
465 drobbins 1.1
466 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
467 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
468 zhen 1.6 </pre>
469 drobbins 1.1
470 zhen 1.6 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
471 drobbins 1.1
472 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
473 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
474 zhen 1.6 </pre>
475    
476     <note>
477     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
478     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
479     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
480     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
481     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
482     </note>
483    
484     <warn>
485     If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
486     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
487     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
488     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
489     </warn>
490 drobbins 1.1
491 zhen 1.6 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
492 drobbins 1.1
493 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
494 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
495 zhen 1.6 </pre>
496 drobbins 1.1
497 zhen 1.6 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
498    
499     <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
500 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
501 zhen 1.6 </pre>
502 drobbins 1.1
503 zhen 1.6 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
504     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
505     </note>
506    
507     </body>
508     </section>
509     </chapter>
510    
511     <chapter>
512     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
513     <section>
514     <body>
515    
516     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
517     provides later:
518     </p>
519 drobbins 1.1
520 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
521 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
522 zhen 1.6 </pre>
523 drobbins 1.1
524 zhen 1.6 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
525     and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
526 drobbins 1.1
527 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
528 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
529     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
530     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
531     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
532 zhen 1.6 </pre>
533 drobbins 1.1
534 zhen 1.6 <p>
535     If you are setting up Gentoo
536     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
537     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
538     </p>
539 drobbins 1.1
540 zhen 1.6 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
541     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
542     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
543     We'll get to that in a bit.
544     </impo>
545    
546     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
547     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
548     </body>
549     </section>
550     </chapter>
551    
552     <chapter>
553     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
554    
555     <section>
556     <body>
557    
558     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
559     to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
560     On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
561     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
562     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
563     from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
564 drobbins 1.1
565 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
566 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
567     # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
568 zhen 1.6 </pre>
569 drobbins 1.1
570 zhen 1.6 </body>
571     </section>
572     </chapter>
573    
574     <chapter>
575     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
576     <section>
577    
578     <body>
579    
580     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
581     Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation.
582     </p>
583    
584     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
585     cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
586    
587     <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method,
588     you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
589     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
590     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
591 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
592 zhen 1.6 </p>
593 drobbins 1.1
594 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
595 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
596     # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
597     # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
598     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
599 zhen 1.6 </pre>
600 drobbins 1.1
601 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
602 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
603     # <c>env-update</c>
604     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
605     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
606 zhen 1.6 </pre>
607 drobbins 1.1
608 zhen 1.6 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment.
609     </p>
610 drobbins 1.1
611 zhen 1.6 </body>
612     </section>
613     </chapter>
614 drobbins 1.1
615 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
616     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
617 drobbins 1.1
618 zhen 1.6 <section>
619     <body>
620 drobbins 1.1
621 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
622     you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
623 drobbins 1.1
624 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
625     # <c>emerge sync</c>
626     </pre>
627 drobbins 1.1
628 zhen 1.6 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
629     it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
630     </p>
631    
632     </body>
633     </section>
634     </chapter>
635     <chapter>
636 stocke2 1.8 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
637 zhen 1.6 <section>
638     <body>
639    
640     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
641     install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
642     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
643     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
644     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
645     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
646     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
647     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
648     </p>
649    
650    
651     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
652     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
653     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
654     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
655     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
656     </p>
657    
658     <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
659     firewall.
660     </p>
661 drobbins 1.1
662 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
663 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
664 zhen 1.6 </pre>
665 drobbins 1.1
666 zhen 1.6 <note>
667     People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
668     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
669     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
670     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
671     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
672     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
673     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
674     in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
675     </note>
676 stocke2 1.8 </body>
677     </section>
678     </chapter>
679    
680    
681    
682     <chapter>
683     <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
684     <section>
685    
686     <body>
687    
688     <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
689     for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
690     do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
691     current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
692     <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
693     very fast machines.
694     </p>
695 zhen 1.6
696     <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
697     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
698     for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
699     These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
700     </p>
701 drobbins 1.1
702 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
703 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
704     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
705 zhen 1.6 </pre>
706 drobbins 1.1
707 zhen 1.6 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
708     </p>
709    
710     <note>
711     Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
712     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
713     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
714     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
715     </note>
716 drobbins 1.1
717 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
718 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
719 zhen 1.6 </pre>
720 drobbins 1.1
721 zhen 1.6 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
722     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
723     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
724     Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state.
725     </p>
726    
727     </body>
728     </section>
729     </chapter>
730    
731     <chapter>
732     <title>Timezone</title>
733     <section>
734    
735     <body>
736    
737     <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage
738     tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly,
739     let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.
740     </impo>
741    
742 zhen 1.12 <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
743     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
744 zhen 1.6 the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
745     </p>
746    
747     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
748     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
749     </p>
750 drobbins 1.1
751 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
752 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
753 zhen 1.6 </pre>
754 drobbins 1.1
755 zhen 1.6 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
756     are correct.
757     </p>
758    
759     </body>
760     </section>
761     </chapter>
762    
763     <chapter>
764     <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
765     <section>
766    
767     <body>
768     <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2
769     (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
770     it's time to build or install the rest of the base
771     system.
772     </p>
773    
774     <note>
775     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
776     </note>
777 drobbins 1.1
778 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
779 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
780     # <c>emerge -p system</c>
781     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
782     # <c>emerge system</c>
783 zhen 1.6 </pre>
784 drobbins 1.1
785 zhen 1.6 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
786     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
787     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
788     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
789    
790     <p>It's going to take a while
791     to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
792     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
793     way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
794     Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
795     you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.
796     </p>
797    
798     </body>
799     </section>
800     </chapter>
801    
802     <chapter>
803     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
804     <section>
805     <body>
806    
807     <note>
808     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
809     </note>
810    
811     <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
812     offer:
813     </p>
814 drobbins 1.1
815     <table>
816     <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
817     <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
818     <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
819     <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
820     <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
821     <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
822     </table>
823    
824 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable.
825     Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
826     <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>.
827     It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
828     </warn>
829 drobbins 1.1
830 zhen 1.6 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
831 drobbins 1.1
832 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
833 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
834 zhen 1.6 </pre>
835 drobbins 1.1
836 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
837     </p>
838 drobbins 1.1
839 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
840 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
841     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
842     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
843     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
844     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
845     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
846 zhen 1.6 </pre>
847 drobbins 1.1
848 zhen 1.6 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
849     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
850     compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
851     level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
852     option to see several of these selections.
853     Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
854     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
855     need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
856     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
857     "SGI XFS filesystem support"
858     option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
859     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
860     want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
861     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
862     kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
863     </warn>
864    
865     <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
866     For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
867     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
868     support for IDE RAID
869     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
870     </p>
871    
872     <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
873     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
874     "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
875     "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
876     are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
877     that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
878     </p>
879    
880     <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
881     kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
882     devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
883     under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
884     "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
885     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
886     >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
887     </p>
888    
889     <note>
890     For those who prefer it,
891     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
892     Such stability will come at a price:
893     you will lose many of the nifty features that
894     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
895     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
896     patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
897     Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
898     2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
899     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
900     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
901     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
902     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
903     </note>
904    
905     <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
906     logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
907     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
908     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
909     newer alternatives.
910     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
911     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
912     </p>
913 drobbins 1.1
914    
915 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
916 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
917     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
918     <comment>or</comment>
919     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
920     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
921     <comment>or</comment>
922     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
923     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
924     <comment>or</comment>
925     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
926     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
927 zhen 1.6 </pre>
928 drobbins 1.1
929 zhen 1.6 <warn>
930     In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
931     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
932     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
933     for a sample configuration file.
934     </warn>
935    
936     <impo>
937     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
938     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
939     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
940     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
941     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
942     in real time, as expected),
943     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
944     again.
945     </impo>
946    
947     <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
948     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
949     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
950     </p>
951 drobbins 1.1
952 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
953 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
954     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
955     <comment>or</comment>
956     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
957     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
958     <comment>or</comment>
959     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
960 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
961 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
962     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
963 zhen 1.6 </pre>
964 drobbins 1.1
965 zhen 1.6 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
966     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
967     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
968     <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>.
969     </p>
970    
971     </body>
972     </section>
973     </chapter>
974    
975     <chapter>
976     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
977     <section>
978     <body>
979 drobbins 1.1
980 zhen 1.6 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
981     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
982 drobbins 1.1
983 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
984 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
985 zhen 1.6 </pre>
986 drobbins 1.1
987 zhen 1.6 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
988     You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
989     for the first time.
990     </note>
991 drobbins 1.1
992    
993 zhen 1.6 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
994     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
995     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
996     </p>
997 drobbins 1.1
998 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
999 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1000     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1001     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1002     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1003     # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1004 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1005 drobbins 1.1
1006    
1007 zhen 1.6 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1008     real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1009     </p>
1010 drobbins 1.1
1011 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1012 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1013 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1014 drobbins 1.1
1015 zhen 1.11 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1016 zhen 1.10 to work.
1017     </warn>
1018    
1019 zhen 1.6 </body>
1020     </section>
1021     </chapter>
1022    
1023     <chapter>
1024     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1025     <section>
1026    
1027     <body>
1028    
1029     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1030     a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1031     The first file we need to
1032     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1033     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1034     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1035     </p>
1036    
1037     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
1038     "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1039     <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
1040 drobbins 1.1 <comment>
1041     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1042     #
1043     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1044     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1045     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1046     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1047    
1048     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1049    
1050     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1051     </comment>
1052     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1053     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1054     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1055     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1056     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1057 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1058 drobbins 1.1
1059 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1060     This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1061     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1062     </warn>
1063 drobbins 1.1
1064 zhen 1.6 </body>
1065     </section>
1066    
1067     <section>
1068     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1069    
1070     <body>
1071    
1072     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1073    
1074     <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
1075 drobbins 1.1 # <i>passwd</i>
1076 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1077    
1078     </body>
1079     </section>
1080 drobbins 1.1
1081 zhen 1.6 <section>
1082     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1083 drobbins 1.1
1084 zhen 1.6 <body>
1085     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1086     i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1087     </p>
1088 drobbins 1.1
1089 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
1090 drobbins 1.1 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
1091 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1092 drobbins 1.1
1093 zhen 1.6 </body>
1094     </section>
1095 drobbins 1.1
1096 zhen 1.6 <section>
1097     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1098    
1099     <body>
1100     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1101     It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1102     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1103     </p>
1104 drobbins 1.1
1105 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
1106 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1107     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1108     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1109 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1110 drobbins 1.1
1111 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1112     actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1113     </note>
1114 drobbins 1.1
1115 zhen 1.6 </body>
1116     </section>
1117 drobbins 1.1
1118 zhen 1.6 <section>
1119     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1120    
1121     <body>
1122 drobbins 1.1
1123    
1124 zhen 1.6 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1125     <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1126     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1127     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1128     it as a module:
1129     </p>
1130 drobbins 1.1
1131 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1132 drobbins 1.1 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1133     card. </comment>
1134     3c59x
1135 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1136 drobbins 1.1
1137 zhen 1.6 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1138     first boot: </p>
1139 drobbins 1.1
1140 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1141 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1142     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1143 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1144 drobbins 1.1
1145    
1146 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1147     scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1148 drobbins 1.1
1149 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1150 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1151     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1152     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1153 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1154 drobbins 1.1
1155    
1156 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1157     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1158 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1159 zhen 1.6 </p>
1160 drobbins 1.1
1161 zhen 1.10 <pre caption = "PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1162 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1163     need pcmcia
1164     }
1165 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1166 drobbins 1.1
1167 zhen 1.10 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1168     </p>
1169 drobbins 1.1
1170 zhen 1.6 </body>
1171     </section>
1172 drobbins 1.1
1173 zhen 1.6 <section>
1174     <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1175 drobbins 1.1
1176 zhen 1.6 <body>
1177    
1178 zhen 1.10 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1179 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1180 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1181 drobbins 1.1
1182 zhen 1.6 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1183     All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1184     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1185     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1186     possibilities).
1187     </p>
1188    
1189     </body>
1190     </section>
1191    
1192     <section>
1193     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1194    
1195     <body>
1196    
1197     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1198     refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1199     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1200     Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1201     Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1202     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1203     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1204     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1205     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1206     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1207    
1208     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1209     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1210     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1211     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1212     it's time to install GRUB.
1213     </p>
1214 drobbins 1.1
1215 zhen 1.6 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1216 drobbins 1.1
1217 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1218 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1219 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1220 drobbins 1.1
1221 zhen 1.6 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1222     this time.
1223     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1224     grub setup for RAID controllers
1225     </impo>
1226    
1227     <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1228     command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1229     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1230     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1231     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1232     I want to type are:
1233     </p>
1234 drobbins 1.1
1235 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1236 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1237     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1238     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1239 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1240 drobbins 1.1
1241 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1242     the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1243     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1244     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1245     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1246     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1247     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1248     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1249     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1250     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1251     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1252    
1253     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1254     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1255     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1256     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1257     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1258     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1259    
1260     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1261     to make the right choice.
1262     </note>
1263    
1264     Gentoo Linux is now
1265     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1266     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1267     </p>
1268    
1269     <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1270     <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1271     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1272 drobbins 1.1
1273 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1274     </p>
1275 drobbins 1.1
1276 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1277 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1278     timeout 30
1279     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1280    
1281     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1282     root (hd0,0)
1283     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1284    
1285     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1286     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1287     root (hd0,0)
1288     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1289    
1290     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1291     title=Windows NT Workstation
1292     root (hd0,5)
1293     chainloader +1
1294 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1295 drobbins 1.1
1296 zhen 1.6 <note>
1297     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1298     </note>
1299    
1300     <impo>
1301     If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1302     actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1303     line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1304     </impo>
1305    
1306     <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1307     tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1308     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1309     </p>
1310    
1311     <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1312     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1313     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1314     loader.
1315 zhware 1.9 </note>
1316     <note>
1317     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1318 zhen 1.6 </note>
1319    
1320     <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1321     add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1322     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1323     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1324     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1325     </p>
1326    
1327     <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1328     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1329     devfs is enabled by default.
1330     </note>
1331    
1332     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1333     disk. With hardware RAID
1334     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1335     will make a GRUB
1336     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1337     to the MBR. Make your
1338     bootdisk like this:
1339     </p>
1340 drobbins 1.1
1341 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1342 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1343     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1344     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1345     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1346     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1347    
1348     # <c>grub</c>
1349    
1350     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1351     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1352     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1353 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1354 drobbins 1.1
1355    
1356 zhen 1.6 </body>
1357     </section>
1358     </chapter>
1359    
1360     <chapter>
1361     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1362     <section>
1363    
1364     <body>
1365     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1366     udpate necessary configuration files,
1367     safely unmount your partitions
1368     and reboot the system:
1369     </p>
1370 drobbins 1.1
1371 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1372 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1373     # <c>exit</c>
1374     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1375     # <c>cd / </c>
1376     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1377     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1378     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1379     # <c>reboot</c>
1380 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1381 drobbins 1.1
1382 zhen 1.6 <note>
1383     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1384     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1385     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1386     </note>
1387    
1388     <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1389     use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1390     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1391     time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1392    
1393     <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1394     consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1395     (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1396     We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1397     that will
1398     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1399     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1400     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1401 zhen 1.10 <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1402     involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1403     <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1404 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1405     </p>
1406    
1407     </body>
1408     </section>
1409     </chapter>
1410    
1411     <chapter>
1412     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1413     <section>
1414    
1415     <body>
1416    
1417     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1418     a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1419     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1420     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1421     </p>
1422    
1423     <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1424     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1425     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1426     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1427     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1428     right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:
1429     </p>
1430     <ul>
1431     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1432     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1433     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1434     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1435     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1436     </ul>
1437    
1438     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1439     (just as it is to the developers).
1440     </p>
1441    
1442     <ul>
1443     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1444     information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1445     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1446     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1447     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1448     </ul>
1449 drobbins 1.1
1450 zhen 1.6 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1451     </p>
1452 drobbins 1.1
1453 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1454 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1455     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1456 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1457 drobbins 1.1
1458 zhen 1.6 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1459     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1460     to see additional configuration options.
1461     </p>
1462    
1463     <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1464     (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1465     </p>
1466 drobbins 1.1
1467 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1468     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1469     </pre>
1470 drobbins 1.1
1471 zhen 1.6 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1472     viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1473 drobbins 1.1
1474    
1475 zhen 1.6 </body>
1476     </section>
1477 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1478    
1479    
1480    
1481    
1482     </guide>

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