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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.135 <date>2nd of July 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
87    
88    
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 swift 1.131 <uri>ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/x86</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 peesh 1.127 <note>The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be the most up-to-date. Always refer to
112 klieber 1.129 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> for the most up-to-date
113 peesh 1.127 installation instructions.
114     </note>
115 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
116     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
117 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
118     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
119 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
120 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
121 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
122 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
123 zhen 1.26 <table>
124 zhen 1.16 <tr>
125     <th>stage tarball</th>
126     <th>requirements for installation</th>
127     </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>1</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>2</ti>
134 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
135 zhen 1.16 </tr>
136     <tr>
137     <ti>3</ti>
138     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
139     </tr>
140     </table>
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     </chapter>
144     <chapter>
145     <title>Booting</title>
146     <section>
147     <body>
148 swift 1.134 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
149     available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
150     keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
151 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
152 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
153 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
154    
155     <table>
156     <tr>
157     <th>Available kernels.</th>
158     <th>description</th>
159     </tr>
160    
161     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
162     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
163 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
164 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
165     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
166     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
167     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
168     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
169    
170     </table>
171    
172     <p>
173     <table>
174     <tr>
175     <th>Available boot options.</th>
176     <th>description</th>
177     </tr>
178 antifa 1.106
179     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
180     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
181 antifa 1.105
182 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
183     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
184    
185     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
186     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
187    
188     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
189     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
190    
191 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
192     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
193    
194 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
195     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
196    
197 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
198     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
199    
200     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
201     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
202    
203 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
204     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
205 antifa 1.105
206     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
207     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
208    
209 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
210     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
211 antifa 1.105
212     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
213     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
214    
215     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
216     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
217    
218     </table></p>
219 drobbins 1.70
220 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
221     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
222     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
223     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
224     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
225 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
226 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
227 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
228 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
229 zhen 1.6 </p>
230 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
231 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
232 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
233 zhen 1.6 </p>
234 zhen 1.16 </body>
235     </section>
236     </chapter>
237     <chapter>
238     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
239     <section>
240     <body>
241     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
242 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
243 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
244     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
245     type:
246     </p>
247 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
248 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
249 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
250 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
251 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
252 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
253 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
254     </p>
255 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
256 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
257 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
258 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
259 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
260 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
261 zhen 1.6 <note>
262 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
263 zhen 1.52 </note>
264 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
265 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
266     </p>
267 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
268 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
269     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
270 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
271 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
272 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
273     </pre>
274 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
275 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
276 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
277     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
278 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
279 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
280     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
281     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
282     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
283     </pre>
284 zhen 1.16 </body>
285     </section>
286     </chapter>
287 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
288 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
289     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
290     <section>
291     <body>
292 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
293 zhen 1.6 </p>
294 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
295 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
296 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
297 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
298     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
299     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
300 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
301 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
302 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
303 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
304     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
305 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
306 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
307 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
308     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
309 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
310 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
311 zhen 1.16 </body>
312     </section>
313     </chapter>
314 drobbins 1.70 -->
315 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
316     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
317 drobbins 1.70 <section>
318     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
319     <body>
320 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
321 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
322     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
323     among others.</p>
324    
325     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
326     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
327     </p>
328 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
329 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
330     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
331     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
332     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
333     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
334     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
335     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
336     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
337     Interrupt:11
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
340     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
341     resolution is working correctly, etc.
342     </p>
343 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
344 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
345 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
346 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
347     </body>
348     </section>
349 zhen 1.16 <section>
350     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
351     <body>
352 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
353 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
354 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
355     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
356     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
357 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
358 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
359     # <c> adsl-start </c>
360 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
361 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
362 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
363     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
364 zhen 1.16 </body>
365     </section>
366     <section>
367     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
368     <body>
369 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
370 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
371 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
372 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
373 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
374 zhen 1.16 </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
378     <body>
379     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
380     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
381 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
382     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
383     </pre>
384 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
385 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
386     </note>
387 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
388 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
389 zhen 1.16 </body>
390     </section>
391     <section>
392     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
393     <body>
394     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
395 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
396    
397     <table>
398     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
399     <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
400     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
401     <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
402 swift 1.118 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
403 swift 1.117 </table>
404    
405     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
406 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
407     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
408     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
409     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
410     </p>
411 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
412 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
413 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</c>
414 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
415 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
416 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
417     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
418     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
419     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
420 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
421 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
422 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
423     nameserver 10.0.0.1
424     nameserver 10.0.0.2
425 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
426 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
427 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
428 zhen 1.16 </body>
429     </section>
430     <section>
431     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
432     <body>
433 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
434 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
435 zhen 1.6 </p>
436 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
437 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
438 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
439 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
440     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
441     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
442     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
443 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
444 zhen 1.16 </body>
445     </section>
446 drobbins 1.70 <section>
447 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
448     <body>
449 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
450 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
451 zhen 1.16 </body>
452     </section>
453 peesh 1.104 <section>
454     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
455     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
456     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
457     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
458     </body>
459     </section>
460 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
461     <chapter>
462 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
463     <section>
464     <body>
465     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
466     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
467     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
468     # <c>date</c>
469     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
470     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
471     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
472     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
473     </pre>
474     </body>
475     </section>
476     </chapter>
477     <chapter>
478 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
479 zhen 1.16 <section>
480 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
481 zhen 1.16 <body>
482 drobbins 1.86 <p>
483     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
484 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
485 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
486     install.
487     </p>
488     <p>
489     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
490     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
491     </p>
492     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
493     /dev/hda
494     </pre>
495    
496     <p>
497     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
498     </p>
499    
500     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
501     /dev/sda
502     </pre>
503    
504     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
505     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
506     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
507     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
508     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
509     </body>
510     </section>
511     <section>
512     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
513     <body>
514     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
515     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
516     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
517    
518     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
519     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
520     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
521     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
522 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
523 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
524     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
525     up the full disk. </p>
526    
527     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
528     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
529    
530     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
531 swift 1.123 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> becuase it's
532     more powerfull and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
533 drobbins 1.86
534     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
535     # fdisk /dev/hda
536     </pre>
537     <p>
538     or
539     </p>
540     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
541     # fdisk /dev/sda
542     </pre>
543    
544     <impo>
545     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
546     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
547     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
548     lost.</b>
549     </impo>
550    
551     <p>
552     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
553     </p>
554    
555     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
556     Command (m for help):
557     </pre>
558    
559    
560     <p>
561     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
562     </p>
563    
564     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
565     Command (m for help): p
566    
567     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
568     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
569    
570     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
571     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
572     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
573     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
574     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
575     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
576     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
577     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
578     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
579     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
580    
581     Command (m for help):
582     </pre>
583    
584     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
585     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
586     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
587    
588     <p>
589     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
590     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
591     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
592     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
593     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
594     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
595     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
596     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
597     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
598     </p>
599    
600     <p>
601     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
602     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
603    
604     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
605     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
606 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
607 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
608     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
609    
610     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
611     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
612     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
613 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
614     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
615     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
616 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
617 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
618 drobbins 1.86 </p>
619     </body>
620     </section>
621     <section>
622     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
623     <body>
624    
625 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
626 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
627     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
628     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
629     look like this: </p>
630    
631     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
632     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
633     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
634     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
635    
636     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
637     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
638     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
639     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
640    
641     Command (m for help):
642     </pre>
643    
644     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
645     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
646     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
647     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
648     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
649     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
650     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
651 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
652     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
653 drobbins 1.86
654 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
655     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
656     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
657     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
658     cylinder 1024.
659     </p>
660    
661 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
662     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
663     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
664 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
665     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
666 drobbins 1.86
667     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
668     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
669     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
670     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
671    
672    
673     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
674     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
675     Linux:</p>
676    
677     <table>
678     <tr>
679     <th>Partition</th>
680     <th>Size</th>
681     <th>Type</th>
682     <th>example device</th>
683     </tr>
684     <tr>
685     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
686 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
687 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
688 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
689     </tr>
690     <tr>
691     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
692     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
693     in your system.</ti>
694     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
695     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
696     </tr>
697     <tr>
698     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
699     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
700     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
701     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
702     </tr>
703     </table>
704    
705     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
706 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
707 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
708     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
709     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
710     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
711    
712     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
713     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
714     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
715     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
716     from the wrong drive.</impo>
717    
718     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
719     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
720     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
721    
722     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
723     Command (m for help): d
724     Partition number (1-4): 1
725     </pre>
726 zhen 1.54
727 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
728     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
729     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
730     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
731     deleted.</p>
732     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
733     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
734     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
735 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
736 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
737     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
738 drobbins 1.86 -->
739     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
740     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
741     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
742     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
743    
744     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
745     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
746     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
747     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
748    
749     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
750    
751     Command (m for help):
752     </pre>
753    
754     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
755     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
756     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
757     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
758 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
759     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
760    
761     <note>
762     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
763     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
764     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
765     for the last cylinder.
766     </note>
767 drobbins 1.86
768     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
769     Command (m for help): n
770     Command action
771     e extended
772     p primary partition (1-4)
773     p
774     Partition number (1-4): 1
775     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
776     Using default value 1
777 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
778 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
779    
780     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
781    
782     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
783     Command (m for help): p
784    
785     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
786     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
787     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
788    
789     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
790     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
791     </pre>
792    
793     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
794     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
795     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
796     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
797     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
798 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
799     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
800 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
801     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
802    
803     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
804     Command (m for help): p
805    
806     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
807     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
808     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
809    
810     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
811     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
812     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
813     </pre>
814    
815     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
816     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
817 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
818 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
819     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
820     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
821     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
822     this:</p>
823    
824     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
825     Command (m for help): p
826    
827     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
828     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
829     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
830    
831     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
832     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
833     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
834     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
835     </pre>
836    
837     <p>
838     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
839     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
840     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
841     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
842     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
843     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
844     install.
845     </p>
846    
847     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
848     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
849     </body>
850     </section>
851     <section>
852     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
853     <body>
854     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
855     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
856     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
857     </p>
858    
859     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
860     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
861     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
862    
863     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
864     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
865     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
866     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
867     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
868     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
869     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
870    
871     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
872     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
873     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
874 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
875     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
876     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
877     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
878     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
879     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
880 drobbins 1.86
881     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
882     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
883     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
884     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
885     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
886     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
887     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
888     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
889     non-boot partitions.</p>
890    
891     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
892     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
893     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
894     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
895     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
896     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
897     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
898     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
899    
900     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
901     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
902     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
903     point.</p>
904    
905     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
906     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
907     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
908     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
909    
910     <!-- Corner case, confusing
911 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
912 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
913 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
914     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
915 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
916 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
917 zhen 1.6 </p>
918 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
919     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
920     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
921     </pre>
922     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
923 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
924     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
925     </warn>
926 drobbins 1.86 -->
927    
928     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
929     all our partitions for use:</p>
930    
931     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
932     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
933     # mkswap /dev/hda2
934     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
935     </pre>
936    
937 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
938     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
939     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
940     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
941     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
942     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
943    
944     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
945     during the installation process:</p>
946 drobbins 1.86
947 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
948 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
949 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
950 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
951 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
952 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
953 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
954 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
955 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
956 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
957 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
958     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
959     </pre>
960     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
961     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
962 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
963 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
964     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
965     </pre>
966 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
967 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
968 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
969 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
970     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
971     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
972     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
973     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
974     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
975     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
976     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
977 drobbins 1.86
978 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
979 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
980 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
981 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
982 zhen 1.16 </body>
983     </section>
984     </chapter>
985     <chapter>
986     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
987     <section>
988     <body>
989 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
990 zhen 1.6 provides later:
991     </p>
992 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
993 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
994 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
995 drobbins 1.86
996 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
997 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
998 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
999     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
1000     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1001     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1002     </p>
1003    
1004     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1005 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1006 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1007 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1008     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1009     not sure what to do.
1010 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1011    
1012 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1013 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1014     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1015     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1016 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1017 drobbins 1.86
1018     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1019 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1020 zhen 1.16 </body>
1021     </section>
1022     </chapter>
1023     <chapter>
1024 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1025 zhen 1.16 <section>
1026 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1027 zhen 1.16 <body>
1028 zhen 1.55
1029 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1030     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1031     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1032    
1033     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1034 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1035 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1036     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1037     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1038     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1039     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1040     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1041    
1042     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1043     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1044     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1045     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1046     tarball" section.</p>
1047    
1048 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1049 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1050 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1051 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1052 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1053     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1054     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1055     Save the file and quit the browser
1056    
1057     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1058     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1059 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1060 zhen 1.16 </body>
1061     </section>
1062     <section>
1063 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1064 zhen 1.16 <body>
1065 drobbins 1.86
1066     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1067     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1068     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1069     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1070     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1071    
1072     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1073     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1074    
1075 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1076 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1077 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1078     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1079     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1080 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1081 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1082    
1083     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1084 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1085 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1086     </section>
1087     <section>
1088     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1089     <body>
1090     <p>
1091     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1092     Gentoo Linux system.
1093     </p>
1094 swift 1.112
1095     <note>
1096     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1097 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1098 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1099     the problem.
1100     </note>
1101 drobbins 1.86
1102     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1103 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1104 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1105     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1106     # <c>env-update</c>
1107     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1108     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1109 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1110     </pre>
1111 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1112     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1113     </p>
1114 zhen 1.16 </body>
1115     </section>
1116     </chapter>
1117     <chapter>
1118 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1119 zhen 1.16 <section>
1120     <body>
1121 swift 1.133
1122     <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1123    
1124 swift 1.132 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1125    
1126     <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1127     <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1128     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1129     <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1130     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1131     </pre>
1132 swift 1.133
1133     -->
1134 swift 1.132
1135 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1136     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1137     The Portage tree
1138 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1139 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1140 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1141    
1142 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1143 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1144 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1145 zhen 1.60
1146 zhen 1.16 </body>
1147     </section>
1148     </chapter>
1149     <chapter>
1150     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1151     <section>
1152     <body>
1153 drobbins 1.86
1154     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1155     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1156     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1157     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1158     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1159     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1160     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1161     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1162     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1163     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1164     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1165    
1166     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1167     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1168     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1169     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1170     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1171     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1172     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1173     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1174     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1175 drobbins 1.70
1176 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1177     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1178     a simple visual editor.
1179     </p>
1180 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1181     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1182 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1183 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1184 zhen 1.16 <note>
1185 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1186 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1187 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1188 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1189     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1190 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1191 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1192 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1193     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1194 zhen 1.6 </note>
1195 zhen 1.16 </body>
1196     </section>
1197     </chapter>
1198     <chapter>
1199 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1200 zhen 1.16 <section>
1201     <body>
1202 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1203 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1204 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1205 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1206     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1207 zhen 1.18 </p>
1208 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1209 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1210 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1211     as follows:</p>
1212 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1213 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1214     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1215 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1216 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1217     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1218 zhen 1.16 <note>
1219 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1220     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1221     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1222     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1223     </note>
1224 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1225 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1226 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1227 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1228 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1229 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1230 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1231 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1232 zhen 1.6 </p>
1233 zhen 1.16 </body>
1234     </section>
1235     </chapter>
1236     <chapter>
1237 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1238 zhen 1.16 <section>
1239     <body>
1240 drobbins 1.86
1241     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1242     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1243     </note>
1244    
1245     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1246 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1247 zhen 1.6 </p>
1248 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1249     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1250     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1251     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1252    
1253 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1254 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1255 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1256 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1257 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1258 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1259 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1260     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1261 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1262 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1263     </p>
1264 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1265     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1266     your time zone" section.
1267 zhen 1.18 </p>
1268     </body>
1269     </section>
1270     </chapter>
1271     <chapter>
1272     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1273     <section>
1274     <body>
1275 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1276     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1277 drobbins 1.108
1278 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1279     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1280 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1281 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1282     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1283     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1284     In any case, feel free to skip these
1285     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1286     </p>
1287 zhen 1.57
1288 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1289 swift 1.117 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1290 drobbins 1.86 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1291     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1292     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1293     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1294     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1295 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1296 seemant 1.79 </body>
1297     </section>
1298     </chapter>
1299     <chapter>
1300 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1301 seemant 1.79 <section>
1302     <body>
1303 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1304     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1305     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1306     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1307     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1308 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1309 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1310 zhen 1.16 </body>
1311     </section>
1312     </chapter>
1313     <chapter>
1314 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1315 zhen 1.16 <section>
1316     <body>
1317     <note>
1318 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1319     </note>
1320 swift 1.122 <p>You now need to merge the Linux kernel sources.
1321     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1322     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1323     which kernel sources to choose, we advise the <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
1324     <c>vanilla-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
1325     <c>xfs-sources</c>. Btw, Gentoo's LiveCD uses the <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1326 zhen 1.6 </p>
1327 swift 1.122 <warn>
1328 drobbins 1.21 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1329     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1330 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1331 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1332 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1333 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1334 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1335 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1336 zhen 1.6 </p>
1337 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1338 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1339 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1340     to the correct one before proceeding.
1341     </p>
1342 swift 1.122 <note>
1343     If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1344     your configuration on it, you should execute
1345     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1346     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1347     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1348     </note>
1349 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1350 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1351     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1352 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1353 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1354 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1355 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1356     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1357     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1358     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1359     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1360     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1361     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1362     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1363     ...
1364    
1365     File systems ---&gt;
1366     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1367     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1368     ...
1369     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1370     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1371     ...
1372     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1373     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1374     ...
1375     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1376     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1377     ...
1378     [*] /proc file system support
1379     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1380     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1381     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1382     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1383     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1384     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1385     ...
1386     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1387     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1388     ...
1389     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1390     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1391     </pre>
1392 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1393 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1394     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1395     support for IDE RAID
1396     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1397     </p>
1398 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1399 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1400 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1401     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1402     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1403 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1404     </p>
1405 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1406     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1407     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1408     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1409     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1410     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1411     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1412 zhen 1.6 </p>
1413 peesh 1.130 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1414 zhen 1.16 <note>
1415 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1416     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1417 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1418 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1419     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1420     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1421 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1422     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1423 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1424     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1425 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1426 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1427 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1428     </note>
1429 swift 1.121
1430     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1431     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1432     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1433     </pre>
1434    
1435 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1436 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1437     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1438     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1439     newer alternatives.
1440     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1441     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1442     </p>
1443 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1444 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1445     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1446     <comment>or</comment>
1447     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1448     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1449     <comment>or</comment>
1450     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1451     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1452     <comment>or</comment>
1453     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1454     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1455 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1456 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1457 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1458     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1459     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1460     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1461     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1462     in real time, as expected),
1463     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1464 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1465     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1466 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1467 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1468     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1469     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1470     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1471     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1472     </pre>
1473 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1474     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1475 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1476     </p>
1477 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1478 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1479 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1480 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1481     <comment>or</comment>
1482     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1483 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1484 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1485     <comment>or</comment>
1486     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1487 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1488     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1489     </pre>
1490     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1491 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1492 zhen 1.6 </p>
1493 zhen 1.16 </body>
1494     </section>
1495     </chapter>
1496     <chapter>
1497 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1498 zhen 1.16 <section>
1499     <body>
1500     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1501 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1502 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1503 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1504 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1505 zhen 1.40
1506     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1507     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1508     X support later.
1509     </note>
1510 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1511 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1512     for the first time.
1513     </note>
1514 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1515 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1516 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1517 zhen 1.6 </p>
1518 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1519 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1520 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1521 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1522 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1523 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1524 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1525 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1526 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1527 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1528 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1529 zhen 1.6 </p>
1530 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1531 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1532 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1533 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1534 zhen 1.10 to work.
1535     </warn>
1536 zhen 1.16 </body>
1537     </section>
1538     </chapter>
1539     <chapter>
1540 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1541 zhen 1.16 <section>
1542     <body>
1543     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1544 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1545 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1546     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1547     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1548     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1549     </p>
1550 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1551     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1552 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1553     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1554 drobbins 1.1 #
1555 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1556 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1557 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1558 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1559    
1560 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1561 drobbins 1.1
1562     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1563     </comment>
1564     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1565     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1566     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1567     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1568     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1569 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1570 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1571 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1572     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1573     </warn>
1574 zhen 1.16 </body>
1575     </section>
1576     </chapter>
1577     <chapter>
1578 swift 1.134 <title>User Management</title>
1579 zhen 1.16 <section>
1580 swift 1.134 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1581 zhen 1.16 <body>
1582     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1583 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1584 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1585 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1586 swift 1.134 </body>
1587     </section>
1588     <section>
1589     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1590     <body>
1591     <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1592     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1593     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1594     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1595 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1596 swift 1.134 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1597     <p>Ofcourse substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1598     <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1599     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1600     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1601 zhen 1.16 </body>
1602     </section>
1603     </chapter>
1604     <chapter>
1605 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1606 zhen 1.16 <section>
1607     <body>
1608 swift 1.121 <p>
1609     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1610     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1611     </p>
1612 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1613 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1614     </pre>
1615     <p>
1616     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1617     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1618     </p>
1619     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1620     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1621     </pre>
1622     <p>
1623     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1624     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1625     </p>
1626     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1627     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1628 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1629 zhen 1.16 </body>
1630     </section>
1631     </chapter>
1632     <chapter>
1633 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1634 zhen 1.16 <section>
1635     <body>
1636 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1637 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1638     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1639 zhen 1.6 </p>
1640 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1641 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
1642     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1643     192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1644 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1645 zhen 1.16 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to set <i>localhost</i> to your machine's
1646 zhen 1.6 actual hostname. This will help GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1647     </note>
1648 zhen 1.16 </body>
1649     </section>
1650     </chapter>
1651     <chapter>
1652     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1653     <section>
1654     <body>
1655     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1656 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1657     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1658     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1659     it as a module:
1660     </p>
1661 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1662     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1663 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1664 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1665 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1666 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1667 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1668 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1669     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1670 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1671 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1672     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1673 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1674 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1675     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1676     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1677 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1678 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1679 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1680 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1681 zhen 1.6 </p>
1682 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1683 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1684     need pcmcia
1685     }
1686 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1687 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1688 zhen 1.10 </p>
1689 zhen 1.16 </body>
1690     </section>
1691     </chapter>
1692     <chapter>
1693     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1694     <section>
1695     <body>
1696 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1697 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1698 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1699 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1700 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1701     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1702     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1703     possibilities).
1704     </p>
1705 zhen 1.16 </body>
1706     </section>
1707     </chapter>
1708     <chapter>
1709 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1710 zhen 1.49 <section>
1711     <title>Notes</title>
1712     <body>
1713     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1714     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1715     LILO as their bootloaders.
1716     </p>
1717     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1718 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1719 zhen 1.49 </p>
1720 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1721     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1722 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1723     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1724 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1725 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1726 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1727 swift 1.117 <p>
1728     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1729     </p>
1730     <table>
1731     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1732     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1733     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1734 swift 1.120 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1735 swift 1.117 </table>
1736 zhen 1.49 </body>
1737     </section>
1738 zhen 1.16 <section>
1739 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1740 zhen 1.16 <body>
1741     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1742 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1743     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1744 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1745 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1746     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1747     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1748     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1749 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1750 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1751    
1752     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1753     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1754     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1755     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1756 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1757 zhen 1.6 </p>
1758 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1759 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1760 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1761 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1762 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1763 zhen 1.16 <impo>If you are using hardware RAID this part will not work at
1764 zhen 1.6 this time.
1765     Skip to the section on making your <path>grub.conf</path>. After that we will complete the
1766     grub setup for RAID controllers
1767     </impo>
1768 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1769 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1770     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1771     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1772     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1773     I want to type are:
1774     </p>
1775 zhen 1.68
1776 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1777 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1778     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1779 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1780 zhen 1.68
1781 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1782 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1783 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1784     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1785 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1786 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1787 zhen 1.68
1788 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1789 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1790     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1791     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1792     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1793     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1794     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1795     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1796     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1797 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1798 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1799 zhen 1.52 </p>
1800 zhen 1.6
1801     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1802     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1803     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1804     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1805     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1806     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1807    
1808     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1809     to make the right choice.
1810     </note>
1811    
1812 zhen 1.52 <p>
1813 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1814     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1815 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1816 zhen 1.6 </p>
1817 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1818 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1819     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1820 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1821 zhen 1.6 </p>
1822 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1823 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1824     timeout 30
1825     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1826    
1827     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1828     root (hd0,0)
1829 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1830 drobbins 1.1
1831 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1832 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1833     root (hd0,0)
1834 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1835 drobbins 1.1
1836     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1837 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1838 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1839 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1840 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1841 zhen 1.16 <note>
1842 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1843     </note>
1844 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1845 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1846 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1847     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1848 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1849 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1850 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1851     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1852     </p>
1853 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1854 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1855     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1856     loader.
1857 zhware 1.9 </note>
1858 zhen 1.16 <note>
1859 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1860 zhen 1.6 </note>
1861 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1862 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1863     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1864     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1865     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1866     </p>
1867 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1868 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1869     devfs is enabled by default.
1870     </note>
1871 zhen 1.16 </body>
1872     </section>
1873 zhen 1.49 <section>
1874     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1875 zhen 1.16 <body>
1876 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1877 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1878 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1879 zhen 1.16 </p>
1880     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1881     </p>
1882 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1883 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1884 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1885 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1886 zhen 1.16 </p>
1887 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1888 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1889     map=/boot/map
1890     install=/boot/boot.b
1891     prompt
1892     timeout=50
1893     lba32
1894     default=linux
1895    
1896 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1897 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1898     read-only
1899 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1900 zhen 1.16
1901     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1902     other=/dev/hda1
1903     label=dos
1904 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1905 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1906 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1907     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1908     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1909     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1910     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1911 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1912 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1913     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1914     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1915     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1916     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1917     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1918     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1919     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1920     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1921 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1922 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1923     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1924     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1925     altered during the boot process. </li>
1926 peesh 1.128 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1927 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1928 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1929     into the MBR:
1930     </p>
1931 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1932 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1933 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1934 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1935     </p>
1936     </body>
1937     </section>
1938     </chapter>
1939     <chapter>
1940 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1941 zhen 1.16 <section>
1942     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1943     <body>
1944 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1945 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1946 swift 1.119 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If you are using some kinds of hardware RAID, or your hardware doesn't let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment, you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot
1947     disk. With these types of hardware RAID or systems,
1948 drobbins 1.21 if you try to install grub from your chrooted shell it will fail. If you are in this camp,
1949     make a GRUB
1950     boot disk, and when you reboot the first time you can install GRUB
1951 zhen 1.6 to the MBR. Make your
1952 jhhudso 1.75 bootdisks like this:
1953 zhen 1.6 </p>
1954 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1955 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1956     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1957 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1958 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1959 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1960 zhen 1.16 </body>
1961     </section>
1962     <section>
1963     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1964     <body>
1965     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1966     </p>
1967 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
1968 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1969     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1970 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1971 zhen 1.16 </body>
1972     </section>
1973     </chapter>
1974     <chapter>
1975     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1976     <section>
1977     <body>
1978 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1979    
1980 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1981     and reboot the system:
1982     </p>
1983 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1984 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1985     # <c>exit</c>
1986 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1987 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1988     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1989     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1990     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1991     # <c>reboot</c>
1992 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1993 zhen 1.16 <note>
1994 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1995     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1996     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1997     </note>
1998 zhen 1.16 <impo>Remember if you are running hardware RAID, you must
1999 zhen 1.6 use the bootdisk for the first reboot.
2000     then go back and install grub the way everyone else did the first
2001 drobbins 1.21 time. You are done -- congratulations!</impo>
2002 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
2003 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2004 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2005 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
2006     that will
2007     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
2008     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2009     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
2010 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
2011 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
2012 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
2013 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
2014     </p>
2015 zhen 1.16 </body>
2016     </section>
2017     </chapter>
2018     <chapter>
2019     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2020     <section>
2021     <body>
2022     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
2023 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
2024     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
2025     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2026     </p>
2027 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2028 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2029 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2030 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2031     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2032 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2033 zhen 1.6 </p>
2034 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2035     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2036     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2037     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2038     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2039     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2040     </ul>
2041     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2042 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2043     </p>
2044 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2045     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2046 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2047 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2048     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2049     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2050     </ul>
2051     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2052 zhen 1.6 </p>
2053 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2054 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2055     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2056 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2057 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2058 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2059     to see additional configuration options.
2060     </p>
2061 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2062 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2063     </p>
2064 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2065     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2066     </pre>
2067 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2068 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2069 zhen 1.16 </body>
2070     </section>
2071     </chapter>
2072 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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