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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 peesh 1.126 <date>08 June 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87    
88    
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 antifa 1.105 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
112     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
113 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
114     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
115 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
116 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
117 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
118 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
119 zhen 1.26 <table>
120 zhen 1.16 <tr>
121     <th>stage tarball</th>
122     <th>requirements for installation</th>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <ti>1</ti>
126 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
127 zhen 1.16 </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>2</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>3</ti>
134     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137     </body>
138     </section>
139     </chapter>
140     <chapter>
141     <title>Booting</title>
142     <section>
143     <body>
144 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
145 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
146 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
147    
148     <table>
149     <tr>
150     <th>Available kernels.</th>
151     <th>description</th>
152     </tr>
153    
154     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
155     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
156 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
157 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
158     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
159     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
160     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
161     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
162    
163     </table>
164    
165     <p>
166     <table>
167     <tr>
168     <th>Available boot options.</th>
169     <th>description</th>
170     </tr>
171 antifa 1.106
172     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
173     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
174 antifa 1.105
175 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
176     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
177    
178     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
179     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
180    
181     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
182     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
183    
184 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
185     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
186    
187 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
188     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
189    
190 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
191     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
192    
193     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
194     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
195    
196 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
197     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
198 antifa 1.105
199     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
200     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
201    
202 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
203     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
204 antifa 1.105
205     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
206     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
207    
208     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
209     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
210    
211     </table></p>
212 drobbins 1.70
213 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
214     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
215     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
216     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
217     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
218 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
219 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
220 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
221 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
222 zhen 1.6 </p>
223 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
224 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
225 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
226 zhen 1.6 </p>
227 zhen 1.16 </body>
228     </section>
229     </chapter>
230     <chapter>
231     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
232     <section>
233     <body>
234     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
235 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
236 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
237     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
238     type:
239     </p>
240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
242 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
243 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
244 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
245 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
246 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
247     </p>
248 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
249 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
250 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
252 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 zhen 1.6 <note>
255 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
256 zhen 1.52 </note>
257 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
258 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
259     </p>
260 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
261 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
262     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
263 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
264 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
265 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
266     </pre>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
317    
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
325     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
389    
390     <table>
391     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
392     <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
393     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
394     <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
395 swift 1.118 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
396 swift 1.117 </table>
397    
398     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
399 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
400     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
401     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
402     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
403     </p>
404 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
405 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
406 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</c>
407 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
408 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
409 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
410     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
411     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
412     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
413 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
414 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
415 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
416     nameserver 10.0.0.1
417     nameserver 10.0.0.2
418 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
419 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
420 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
421 zhen 1.16 </body>
422     </section>
423     <section>
424     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
425     <body>
426 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
427 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
428 zhen 1.6 </p>
429 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
430 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
431 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
432 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
433     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
434     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
435     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
436 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
437 zhen 1.16 </body>
438     </section>
439 drobbins 1.70 <section>
440 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
441     <body>
442 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
443 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
444 zhen 1.16 </body>
445     </section>
446 peesh 1.104 <section>
447     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
448     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
449     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
450     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
451     </body>
452     </section>
453 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
454     <chapter>
455 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
456     <section>
457     <body>
458     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
459     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
460     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
461     # <c>date</c>
462     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
463     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
464     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
465     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
466     </pre>
467     </body>
468     </section>
469     </chapter>
470     <chapter>
471 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
472 zhen 1.16 <section>
473 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
474 zhen 1.16 <body>
475 drobbins 1.86 <p>
476     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
477 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
478 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
479     install.
480     </p>
481     <p>
482     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
483     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
484     </p>
485     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
486     /dev/hda
487     </pre>
488    
489     <p>
490     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
491     </p>
492    
493     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
494     /dev/sda
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
498     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
499     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
500     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
501     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
502     </body>
503     </section>
504     <section>
505     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
506     <body>
507     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
508     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
509     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
510    
511     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
512     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
513     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
514     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
515 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
516 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
517     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
518     up the full disk. </p>
519    
520     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
521     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
522    
523     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
524 swift 1.123 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> becuase it's
525     more powerfull and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
526 drobbins 1.86
527     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
528     # fdisk /dev/hda
529     </pre>
530     <p>
531     or
532     </p>
533     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
534     # fdisk /dev/sda
535     </pre>
536    
537     <impo>
538     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
539     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
540     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
541     lost.</b>
542     </impo>
543    
544     <p>
545     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
546     </p>
547    
548     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
549     Command (m for help):
550     </pre>
551    
552    
553     <p>
554     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
555     </p>
556    
557     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
558     Command (m for help): p
559    
560     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
561     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
562    
563     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
564     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
565     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
566     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
567     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
568     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
569     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
570     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
571     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
572     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
573    
574     Command (m for help):
575     </pre>
576    
577     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
578     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
579     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
580    
581     <p>
582     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
583     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
584     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
585     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
586     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
587     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
588     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
589     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
590     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
591     </p>
592    
593     <p>
594     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
595     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
596    
597     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
598     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
599 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
600 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
601     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
602    
603     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
604     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
605     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
606 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
607     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
608     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
609 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
610 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
611 drobbins 1.86 </p>
612     </body>
613     </section>
614     <section>
615     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
616     <body>
617    
618 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
619 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
620     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
621     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
622     look like this: </p>
623    
624     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
625     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
626     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
627     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
628    
629     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
630     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
631     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
632     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
633    
634     Command (m for help):
635     </pre>
636    
637     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
638     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
639     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
640     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
641     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
642     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
643     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
644 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
645     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
646 drobbins 1.86
647 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
648     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
649     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
650     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
651     cylinder 1024.
652     </p>
653    
654 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
655     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
656     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
657 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
658     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
659 drobbins 1.86
660     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
661     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
662     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
663     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
664    
665    
666     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
667     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
668     Linux:</p>
669    
670     <table>
671     <tr>
672     <th>Partition</th>
673     <th>Size</th>
674     <th>Type</th>
675     <th>example device</th>
676     </tr>
677     <tr>
678     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
679 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
680 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
681 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
682     </tr>
683     <tr>
684     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
685     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
686     in your system.</ti>
687     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
688     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
689     </tr>
690     <tr>
691     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
692     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
693     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
694     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
695     </tr>
696     </table>
697    
698     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
699 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
700 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
701     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
702     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
703     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
704    
705     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
706     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
707     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
708     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
709     from the wrong drive.</impo>
710    
711     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
712     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
713     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
714    
715     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
716     Command (m for help): d
717     Partition number (1-4): 1
718     </pre>
719 zhen 1.54
720 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
721     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
722     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
723     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
724     deleted.</p>
725     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
726     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
727     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
728 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
729 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
730     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
731 drobbins 1.86 -->
732     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
733     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
734     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
735     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
736    
737     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
738     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
739     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
740     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
741    
742     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
743    
744     Command (m for help):
745     </pre>
746    
747     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
748     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
749     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
750     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
751 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
752     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
753    
754     <note>
755     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
756     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
757     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
758     for the last cylinder.
759     </note>
760 drobbins 1.86
761     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
762     Command (m for help): n
763     Command action
764     e extended
765     p primary partition (1-4)
766     p
767     Partition number (1-4): 1
768     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
769     Using default value 1
770 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
771 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
772    
773     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
774    
775     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
776     Command (m for help): p
777    
778     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
779     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
780     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
781    
782     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
783     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
784     </pre>
785    
786     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
787     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
788     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
789     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
790     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
791 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
792     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
793 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
794     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
795    
796     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
797     Command (m for help): p
798    
799     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
800     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
801     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
802    
803     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
804     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
805     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
806     </pre>
807    
808     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
809     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
810 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
811 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
812     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
813     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
814     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
815     this:</p>
816    
817     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
818     Command (m for help): p
819    
820     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
821     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
822     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
823    
824     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
825     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
826     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
827     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
828     </pre>
829    
830     <p>
831     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
832     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
833     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
834     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
835     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
836     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
837     install.
838     </p>
839    
840     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
841     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
842     </body>
843     </section>
844     <section>
845     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
846     <body>
847     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
848     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
849     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
850     </p>
851    
852     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
853     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
854     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
855    
856     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
857     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
858     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
859     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
860     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
861     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
862     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
863    
864     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
865     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
866     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
867 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
868     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
869     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
870     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
871     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
872     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
873 drobbins 1.86
874     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
875     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
876     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
877     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
878     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
879     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
880     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
881     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
882     non-boot partitions.</p>
883    
884     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
885     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
886     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
887     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
888     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
889     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
890     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
891     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
892    
893     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
894     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
895     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
896     point.</p>
897    
898     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
899     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
900     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
901     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
902    
903     <!-- Corner case, confusing
904 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
905 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
906 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
907     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
908 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
909 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
910 zhen 1.6 </p>
911 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
912     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
913     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
914     </pre>
915     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
916 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
917     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
918     </warn>
919 drobbins 1.86 -->
920    
921     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
922     all our partitions for use:</p>
923    
924     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
925     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
926     # mkswap /dev/hda2
927     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
928     </pre>
929    
930 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
931     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
932     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
933     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
934     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
935     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
936    
937     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
938     during the installation process:</p>
939 drobbins 1.86
940 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
941 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
942 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
943 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
944 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
945 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
946 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
947 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
948 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
949 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
950 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
951     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
952     </pre>
953     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
954     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
955 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
956 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
957     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
958     </pre>
959 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
960 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
961 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
962 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
963     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
964     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
965     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
966     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
967     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
968     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
969     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
970 drobbins 1.86
971 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
972 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
973 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
974 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
975 zhen 1.16 </body>
976     </section>
977     </chapter>
978     <chapter>
979     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
980     <section>
981     <body>
982 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
983 zhen 1.6 provides later:
984     </p>
985 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
986 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
987 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
988 drobbins 1.86
989 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
990 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
991 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
992     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
993     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
994     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
995     </p>
996    
997     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
998 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
999 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1000 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1001     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1002     not sure what to do.
1003 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1004    
1005 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1006 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1007     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1008     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1009 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1010 drobbins 1.86
1011     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1012 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1013 zhen 1.16 </body>
1014     </section>
1015     </chapter>
1016     <chapter>
1017 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1018 zhen 1.16 <section>
1019 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1020 zhen 1.16 <body>
1021 zhen 1.55
1022 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1023     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1024     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1025    
1026     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1027 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1028 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1029     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1030     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1031     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1032     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1033     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1034    
1035     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1036     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1037     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1038     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1039     tarball" section.</p>
1040    
1041 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1042 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1043 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1044 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1045 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1046     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1047     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1048     Save the file and quit the browser
1049    
1050     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1051     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1052 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1053 zhen 1.16 </body>
1054     </section>
1055     <section>
1056 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1057 zhen 1.16 <body>
1058 drobbins 1.86
1059     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1060     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1061     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1062     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1063     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1064    
1065     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1066     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1067    
1068 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1069 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1070 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1071     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1072     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1073 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1074 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1075    
1076     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1077 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1078 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1079     </section>
1080     <section>
1081     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1082     <body>
1083     <p>
1084     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1085     Gentoo Linux system.
1086     </p>
1087 swift 1.112
1088     <note>
1089     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1090 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1091 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1092     the problem.
1093     </note>
1094 drobbins 1.86
1095     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1096 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1097 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1098     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1099     # <c>env-update</c>
1100     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1101     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1102 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1103     </pre>
1104 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1105     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1106     </p>
1107 zhen 1.16 </body>
1108     </section>
1109     </chapter>
1110     <chapter>
1111 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1112 zhen 1.16 <section>
1113     <body>
1114 drobbins 1.86
1115     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1116     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1117     The Portage tree
1118 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1119 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1120 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1121    
1122 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1123 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1124 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1125 zhen 1.60
1126 zhen 1.16 </body>
1127     </section>
1128     </chapter>
1129     <chapter>
1130     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1131     <section>
1132     <body>
1133 drobbins 1.86
1134     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1135     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1136     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1137     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1138     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1139     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1140     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1141     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1142     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1143     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1144     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1145    
1146     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1147     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1148     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1149     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1150     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1151     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1152     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1153     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1154     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1155 drobbins 1.70
1156 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1157     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1158     a simple visual editor.
1159     </p>
1160 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1161     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1162 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1163 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1164 zhen 1.16 <note>
1165 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1166 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1167 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1168 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1169     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1170 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1171 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1172 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1173     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1174 zhen 1.6 </note>
1175 zhen 1.16 </body>
1176     </section>
1177     </chapter>
1178     <chapter>
1179 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1180 zhen 1.16 <section>
1181     <body>
1182 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1183 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1184 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1185 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1186     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1187 zhen 1.18 </p>
1188 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1189 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1190 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1191     as follows:</p>
1192 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1193 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1194     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1195 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1196 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1197     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1198 zhen 1.16 <note>
1199 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1200     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1201     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1202     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1203     </note>
1204 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1205 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1206 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1207 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1208 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1209 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1210 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1211 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1212 zhen 1.6 </p>
1213 zhen 1.16 </body>
1214     </section>
1215     </chapter>
1216     <chapter>
1217 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1218 zhen 1.16 <section>
1219     <body>
1220 drobbins 1.86
1221     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1222     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1223     </note>
1224    
1225     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1226 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1227 zhen 1.6 </p>
1228 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1229     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1230     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1231     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1232    
1233 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1234 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1235 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1236 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1237 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1238 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1239 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1240     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1241 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1242 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1243     </p>
1244 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1245     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1246     your time zone" section.
1247 zhen 1.18 </p>
1248     </body>
1249     </section>
1250     </chapter>
1251     <chapter>
1252     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1253     <section>
1254     <body>
1255 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1256     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1257 drobbins 1.108
1258 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1259     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1260 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1261 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1262     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1263     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1264     In any case, feel free to skip these
1265     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1266     </p>
1267 zhen 1.57
1268 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1269 swift 1.117 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1270 drobbins 1.86 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1271     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1272     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1273     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1274     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1275 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1276 seemant 1.79 </body>
1277     </section>
1278     </chapter>
1279     <chapter>
1280 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1281 seemant 1.79 <section>
1282     <body>
1283 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1284     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1285     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1286     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1287     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1288 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1289 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1290 zhen 1.16 </body>
1291     </section>
1292     </chapter>
1293     <chapter>
1294 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1295 zhen 1.16 <section>
1296     <body>
1297     <note>
1298 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1299     </note>
1300 swift 1.122 <p>You now need to merge the Linux kernel sources.
1301     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1302     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1303     which kernel sources to choose, we advise the <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
1304     <c>vanilla-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
1305     <c>xfs-sources</c>. Btw, Gentoo's LiveCD uses the <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1306 zhen 1.6 </p>
1307 swift 1.122 <warn>
1308 drobbins 1.21 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1309     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1310 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1311 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1312 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1313 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1314 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1315 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1316 zhen 1.6 </p>
1317 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1318 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1319 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1320     to the correct one before proceeding.
1321     </p>
1322 swift 1.122 <note>
1323     If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1324     your configuration on it, you should execute
1325     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1326     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1327     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1328     </note>
1329 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1330 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1331     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1332 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1333 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1334 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1335 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1336     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1337     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1338     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1339     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1340     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1341     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1342     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1343     ...
1344    
1345     File systems ---&gt;
1346     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1347     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1348     ...
1349     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1350     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1351     ...
1352     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1353     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1354     ...
1355     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1356     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1357     ...
1358     [*] /proc file system support
1359     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1360     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1361     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1362     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1363     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1364     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1365     ...
1366     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1367     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1368     ...
1369     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1370     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1371     </pre>
1372 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1373 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1374     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1375     support for IDE RAID
1376     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1377     </p>
1378 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1379 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1380 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1381     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1382     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1383 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1384     </p>
1385 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1386     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1387     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1388     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1389     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1390     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1391     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1392 zhen 1.6 </p>
1393 zhen 1.16 <note>
1394 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1395     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1396 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1397 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1398     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1399     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1400 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1401     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1402 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1403     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1404 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1405 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1406 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1407     </note>
1408 swift 1.121
1409     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1410     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1411     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1412     </pre>
1413    
1414 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1415 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1416     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1417     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1418     newer alternatives.
1419     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1420     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1421     </p>
1422 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1423 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1424     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1425     <comment>or</comment>
1426     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1427     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1428     <comment>or</comment>
1429     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1430     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1431     <comment>or</comment>
1432     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1433     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1434 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1435 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1436 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1437     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1438     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1439     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1440     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1441     in real time, as expected),
1442     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1443 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1444     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1445 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1446 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1447     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1448     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1449     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1450     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1451     </pre>
1452 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1453     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1454 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1455     </p>
1456 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1457 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1458 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1459 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1460     <comment>or</comment>
1461     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1462 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1463 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1464     <comment>or</comment>
1465     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1466 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1467     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1468     </pre>
1469     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1470 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1471 zhen 1.6 </p>
1472 zhen 1.16 </body>
1473     </section>
1474     </chapter>
1475     <chapter>
1476 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1477 zhen 1.16 <section>
1478     <body>
1479     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1480 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1481 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1482 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1483 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1484 zhen 1.40
1485     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1486     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1487     X support later.
1488     </note>
1489 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1490 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1491     for the first time.
1492     </note>
1493 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1494 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1495 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1496 zhen 1.6 </p>
1497 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1498 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1499 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1500 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1501 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1502 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1503 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1504 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1505 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1506 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1507 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1508 zhen 1.6 </p>
1509 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1510 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1511 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1512 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1513 zhen 1.10 to work.
1514     </warn>
1515 zhen 1.16 </body>
1516     </section>
1517     </chapter>
1518     <chapter>
1519 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1520 zhen 1.16 <section>
1521     <body>
1522     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1523 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1524 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1525     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1526     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1527     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1528     </p>
1529 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1530     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1531 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1532     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1533 drobbins 1.1 #
1534 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1535 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1536 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1537 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1538    
1539 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1540 drobbins 1.1
1541     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1542     </comment>
1543     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1544     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1545     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1546     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1547     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1548 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1549 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1550 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1551     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1552     </warn>
1553 zhen 1.16 </body>
1554     </section>
1555     </chapter>
1556     <chapter>
1557 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting the Root Password</title>
1558 zhen 1.16 <section>
1559     <body>
1560     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1561 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1562 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1563 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1564 zhen 1.56
1565     <p>You will also want to add a non-root user for everyday use. Please consult
1566     the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
1567     </p>
1568 zhen 1.16 </body>
1569     </section>
1570     </chapter>
1571     <chapter>
1572 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1573 zhen 1.16 <section>
1574     <body>
1575 swift 1.121 <p>
1576     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1577     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1578     </p>
1579 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1580 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1581     </pre>
1582     <p>
1583     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1584     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1585     </p>
1586     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1587     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1588     </pre>
1589     <p>
1590     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1591     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1592     </p>
1593     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1594     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1595 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1596 zhen 1.16 </body>
1597     </section>
1598     </chapter>
1599     <chapter>
1600 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1601 zhen 1.16 <section>
1602     <body>
1603 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1604 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1605     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1606 zhen 1.6 </p>
1607 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1608 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1609     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1610     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1611 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1612 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1613 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1614     </note>
1615 zhen 1.16 </body>
1616     </section>
1617     </chapter>
1618     <chapter>
1619     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1620     <section>
1621     <body>
1622     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1623 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1624     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1625     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1626     it as a module:
1627     </p>
1628 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1629     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1630 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1631 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1632 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1633 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1634 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1635 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1636     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1637 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1638 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1639     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1640 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1641 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1642     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1643     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1644 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1645 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1646 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1647 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1648 zhen 1.6 </p>
1649 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1650 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1651     need pcmcia
1652     }
1653 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1654 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1655 zhen 1.10 </p>
1656 zhen 1.16 </body>
1657     </section>
1658     </chapter>
1659     <chapter>
1660     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1661     <section>
1662     <body>
1663 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1664 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1665 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1666 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1667 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1668     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1669     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1670     possibilities).
1671     </p>
1672 zhen 1.16 </body>
1673     </section>
1674     </chapter>
1675     <chapter>
1676 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1677 zhen 1.49 <section>
1678     <title>Notes</title>
1679     <body>
1680     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1681     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1682     LILO as their bootloaders.
1683     </p>
1684     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1685 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1686 zhen 1.49 </p>
1687 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1688     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1689 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1690     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1691 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1692 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1693 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1694 swift 1.117 <p>
1695     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1696     </p>
1697     <table>
1698     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1699     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1700     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1701 swift 1.120 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1702 swift 1.117 </table>
1703 zhen 1.49 </body>
1704     </section>
1705 zhen 1.16 <section>
1706 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1707 zhen 1.16 <body>
1708     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1709 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1710     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1711 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1712 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1713     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1714     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1715     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1716 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1717 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1718    
1719     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1720     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1721     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1722     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1723 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1724 zhen 1.6 </p>
1725 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1726 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1727 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1728 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1729 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1730 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1731 zhen 1.6 this time.
1732     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1733     grub setup for RAID controllers
1734     </impo>
1735 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1736 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1737     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1738     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1739     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1740     I want to type are:
1741     </p>
1742 zhen 1.68
1743 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1744 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1745     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1746 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1747 zhen 1.68
1748 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1749 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1750 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1751     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1752 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1753 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1754 zhen 1.68
1755 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1756 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1757     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1758     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1759     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1760     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1761     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1762     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1763     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1764 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1765 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1766 zhen 1.52 </p>
1767 zhen 1.6
1768     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1769     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1770     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1771     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1772     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1773     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1774    
1775     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1776     to make the right choice.
1777     </note>
1778    
1779 zhen 1.52 <p>
1780 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1781     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1782 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1783 zhen 1.6 </p>
1784 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1785 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1786     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1787 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1788 zhen 1.6 </p>
1789 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1790 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1791     timeout 30
1792     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1793    
1794     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1795     root (hd0,0)
1796 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1797 drobbins 1.1
1798 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1799 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1800     root (hd0,0)
1801 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1802 drobbins 1.1
1803     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1804 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1805 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1806 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1807 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1808 zhen 1.16 <note>
1809 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1810     </note>
1811 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1812 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1813 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1814     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1815 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1816 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1817 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1818     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1819     </p>
1820 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1821 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1822     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1823     loader.
1824 zhware 1.9 </note>
1825 zhen 1.16 <note>
1826 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1827 zhen 1.6 </note>
1828 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1829 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1830     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1831     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1832     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1833     </p>
1834 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1835 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1836     devfs is enabled by default.
1837     </note>
1838 zhen 1.16 </body>
1839     </section>
1840 zhen 1.49 <section>
1841     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1842 zhen 1.16 <body>
1843 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1844 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1845 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1846 zhen 1.16 </p>
1847     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1848     </p>
1849 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1850 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1851 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1852 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1853 zhen 1.16 </p>
1854 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1855 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1856     map=/boot/map
1857     install=/boot/boot.b
1858     prompt
1859     timeout=50
1860     lba32
1861     default=linux
1862    
1863 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1864 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1865     read-only
1866 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1867 zhen 1.16
1868     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1869     other=/dev/hda1
1870     label=dos
1871 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1872 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1873 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1874     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1875     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1876     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1877     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1878 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1879 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1880     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1881     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1882     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1883     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1884     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1885     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1886     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1887     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1888 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1889 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1890     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1891     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1892     altered during the boot process. </li>
1893     <li><i>root=/dev/hda5</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1894 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1895 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1896     into the MBR:
1897     </p>
1898 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1899 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1900 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1901 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1902     </p>
1903     </body>
1904     </section>
1905     </chapter>
1906     <chapter>
1907 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1908 zhen 1.16 <section>
1909     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1910     <body>
1911 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1912 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1913 swift 1.119 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, or your hardware doesn't let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1914     disk. With these types of hardware RAID or systems,
1915 drobbins 1.21 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1916     make a GRUB
1917     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1918 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1919 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1920 zhen 1.6 </p>
1921 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1922 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1923     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1924 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1925 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1926 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1927 zhen 1.16 </body>
1928     </section>
1929     <section>
1930     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1931     <body>
1932     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1933     </p>
1934 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
1935 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1936     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1937 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1938 zhen 1.16 </body>
1939     </section>
1940     </chapter>
1941     <chapter>
1942     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1943     <section>
1944     <body>
1945 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1946    
1947 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1948     and reboot the system:
1949     </p>
1950 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1951 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1952     # <c>exit</c>
1953 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1954 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1955     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1956     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1957     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1958     # <c>reboot</c>
1959 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1960 zhen 1.16 <note>
1961 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1962     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1963     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1964     </note>
1965 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1966 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1967     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1968 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
1969 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1970 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1971 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1972 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1973     that will
1974     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1975     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1976     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1977 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1978 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1979 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1980 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1981     </p>
1982 zhen 1.16 </body>
1983     </section>
1984     </chapter>
1985     <chapter>
1986     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1987     <section>
1988     <body>
1989     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1990 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1991     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1992     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1993     </p>
1994 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1995 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1996 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1997 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1998     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1999 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2000 zhen 1.6 </p>
2001 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2002     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2003     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2004     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2005     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2006     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2007     </ul>
2008     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2009 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2010     </p>
2011 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2012     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2013 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2014 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2015     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2016     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2017     </ul>
2018     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2019 zhen 1.6 </p>
2020 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2021 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2022     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2023 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2024 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2025 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2026     to see additional configuration options.
2027     </p>
2028 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2029 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2030     </p>
2031 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2032     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2033     </pre>
2034 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2035 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2036 zhen 1.16 </body>
2037     </section>
2038     </chapter>
2039 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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