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1 zhen 1.4 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
6 zhen 1.6 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author"><mail link="jerry@gentoo.org">Jerry Alexandratos</mail></author>
10     <author title="Ghost"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail></author>
13     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail></author>
15    
16     <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
17     Linux 1.4_rc1. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
18     approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
19     scratch.
20     </abstract>
21    
22     <version>2.1</version>
23     <date>20 November 2002</date>
24    
25     <chapter>
26     <title>About the Install</title>
27     <section>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
31     as many SCSI CD-ROM, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
32     Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE)
33     (built-in to the kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as
34     modules). In addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network
35     card that Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your
36     network and establish outbound <c>ssh</c> connections and download files.
37     </p>
38    
39     <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
40     ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo linux has been successfully
41     built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
42     slow under those conditions.) To begin the install process, first grab the
43     livecd ISO images from
44     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/</uri>. The three stages make our life
45     easy with Gentoo. The stage1 is for building the entire system from scratch. Stage2 is for building
46     some of the system from scratch, and stage3 saves a lot of time because it is already
47     optimized for you specific system. At the moment only the stage1 tarball is
48     stored on the livecd, but you will be able to download a stage2 or
49     stage3 tarball optimized for your system after booting the livecd.
50     </p>
51    
52 zhen 1.13 <info>If for some reason your install gets interrupted at some point, you can reboot
53     and restart. For example, if you have partitioned, installed the stageX tarball, and
54     are ready to chroot, you can restart the install if necessary. Just re-boot with the
55     LiveCD, then mount your drives/partitions to <path>/mnt</path> as normal. Basically, you can do
56     this at about any point during the install, just not before partitioning for obvious reasons.
57     </info>
58    
59 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, let's quickly review the install process. We'll create partitions,
60     create our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball.
61     If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps
62     to get our systems to stage3. Once our systems are at stage3, we can configure
63     them (tweaking config files, installing a bootloader, etc) and boot them and
64     have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
65     process you're starting from, here's what's required for installation:
66     </p>
67    
68     <table>
69     <tr><th>stage tarball</th><th>requirements for installation</th></tr>
70     <tr><ti>1</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
71     <tr><ti>2</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge linux sources, final configuration</ti></tr>
72     <tr><ti>3</ti><ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti></tr>
73     </table>
74    
75     </body>
76     </section>
77     </chapter>
78    
79     <chapter>
80     <title>Booting</title>
81     <section>
82     <body>
83    
84     <p>Start by booting the livecd. You'll be
85     greeted with a lot of text output
86     followed by the normal Gentoo Linux boot sequence.
87     Login as "root" (just hit &lt;enter&gt; for the password),
88     and then use the <c>passwd</c> command to change the root
89     password. (This root password is only for this installation session.
90     The reason for changing the password is that you will have to connect
91     to the net to complete the installation. Connecting to the internet with
92     the default root password is a <i>really</i> bad idea!)
93     You should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
94     console, and can also open new consoles by typing alt-f2, alt-f3, etc and then
95     hitting enter.
96     </p>
97    
98     <p>Next, you will be greeted with instructions for setting up your network,
99     and optional PCI autodetection. The PCI autodetection process will automatically
100     load the appropriate kernel modules for many popular PCI SCSI and ethernet
101     devices. After this, you should have a root ("<c>#</c>") prompt on the current
102     console, and can also open new consoles by typing Alt-F2, Alt-F3, etc and then
103     hitting enter.
104     </p>
105    
106     </body>
107     </section>
108     </chapter>
109    
110     <chapter>
111     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
112     <section>
113     <body>
114    
115    
116     <p>Hopefully you need only type <c>pci-setup</c> at the root prompt to
117     autodetect the hardware on your system and to load the appropriate
118     kernel modules.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
122     will have to load the appropriate modules manually.
123     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
124     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
125     type:
126     </p>
127 drobbins 1.1
128 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "PCI Modules Configuration">
129 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
130 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
131     </pre>
132 drobbins 1.1
133 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
134     during the PCI autodetection process, you'll need to load the appropriate
135     modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
136     </p>
137 drobbins 1.1
138 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading SCSI Modules">
139 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
140     # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
141 zhen 1.6 </pre>
142 drobbins 1.1
143 zhen 1.6 <p><c>aic7xxx</c> supports your SCSI controller and <c>sd_mod</c> supports SCSI hard disks.
144     <note>
145     Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs in build-in in the kernel.
146     </note>
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you need to load the
150     ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
151     </p>
152 drobbins 1.1
153 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading RAID Modules">
154 drobbins 1.1 # <c>insmod ataraid</c>
155     # <c>insmod pdcraid</c>
156     <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
157     # <c>insmod hptraid</c>
158     <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
159 zhen 1.6 </pre>
160 drobbins 1.1
161 zhen 1.6 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
162     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
163 drobbins 1.1
164 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting DMA">
165 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device. </comment>
166     # <c>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX </c>
167     <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
168     # <c>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX </c>
169     <comment>Enables Ultra-DMA </comment>
170 zhen 1.6 </pre>
171 drobbins 1.1
172 zhen 1.6 </body>
173     </section>
174     </chapter>
175 drobbins 1.1
176 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
177     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
178     <section>
179     <body>
180 drobbins 1.1
181 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to do some additional
182     trickery.
183     </p>
184 drobbins 1.1
185 zhen 1.6 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
186     portion of the install. </warn>
187 drobbins 1.1
188 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Loading PCMCIA Modules">
189 drobbins 1.1 # <i>insmod pcmcia_core</i>
190     # <i>insmod i82365</i>
191     # <i>insmod ds</i>
192     # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
193 zhen 1.6 </pre>
194 drobbins 1.1
195 zhen 1.6 <p>As cardmgr detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
196     few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should hum to life. You can
197     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading cardmgr too, if that's
198     preferable. (Technically, you need not run
199     <i>cardmgr</i> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
200     But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
201     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
202     drop by. <i>cardmgr</i> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
203     remove it). </p>
204    
205     </body>
206     </section>
207     </chapter>
208    
209     <chapter>
210     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
211     <section>
212     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
213     <body>
214    
215     <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the livecd (any version) has
216     made things easy for you by including <i>rp-pppoe</i>. Use the provided <i>adsl-setup </i>
217     script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
218     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
219     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
220    
221     <pre caption = "Configuring PPPoE">
222     # <c> adsl-setup </c>
223     # <c> adsl-start </c>
224     </pre>
225    
226     <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
227     your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
228     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
229    
230     </body>
231     </section>
232    
233     <section>
234     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
235     <body>
236    
237     <p>The Gentoo Linux install lets you configure a working network, allowing you to use
238     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> or <c>wget</c> as needed before even beginning the installation process.
239     Even if you don't need to do these things now, you should go ahead and set up networking now.
240     Once networking is up, Portage will be able to use your configured network once you are inside
241     the chroot environment (required for installing Gentoo Linux).
242     The simplest way to set up networking is to run our new <c>net-setup</c>
243     script. </p>
244 drobbins 1.1
245 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Net-Setup Script">
246 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
247 zhen 1.6 </pre>
248 drobbins 1.1
249 zhen 1.6 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. </p>
250 drobbins 1.1
251 zhen 1.6 </body>
252     </section>
253 drobbins 1.1
254 zhen 1.6 <section>
255     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
256     <body>
257 drobbins 1.1
258 zhen 1.6 <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
259     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
260 drobbins 1.1
261 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
262 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
263 zhen 1.6 </pre>
264 drobbins 1.1
265 zhen 1.6 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
266     add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
267     </note>
268    
269     <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
270     are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
271    
272     </body>
273     </section>
274    
275     <section>
276     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
277     <body>
278    
279     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
280     sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface.
281     Type in the following commands, replacing
282     $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
283     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
284     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
285     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
286     </p>
287 drobbins 1.1
288 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Static IP Network Configuration">
289 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
290     # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1</c>
291 zhen 1.6 </pre>
292 drobbins 1.1
293 zhen 1.6 <p>Now it's time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
294     file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address) will work.</p>
295 drobbins 1.1
296 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
297 drobbins 1.1
298 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
299 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
300     nameserver 10.0.0.1
301     nameserver 10.0.0.2
302 zhen 1.6 </pre>
303    
304     <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
305     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
306     </body>
307     </section>
308    
309     <section>
310     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
311     <body>
312     <p>If you are behind a proxy, it is necessary to configure your proxy before
313     you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
314     </p>
315 drobbins 1.1
316 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting a Proxy">
317 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234" </c>
318     # <c>export ftp_proxy="$http_proxy" </c>
319     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY="$http_proxy" </c>
320 zhen 1.6 </pre>
321 drobbins 1.1
322 zhen 1.6 </body>
323     </section>
324 drobbins 1.1
325 zhen 1.6 <section>
326     <title>Network Testing</title>
327     <body>
328     <p>Now that your network has been configured, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig -a</c> command should show
329     that your network card is working (look for <e>UP</e> and <e>RUNNING</e> in the output). </p>
330 drobbins 1.1
331 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
332 drobbins 1.1 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
333     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
334     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
335     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
336     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
337     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
338     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
339     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
340     Interrupt:11
341 zhen 1.6 </pre>
342 drobbins 1.1
343 zhen 1.7 <p>You may want to also try pinging Gentoo.org's website, just to make sure that your packets are
344 zhen 1.6 reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working correctly, etc.
345     </p>
346    
347     <pre caption = "Further Network Testing">
348     # <c>ping www.gentoo.org </c>
349     </pre>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353    
354     <section>
355     <title>Networking is go!</title>
356     <body>
357     <p>Networking should now be configured and useable. You should be able to use the included
358     <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
359     </body>
360     </section>
361 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
362    
363 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
364     <title>Partition Configuration</title>
365     <section>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>Now that the kernel can see the network card and disk controllers, it's time
369     to set up disk partitions for Gentoo Linux.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>Here's a quick overview of the standard Gentoo Linux partition layout.
373     We're going to create at least three partitions: a swap partition, a root
374     partition (to hold the bulk of Gentoo Linux), and a special boot partition.
375     The boot partition is designed to hold the GRUB or LILO boot loader information as well as
376     your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives us a safe place to store
377     everything related to booting Linux. During normal day-to-day Gentoo Linux use,
378     your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>. This prevents your kernel
379     from being made unavailable to GRUB (due to filesystem corruption) in the event
380     of a system crash, preventing the chicken-and-egg problem where GRUB can't read
381     your kernel (since your filesystem isn't consistent) but you can't bring your
382     filesystem back to a consistent state (since you can't boot!)
383     </p>
384    
385     <p>Now, on to filesystem types. Right now, you have four filesystem options:
386     XFS, ext2, ext3 (journaling) and ReiserFS. ext2 is the tried and true Linux
387     filesystem but doesn't have metadata journaling. ext3 is the new version of
388     ext2 with both metadata journaling and ordered data writes, effectively
389     providing data journaling as well. ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem
390     that has very good small file performance, and greatly outperforms both ext2 and
391     ext3 when dealing with small files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of
392     10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales extremely well and has metadata journaling.
393     As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is finally rock-solid and highly recommended.
394     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that
395     is fully supported under Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel, but be warned that it
396     is highly unstable at this time.
397     </p>
398    
399     <p>If you're looking for the most standard filesystem, use ext2. If you're looking
400     for the most rugged journalled filesystem, use ext3. If you're looking for a
401     high-performance filesystem with journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are
402     mature and refined. Please be careful with XFS; this filesystem has a tendency to fry lots of data
403     if the system crashes or you lose power. Originally, it seemed like a promising filesystem but it
404     now appears that this tendency to lose data is a major achilles' heel.
405     Here are our basic recommended filesystem
406     sizes and types:
407     </p>
408    
409     <table>
410     <tr>
411     <th>Partition</th>
412     <th>Size</th>
413     <th>Type</th>
414     <th>example device</th>
415     </tr>
416     <tr>
417     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
418     <ti>100 Megabytes</ti>
419     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c></ti>
420     <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
421     </tr>
422     <tr>
423     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit)</ti>
424     <ti>&gt;=2*Amount of RAM in this system is recommended but no longer (as of kernel 2.4.10) required</ti>
425     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
426     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
427     </tr>
428     <tr>
429     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
430     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
431     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
432     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
433     </tr>
434     </table>
435    
436     <p>Before creating your partitions, it is a <e>very</e> good idea to initialize the
437     beginning of your HD using <c>dd</c>. Doing this will ensure that you have no issues with
438     mounting previously <i>fat32</i> partitions, like <path>/boot</path>
439     for example. To do this you would do:
440     </p>
441 drobbins 1.1
442 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Initializing first 1024 Sectors of HD">
443 drobbins 1.1 # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdaBOOT bs=1024 count=1024 </c>
444     <comment>BOOT is the partition that holds your <path>/boot</path>.</comment>
445 zhen 1.6 </pre>
446 drobbins 1.1
447 zhen 1.6 <p>At this point, create your partitions using fdisk. Note that your partitions
448     should be of type 82 if swap and 83 for regular filesystems (whether ReiserFS <e>or</e> ext2/3). </p>
449 drobbins 1.1
450 zhen 1.6 <note><i>cfdisk</i> is included on the install CD, and it is *considerably* easier to use than
451 zhware 1.9 <i>fdisk</i>. Just type <c>cfdisk</c> to run it. By default cfdisk work with <b>/dev/hda</b>. If /dev/hda is not hard disk you want to partition, give the right value to cfdisk as a parameter. For example: <c>cfdisk /dev/hde</c></note>
452     <note>Changes to the partitions don't reflect on-the-fly, so please reboot after using fdisk or cfdisk.</note>
453 drobbins 1.1
454 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little
455     different.
456     You will have the partitions like this:
457     <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path>
458     X is the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1
459     array, then it will
460     be disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path>
461     </note>
462 drobbins 1.1
463    
464 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you've created your partitions, it's time to initialize
465     the filesystems that will be used to house our data. Initialize swap as follows:</p>
466 drobbins 1.1
467 zhen 1.6 <pre caption= "Initializing Swap">
468 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
469 zhen 1.6 </pre>
470 drobbins 1.1
471 zhen 1.6 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems.</p>
472 drobbins 1.1
473 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
474 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
475 zhen 1.6 </pre>
476 drobbins 1.1
477 zhen 1.6 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command.</p>
478 drobbins 1.1
479 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a XFS Filesystem">
480 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
481 zhen 1.6 </pre>
482    
483     <note>
484     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
485     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower
486     the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition,
487     so, for example, if you hava a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5.
488     The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.
489     </note>
490    
491     <warn>
492     If you are installing an XFS partition over a previous ReiserFS partition,
493     later attempts to mount may fail without an explicit <c>mount -t xfs</c>.
494     The solution is to zero out the partition before creating the XFS filesystem:
495     <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hd<comment>x</comment> bs=1k</c>.
496     </warn>
497 drobbins 1.1
498 zhen 1.6 <p>If you'd like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using <c>mke2fs -j</c>.</p>
499 drobbins 1.1
500 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
501 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
502 zhen 1.6 </pre>
503 drobbins 1.1
504 zhen 1.6 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command.</p>
505    
506     <pre caption = "Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
507 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
508 zhen 1.6 </pre>
509 drobbins 1.1
510 zhen 1.6 <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
511     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
512     </note>
513    
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     </chapter>
517    
518     <chapter>
519     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
520     <section>
521     <body>
522    
523     <p>Now, we'll activate our new swap, since we may need the additional virtual memory that
524     provides later:
525     </p>
526 drobbins 1.1
527 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Activating Swap">
528 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
529 zhen 1.6 </pre>
530 drobbins 1.1
531 zhen 1.6 <p>Next, we'll create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mountpoints,
532     and we'll mount our filesystems to these mountpoints. </p>
533 drobbins 1.1
534 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating Mount Points">
535 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</c>
536     # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
537     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
538     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
539 zhen 1.6 </pre>
540 drobbins 1.1
541 zhen 1.6 <p>
542     If you are setting up Gentoo
543     Linux with a separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>, these would get mounted to
544     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path>, respectively.
545     </p>
546 drobbins 1.1
547 zhen 1.6 <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
548     with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
549     that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
550     We'll get to that in a bit.
551     </impo>
552    
553     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
554     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
555     </body>
556     </section>
557     </chapter>
558    
559     <chapter>
560     <title>Obtaining the Desired 'stage-x' Tarball</title>
561    
562     <section>
563     <body>
564    
565     <p>If you want to start from a stage1 tarball, then you're already set
566     to go; you can find the stage1 tarball in <path>/cdroot/nocompress</path>.
567     On the other hand, if you would prefer to start from a stage2 or stage3
568     tarball that has been optimized for your architecture you can download it
569     (into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> would be the simplest)
570     from one of the Gentoo mirror sites: </p>
571 drobbins 1.1
572 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Downloading Required Stages">
573 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
574     # <c>env TMPDIR="/mnt/gentoo" lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc1/x86/</c>
575 zhen 1.6 </pre>
576 drobbins 1.1
577 zhen 1.6 </body>
578     </section>
579     </chapter>
580    
581     <chapter>
582     <title>Unpacking the Stage Tarballs</title>
583     <section>
584    
585     <body>
586    
587     <p>Now it's time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
588     Then, we'll <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation.
589     </p>
590    
591     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
592     cause certain files to contain incorrect permissions.</impo>
593    
594     <p>If you are using the "from scratch, build everything" install method,
595     you will want to use the <path>stage1-ix86-1.4_beta.tbz2</path> image.
596     If you're using one of our bigger CDs, you'll also have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image.
597     These images allow you to save time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen
598 zhen 1.12 compiler optimizations and default USE variables for you.)
599 zhen 1.6 </p>
600 drobbins 1.1
601 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Unpacking the Stages">
602 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
603     # <c>tar -xvjpf /path/to/stage?-*.tbz2</c>
604     # <c>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
605     # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
606 zhen 1.6 </pre>
607 drobbins 1.1
608 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Entering the chroot Environment">
609 drobbins 1.1 # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
610     # <c>env-update</c>
611     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
612     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
613 zhen 1.6 </pre>
614 drobbins 1.1
615 zhen 1.6 <p>After you execute these commands, you'll be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux environment.
616     </p>
617 drobbins 1.1
618 zhen 1.6 </body>
619     </section>
620     </chapter>
621 drobbins 1.1
622 zhen 1.6 <chapter>
623     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using Rsync</title>
624 drobbins 1.1
625 zhen 1.6 <section>
626     <body>
627 drobbins 1.1
628 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, you'll need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This will make sure that
629     you have the most current copy of the Portage tree. </p>
630 drobbins 1.1
631 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Updating Using Rsync">
632     # <c>emerge sync</c>
633     </pre>
634 drobbins 1.1
635 zhen 1.6 <p>The Portage tree will be downloaded and stored in <path>/usr/portage</path>;
636     it's about 90Mb in size without tarballs.
637     </p>
638    
639     </body>
640     </section>
641     </chapter>
642     <chapter>
643 stocke2 1.8 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
644 zhen 1.6 <section>
645     <body>
646    
647     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, people using stage1 to
648     install will need to bootstrap their Gentoo Linux system as follows. First
649     edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In this file, you should set your
650     <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional functionality that you would
651     like to be built into packages; generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e>
652     or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are fine.
653     More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found
654     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>.
655     </p>
656    
657    
658     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
659     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
660     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) Your best friend
661     is <path>man gcc</path> to figure out what additional <c>CFLAGS</c> and
662     <code>CXXFLAGS</code> are available. Search for 'Optimization'.
663     </p>
664    
665     <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
666     firewall.
667     </p>
668 drobbins 1.1
669 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Setting make.conf Options">
670 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c> <comment>(Adjust these settings)</comment>
671 zhen 1.6 </pre>
672 drobbins 1.1
673 zhen 1.6 <note>
674     People who need to substantially tweak the build process should take a look at
675     the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
676     should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
677     be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
678     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
679     interested in tweaking USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
680     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE="-foo"</c>
681     in /etc/make.conf (to turn off the <c>foo</c> USE setting.)
682     </note>
683 stocke2 1.8 </body>
684     </section>
685     </chapter>
686    
687    
688    
689     <chapter>
690     <title>Progressing from stage1 to stage2</title>
691     <section>
692    
693     <body>
694    
695     <p>If you are a stage2 or stage3 tarball, then we've already bootstrapped
696     for you. There is no reason for you to bootstrap again, unless you decided to
697     do an <c>emerge sync</c> and want to ensure that you have an up-to-the-minute
698     current Gentoo Linux system. Most people using stage2 or stage3 tarballs will
699     <i>not</i> want to bootstrap again, since it can take over two hours even on
700     very fast machines.
701     </p>
702 zhen 1.6
703     <p>Now, it's time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes about two hours on
704     my 1200Mhz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the extracted build image will be prepped
705     for compiling the rest ofthe system. The GNU compiler suite will be built, as well as the GNU C library.
706     These are time consuming builds and make up the bulk of the bootstrap process.
707     </p>
708 drobbins 1.1
709 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping">
710 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
711     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
712 zhen 1.6 </pre>
713 drobbins 1.1
714 zhen 1.6 <p>The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
715     </p>
716    
717     <note>
718     Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
719     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
720     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
721     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
722     </note>
723 drobbins 1.1
724 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Changing Portage's Storage Path">
725 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</c>
726 zhen 1.6 </pre>
727 drobbins 1.1
728 zhen 1.6 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
729     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, and <c>gettext</c>
730     after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
731     Have a nice nap. Once this process completes, your system will be in a "stage2" state.
732     </p>
733    
734     </body>
735     </section>
736     </chapter>
737    
738     <chapter>
739     <title>Timezone</title>
740     <section>
741    
742     <body>
743    
744     <impo>It is extremely important that this step is completed, no matter which stage
745     tarball you use. Major clock drift will be experienced if you do not set localtime correctly,
746     let alone subtle issues when emerging packages later.
747     </impo>
748    
749 zhen 1.12 <p>At this point, you should have system that's ready for final configuration.
750     We'll start the configuration process by setting the timezone. By setting the timezone before building
751 zhen 1.6 the kernel we ensure that users get reasonable <c>uname -a</c> output.
752     </p>
753    
754     <p>Look for your timezone (or GMT if you using Greenwich Mean Time) in
755     <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link by typing:
756     </p>
757 drobbins 1.1
758 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a symbolic link for timezome">
759 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
760 zhen 1.6 </pre>
761 drobbins 1.1
762 zhen 1.6 <p>You might also want to check <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to make sure your timezone settings
763     are correct.
764     </p>
765    
766     </body>
767     </section>
768     </chapter>
769    
770     <chapter>
771     <title>Progressing from stage2 to stage3</title>
772     <section>
773    
774     <body>
775     <p>Once your build image has been bootstrapped and you're at stage2
776     (again, if you are using a stage3 tarball than these steps are not required)
777     it's time to build or install the rest of the base
778     system.
779     </p>
780    
781     <note>
782     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
783     </note>
784 drobbins 1.1
785 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing the Rest of the System">
786 drobbins 1.1 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c>
787     # <c>emerge -p system</c>
788     <comment>[lists the packages to be installed]</comment>
789     # <c>emerge system</c>
790 zhen 1.6 </pre>
791 drobbins 1.1
792 zhen 1.6 <note>The <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT=""</c> line ensures that any new scripts
793     installed to <path>/etc</path> will overwrite the old scripts (stored in
794     <path>sys-apps/baselayout</path>), bypassing Portage's new config file
795     management support. Type <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details.</note>
796    
797     <p>It's going to take a while
798     to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
799     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
800     way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests "Star
801     Wars - Super Bombad Racing" for the PS2. When <c>emerge system</c> completes,
802     you'll have a stage3 Gentoo Linux system.
803     </p>
804    
805     </body>
806     </section>
807     </chapter>
808    
809     <chapter>
810     <title>Final steps: kernel and system logger</title>
811     <section>
812     <body>
813    
814     <note>
815     If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
816     </note>
817    
818     <p>You now need to merge Linux source ebuilds. Here are the ones we currently
819     offer:
820     </p>
821 drobbins 1.1
822     <table>
823     <tr><th>ebuild</th><th>description</th></tr>
824     <tr><ti><path>gentoo-sources</path></ti><ti>Our own performance and functionality-enhanced kernel based on -ac.</ti></tr>
825     <tr><ti><path>xfs-sources</path></ti><ti>A snapshot of the SGI XFS CVS Linux source tree; this is the kernel to run if you want bleeding edge(cvs) xfs support.</ti></tr>
826     <tr><ti><path>openmosix-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for the GPL <uri link="http://www.openmosix.com">openMosix</uri> load-balancing/clustering technology</ti></tr>
827     <tr><ti><path>usermode-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree patched with support for User-Mode Linux. ("Linux inside Linux" technology)</ti></tr>
828     <tr><ti><path>vanilla-sources</path></ti><ti>A stock Linux kernel source tree, just like you'd get from kernel.org</ti></tr>
829     </table>
830    
831 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please note that <i>gentoo-sources</i> is heavily patched and may not be stable.
832     Using <i>vanilla-sources</i> might be a better idea if you encounter numerous problems. If you are using
833     <i>gentoo-sources</i> beware of <i>grsecurity</i>, especially with <i>X</i>.
834     It is best to disable <i>grsecurity</i>unless you are absolutely sure that you need it.
835     </warn>
836 drobbins 1.1
837 zhen 1.6 <p>Choose one and then merge as follows:</p>
838 drobbins 1.1
839 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Kernel Sources">
840 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
841 zhen 1.6 </pre>
842 drobbins 1.1
843 zhen 1.6 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it's time to compile your own custom kernel.
844     </p>
845 drobbins 1.1
846 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Compiling the Linux Kernel">
847 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
848     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
849     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
850     # <c>mv /boot/bzImage /boot/bzImage.orig</c>
851     <comment>[if bzImage already exists]</comment>
852     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
853 zhen 1.6 </pre>
854 drobbins 1.1
855 zhen 1.6 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
856     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
857     compiled as modules</i>. You will need to enable the <i>"Code maturity
858     level options --> Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers"</i>
859     option to see several of these selections.
860     Under the "File systems" section, be sure to enable the <i>"Device File System"</i> (note that
861     you <e>don't</e> need to enable the "/dev/pts file system support" option). You'll also
862     need to enable the <i>"Virtual Memory Filesystem"</i>. Be sure to enable "ReiserFS" if you have
863     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for "Ext3". If you're using XFS, enable the
864     "SGI XFS filesystem support"
865     option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
866     enabled whether you are using it or not. Also, most people using IDE hard drives will
867     want to enable the "USE DMA by default" option; otherwise, your IDE drives may perform
868     very poorly. Of course, remember to enable "IDE disk" support as well -- otherwise your
869     kernel won't be able to see your IDE disks.
870     </warn>
871    
872     <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
873     For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
874     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
875     support for IDE RAID
876     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
877     </p>
878    
879     <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
880     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
881     "PPP (point-to-point protocol) support", "PPP support for async serial ports",
882     "PPP support for sync tty ports". The two compression options won't harm but
883     are not definitely needed, neither does the "PPP over Ethernet" option,
884     that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
885     </p>
886    
887     <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
888     kernel. Turn on "ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support" ---> "IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
889     devices" ---> "SCSI emulation support" (I usually make it a module), then
890     under "SCSI support" enable "SCSI support", "SCSI CD-ROM support" and
891     "SCSI generic support" (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
892     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e "ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod"
893     >> /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
894     </p>
895    
896     <note>
897     For those who prefer it,
898     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
899     Such stability will come at a price:
900     you will lose many of the nifty features that
901     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
902     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
903     patched with Reiserfs and devfs support.
904     Gentoo linux bootscripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
905     2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
906     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
907     line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
908     for the bootscripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
909     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
910     </note>
911    
912     <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
913     logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
914     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
915     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
916     newer alternatives.
917     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
918     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
919     </p>
920 drobbins 1.1
921    
922 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging System Logger of Choice">
923 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
924     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
925     <comment>or</comment>
926     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
927     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
928     <comment>or</comment>
929     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
930     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
931     <comment>or</comment>
932     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
933     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
934 zhen 1.6 </pre>
935 drobbins 1.1
936 zhen 1.6 <warn>
937     In the case of syslog-ng you need to create
938     <path>/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf</path>.
939     See <path>/etc/syslog-ng</path>
940     for a sample configuration file.
941     </warn>
942    
943     <impo>
944     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
945     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
946     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
947     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
948     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
949     in real time, as expected),
950     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
951     again.
952     </impo>
953    
954     <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you'd like to use.
955     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you don't know which one to choose,
956     you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
957     </p>
958 drobbins 1.1
959 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Choosing a CRON Daemon">
960 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
961     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
962     <comment>or</comment>
963     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
964     # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
965     <comment>or</comment>
966     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
967 zhen 1.2 <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron. </comment>
968 drobbins 1.1 <comment>Don't forget to add your *cron to the proper init level. </comment>
969     # <c>rc-update add *cron default </c>
970 zhen 1.6 </pre>
971 drobbins 1.1
972 zhen 1.6 <p>For more information how how cron works under Gentoo Linux,
973     see <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/pipermail/gentoo-announce/2002-April/000151.html">this announcement</uri>.</p>
974     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
975     <uri link="/doc/rc-scripts.html">rc-script guide</uri>.
976     </p>
977    
978     </body>
979     </section>
980     </chapter>
981    
982     <chapter>
983     <title>Final steps: Install Additional Packages</title>
984     <section>
985     <body>
986 drobbins 1.1
987 zhen 1.6 <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
988     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
989 drobbins 1.1
990 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing rp-pppoe">
991 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c>
992 zhen 1.6 </pre>
993 drobbins 1.1
994 zhen 1.6 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
995     You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
996     for the first time.
997     </note>
998 drobbins 1.1
999    
1000 zhen 1.6 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1001     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1002     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> ebuild:
1003     </p>
1004 drobbins 1.1
1005 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1006 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1007     <comment>If you'd like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1008     # <c> emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1009     <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1010     # <c>emerge --usepkg sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1011 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1012 drobbins 1.1
1013    
1014 zhen 1.6 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1015     real reboot, you'll want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1016     </p>
1017 drobbins 1.1
1018 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1019 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1020 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1021 drobbins 1.1
1022 zhen 1.11 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1023 zhen 1.10 to work.
1024     </warn>
1025    
1026 zhen 1.6 </body>
1027     </section>
1028     </chapter>
1029    
1030     <chapter>
1031     <title>Final steps: /etc/fstab</title>
1032     <section>
1033    
1034     <body>
1035    
1036     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1037     a few important system files and install the GRUB boot loader.
1038     The first file we need to
1039     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1040     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1041     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1042     </p>
1043    
1044     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace "BOOT",
1045     "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1046     <pre caption = "Editing fstab">
1047 drobbins 1.1 <comment>
1048     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1049     #
1050     # noatime turns of atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1051     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1052     # efficiency). It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1053     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1054    
1055     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1056    
1057     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1058     </comment>
1059     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1060     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1061     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1062     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1063     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1064 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1065 drobbins 1.1
1066 zhen 1.6 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boottime.
1067     This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1068     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1069     </warn>
1070 drobbins 1.1
1071 zhen 1.6 </body>
1072     </section>
1073    
1074     <section>
1075     <title>Final steps: Root Password</title>
1076    
1077     <body>
1078    
1079     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1080    
1081     <pre caption = "Setting the root Password">
1082 drobbins 1.1 # <i>passwd</i>
1083 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1084    
1085     </body>
1086     </section>
1087 drobbins 1.1
1088 zhen 1.6 <section>
1089     <title>Final steps: /etc/hostname</title>
1090 drobbins 1.1
1091 zhen 1.6 <body>
1092     <p>Edit this file so that it contains your fully-qualified domain name on a single line,
1093     i.e. <c>mymachine.mydomain.com</c>.
1094     </p>
1095 drobbins 1.1
1096 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Configuring Hostname">
1097 drobbins 1.1 # <c>echo mymachine.mydomain.com > /etc/hostname</c>
1098 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1099 drobbins 1.1
1100 zhen 1.6 </body>
1101     </section>
1102 drobbins 1.1
1103 zhen 1.6 <section>
1104     <title>Final steps: /etc/hosts</title>
1105    
1106     <body>
1107     <p>This file contains a list of ip addresses and their associated hostnames.
1108     It's used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1109     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here's a template for this file:
1110     </p>
1111 drobbins 1.1
1112 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Hosts Template">
1113 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1114     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1115     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1116 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1117 drobbins 1.1
1118 zhen 1.6 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1119     actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1120     </note>
1121 drobbins 1.1
1122 zhen 1.6 </body>
1123     </section>
1124 drobbins 1.1
1125 zhen 1.6 <section>
1126     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1127    
1128     <body>
1129 drobbins 1.1
1130    
1131 zhen 1.6 <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1132     <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1133     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1134     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1135     it as a module:
1136     </p>
1137 drobbins 1.1
1138 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
1139 drobbins 1.1 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card. Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your
1140     card. </comment>
1141     3c59x
1142 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1143 drobbins 1.1
1144 zhen 1.6 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1145     first boot: </p>
1146 drobbins 1.1
1147 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Boottime Network Configuration">
1148 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1149     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1150 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1151 drobbins 1.1
1152    
1153 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have multiple network cards you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path>
1154     scripts for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1155 drobbins 1.1
1156 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1157 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1158     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1159     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1160 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1161 drobbins 1.1
1162    
1163 zhen 1.6 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1164     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1165 zhen 1.10 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/ethx</path>:
1166 zhen 1.6 </p>
1167 drobbins 1.1
1168 zhen 1.10 <pre caption = "PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1169 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1170     need pcmcia
1171     }
1172 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1173 drobbins 1.1
1174 zhen 1.10 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1175     </p>
1176 drobbins 1.1
1177 zhen 1.6 </body>
1178     </section>
1179 drobbins 1.1
1180 zhen 1.6 <section>
1181     <title>Final steps: configure basic settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1182 drobbins 1.1
1183 zhen 1.6 <body>
1184    
1185 zhen 1.10 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1186 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1187 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1188 drobbins 1.1
1189 zhen 1.6 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1190     All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1191     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1192     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1193     possibilities).
1194     </p>
1195    
1196     </body>
1197     </section>
1198    
1199     <section>
1200     <title>Final steps: Configure GRUB</title>
1201    
1202     <body>
1203    
1204     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1205     refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1206     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1207     Hard drives count from zero rather than "a", and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1208     Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1209     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1210     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1211     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1212     a burner on /dev/hdc and a second hardrive on /dev/hdd, for example, and no scsi harddrive
1213     <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1214    
1215     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1216     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1217     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1218     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1219     it's time to install GRUB.
1220     </p>
1221 drobbins 1.1
1222 zhen 1.6 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1223 drobbins 1.1
1224 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB">
1225 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1226 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1227 drobbins 1.1
1228 zhen 1.6 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1229     this time.
1230     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1231     grub setup for RAID controllers
1232     </impo>
1233    
1234     <p>You'll be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1235     command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1236     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1237     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1238     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1239     I want to type are:
1240     </p>
1241 drobbins 1.1
1242 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "GRUB Commands">
1243 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c>
1244     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c>
1245     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1246 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1247 drobbins 1.1
1248 zhen 1.6 <p>Here's how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1249     the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1250     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1251     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1252     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1253     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1254     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1255     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1256     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1257     I'd specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1258     boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1259    
1260     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1261     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1262     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1263     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1264     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1265     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1266    
1267     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1268     to make the right choice.
1269     </note>
1270    
1271     Gentoo Linux is now
1272     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1273     we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here's how to do it.
1274     </p>
1275    
1276     <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1277     <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1278     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1279 drobbins 1.1
1280 zhen 1.6 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1281     </p>
1282 drobbins 1.1
1283 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Grub.conf for GRUB">
1284 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1285     timeout 30
1286     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1287    
1288     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1289     root (hd0,0)
1290     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1291    
1292     <comment> #Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1293     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1294     root (hd0,0)
1295     kernel /boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/discX/partY
1296    
1297     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1298     title=Windows NT Workstation
1299     root (hd0,5)
1300     chainloader +1
1301 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1302 drobbins 1.1
1303 zhen 1.6 <note>
1304     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1305     </note>
1306    
1307     <impo>
1308     If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1309     actually work you need to add an "hdx=ide-scsi" fragment to the kernel
1310     line in grub.conf (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd burner).
1311     </impo>
1312    
1313     <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1314     tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1315     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1316     </p>
1317    
1318     <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
1319     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1320     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1321     loader.
1322 zhware 1.9 </note>
1323     <note>
1324     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1325 zhen 1.6 </note>
1326    
1327     <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1328     add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1329     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1330     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1331     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1332     </p>
1333    
1334     <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1335     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1336     devfs is enabled by default.
1337     </note>
1338    
1339     <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you must make a GRUB boot
1340     disk. With hardware RAID
1341     if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. So we
1342     will make a GRUB
1343     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time we will install GRUB
1344     to the MBR. Make your
1345     bootdisk like this:
1346     </p>
1347 drobbins 1.1
1348 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Creating a RAID Bootdisk">
1349 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mke2fs /dev/fd0</c>
1350     # <c>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</c>
1351     # <c>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub</c>
1352     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage1 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1353     # <c>cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage2 /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</c>
1354    
1355     # <c>grub</c>
1356    
1357     grub&gt; <c>root (fd0)</c>
1358     grub&gt; <c>setup (fd0)</c>
1359     grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1360 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1361 drobbins 1.1
1362    
1363 zhen 1.6 </body>
1364     </section>
1365     </chapter>
1366    
1367     <chapter>
1368     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1369     <section>
1370    
1371     <body>
1372     <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to exit the chrooted shell,
1373     udpate necessary configuration files,
1374     safely unmount your partitions
1375     and reboot the system:
1376     </p>
1377 drobbins 1.1
1378 zhen 1.6 <pre caption = "Rebooting the System">
1379 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1380     # <c>exit</c>
1381     <codenote>This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c></codenote>
1382     # <c>cd / </c>
1383     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1384     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1385     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1386     # <c>reboot</c>
1387 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1388 drobbins 1.1
1389 zhen 1.6 <note>
1390     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1391     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1392     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1393     </note>
1394    
1395     <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1396     use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
1397     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
1398     time. You are done, congratulations</impo>
1399    
1400     <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1401     consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1402     (there's a "click to subscribe" link on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">main page</uri>).
1403     We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1404     that will
1405     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1406     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1407     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1408 zhen 1.10 <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1409     involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1410     <uri link = "http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1411 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1412     </p>
1413    
1414     </body>
1415     </section>
1416     </chapter>
1417    
1418     <chapter>
1419     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1420     <section>
1421    
1422     <body>
1423    
1424     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1425     a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1426     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1427     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1428     </p>
1429    
1430     <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1431     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1432     to individually identify your system, nor will it be mached against an IP address or
1433     other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1434     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1435     right now through our "gentoo-stats" program:
1436     </p>
1437     <ul>
1438     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
1439     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
1440     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
1441     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
1442     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
1443     </ul>
1444    
1445     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
1446     (just as it is to the developers).
1447     </p>
1448    
1449     <ul>
1450     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
1451     information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
1452     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
1453     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
1454     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
1455     </ul>
1456 drobbins 1.1
1457 zhen 1.6 <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
1458     </p>
1459 drobbins 1.1
1460 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
1461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
1462     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
1463 zhen 1.6 </pre>
1464 drobbins 1.1
1465 zhen 1.6 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
1466     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
1467     to see additional configuration options.
1468     </p>
1469    
1470     <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
1471     (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
1472     </p>
1473 drobbins 1.1
1474 zhen 1.6 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
1475     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update > /dev/null</c>
1476     </pre>
1477 drobbins 1.1
1478 zhen 1.6 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
1479     viewed with your favortive pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
1480 drobbins 1.1
1481    
1482 zhen 1.6 </body>
1483     </section>
1484 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1485    
1486    
1487    
1488    
1489     </guide>

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