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Sat Jul 5 14:29:04 2003 UTC (15 years ago) by swift
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Luke Worth said he found the phraze "it might be helpful to set localhost to your machine's actual hostname." unclear. I've substituted it with "it might be helpful to substite localhost with your machine's actual hostname.".

Also, Brian Downey told us how easy it was to install GRUB with hardware RAID (circumventing the current bootdisk-requisite), as he described in bug http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=23055.

1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.136 <date>4th of July 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 swift 1.131 <uri>ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/x86</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 peesh 1.127 <note>The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be the most up-to-date. Always refer to
112 klieber 1.129 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> for the most up-to-date
113 peesh 1.127 installation instructions.
114     </note>
115 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
116     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
117 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
118     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
119 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
120 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
121 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
122 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
123 zhen 1.26 <table>
124 zhen 1.16 <tr>
125     <th>stage tarball</th>
126     <th>requirements for installation</th>
127     </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>1</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>2</ti>
134 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
135 zhen 1.16 </tr>
136     <tr>
137     <ti>3</ti>
138     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
139     </tr>
140     </table>
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     </chapter>
144     <chapter>
145     <title>Booting</title>
146     <section>
147     <body>
148 swift 1.134 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
149     available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
150     keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
151 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
152 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
153 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
155     <table>
156     <tr>
157     <th>Available kernels.</th>
158     <th>description</th>
159     </tr>
161     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
162     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
163 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
164 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
165     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
166     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
167     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
168     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
170     </table>
172     <p>
173     <table>
174     <tr>
175     <th>Available boot options.</th>
176     <th>description</th>
177     </tr>
178 antifa 1.106
179     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
180     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
181 antifa 1.105
182 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
183     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
185     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
186     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
188     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
189     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
191 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
192     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
194 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
195     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
197 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
198     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
200     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
201     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
203 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
204     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
205 antifa 1.105
206     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
207     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
209 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
210     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
211 antifa 1.105
212     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
213     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
215     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
216     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
218     </table></p>
219 drobbins 1.70
220 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
221     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
222     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
223     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
224     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
225 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
226 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
227 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
228 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
229 zhen 1.6 </p>
230 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
231 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
232 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
233 zhen 1.6 </p>
234 zhen 1.16 </body>
235     </section>
236     </chapter>
237     <chapter>
238     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
239     <section>
240     <body>
241     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
242 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
243 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
244     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
245     type:
246     </p>
247 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
248 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
249 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
250 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
251 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
252 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
253 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
254     </p>
255 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
256 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
257 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
258 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
259 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
260 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
261 zhen 1.6 <note>
262 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
263 zhen 1.52 </note>
264 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you are using hardware RAID, you will need to load the
265 zhen 1.6 ATA-RAID modules for your RAID controller.
266     </p>
267 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading RAID Modules">
268 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe ataraid</c>
269     # <c>modprobe pdcraid</c>
270 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Promise Raid Controller)</comment>
271 zhen 1.33 # <c>modprobe hptraid</c>
272 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(Highpoint Raid Controller)</comment>
273     </pre>
274 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
275 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
276 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
277     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
278 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
279 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
280     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
281     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
282     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
283     </pre>
284 zhen 1.16 </body>
285     </section>
286     </chapter>
287 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
288 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
289     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
290     <section>
291     <body>
292 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
293 zhen 1.6 </p>
294 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
295 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
296 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
297 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
298     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
299     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
300 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
301 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
302 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
303 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
304     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
305 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
306 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
307 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
308     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
309 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
310 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
311 zhen 1.16 </body>
312     </section>
313     </chapter>
314 drobbins 1.70 -->
315 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
316     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
317 drobbins 1.70 <section>
318     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
319     <body>
320 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
321 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
322     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
323     among others.</p>
325     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
326     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
327     </p>
328 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
329 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
330     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
331     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
333     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
334     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
335     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
336     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
337     Interrupt:11
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
340     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
341     resolution is working correctly, etc.
342     </p>
343 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
344 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
345 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
346 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
347     </body>
348     </section>
349 zhen 1.16 <section>
350     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
351     <body>
352 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
353 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
354 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
355     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
356     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
357 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
358 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
359     # <c> adsl-start </c>
360 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
361 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
362 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
363     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
364 zhen 1.16 </body>
365     </section>
366     <section>
367     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
368     <body>
369 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
370 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
371 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
372 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
373 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
374 zhen 1.16 </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
378     <body>
379     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
380     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
381 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
382     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
383     </pre>
384 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
385 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
386     </note>
387 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
388 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
389 zhen 1.16 </body>
390     </section>
391     <section>
392     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
393     <body>
394     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
395 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
397     <table>
398     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
399     <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
400     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti></ti></tr>
401     <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
402 swift 1.118 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
403 swift 1.117 </table>
405     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
406 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
407     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
408     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
409     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
410     </p>
411 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
412 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
413 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</c>
414 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
415 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
416 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
417     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
418     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
419     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
420 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
421 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
422 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
423     nameserver
424     nameserver
425 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
426 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
427 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
428 zhen 1.16 </body>
429     </section>
430     <section>
431     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
432     <body>
433 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
434 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
435 zhen 1.6 </p>
436 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
437 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
438 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
439 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
440     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
441     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
442     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
443 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
444 zhen 1.16 </body>
445     </section>
446 drobbins 1.70 <section>
447 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
448     <body>
449 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
450 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
451 zhen 1.16 </body>
452     </section>
453 peesh 1.104 <section>
454     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
455     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
456     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
457     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
458     </body>
459     </section>
460 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
461     <chapter>
462 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
463     <section>
464     <body>
465     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
466     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
467     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
468     # <c>date</c>
469     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
470     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
471     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
472     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
473     </pre>
474     </body>
475     </section>
476     </chapter>
477     <chapter>
478 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
479 zhen 1.16 <section>
480 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
481 zhen 1.16 <body>
482 drobbins 1.86 <p>
483     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
484 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
485 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
486     install.
487     </p>
488     <p>
489     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
490     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
491     </p>
492     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
493     /dev/hda
494     </pre>
496     <p>
497     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
498     </p>
500     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
501     /dev/sda
502     </pre>
504     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
505     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
506     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
507     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
508     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
509     </body>
510     </section>
511     <section>
512     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
513     <body>
514     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
515     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
516     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
518     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
519     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
520     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
521     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
522 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
523 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
524     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
525     up the full disk. </p>
527     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
528     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
530     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
531 swift 1.123 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> becuase it's
532     more powerfull and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
533 drobbins 1.86
534     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
535     # fdisk /dev/hda
536     </pre>
537     <p>
538     or
539     </p>
540     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
541     # fdisk /dev/sda
542     </pre>
544     <impo>
545     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
546     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
547     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
548     lost.</b>
549     </impo>
551     <p>
552     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
553     </p>
555     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
556     Command (m for help):
557     </pre>
560     <p>
561     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
562     </p>
564     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
565     Command (m for help): p
567     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
568     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
570     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
571     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
572     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
573     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
574     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
575     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
576     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
577     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
578     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
579     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
581     Command (m for help):
582     </pre>
584     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
585     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
586     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
588     <p>
589     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
590     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
591     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
592     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
593     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
594     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
595     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
596     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
597     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
598     </p>
600     <p>
601     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
602     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
604     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
605     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
606 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
607 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
608     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
610     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
611     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
612     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
613 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
614     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
615     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
616 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
617 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
618 drobbins 1.86 </p>
619     </body>
620     </section>
621     <section>
622     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
623     <body>
625 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
626 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
627     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
628     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
629     look like this: </p>
631     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
632     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
633     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
634     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
636     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
637     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
638     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
639     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
641     Command (m for help):
642     </pre>
644     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
645     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
646     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
647     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
648     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
649     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
650     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
651 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
652     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
653 drobbins 1.86
654 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
655     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
656     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
657     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
658     cylinder 1024.
659     </p>
661 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
662     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
663     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
664 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
665     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
666 drobbins 1.86
667     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
668     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
669     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
670     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
673     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
674     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
675     Linux:</p>
677     <table>
678     <tr>
679     <th>Partition</th>
680     <th>Size</th>
681     <th>Type</th>
682     <th>example device</th>
683     </tr>
684     <tr>
685     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
686 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
687 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
688 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
689     </tr>
690     <tr>
691     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
692     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
693     in your system.</ti>
694     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
695     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
696     </tr>
697     <tr>
698     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
699     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
700     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
701     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
702     </tr>
703     </table>
705     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
706 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
707 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
708     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
709     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
710     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
712     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
713     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
714     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
715     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
716     from the wrong drive.</impo>
718     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
719     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
720     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
722     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
723     Command (m for help): d
724     Partition number (1-4): 1
725     </pre>
726 zhen 1.54
727 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
728     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
729     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
730     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
731     deleted.</p>
732     <!-- NOTE: THis is not sufficient documentation to cover ATA Raid and I just
733     find it confusing, so I'm commenting it out (drobbins)
734     <note>If you are using RAID your partitions will be a little different. You
735 jhhudso 1.75 will have the partitions like this: <path>/dev/ataraid/discX/partY</path> X are
736 drobbins 1.70 the arrays you have made, so if you only have made 1 array, then it will be
737     disc0.Y is the partition number as in <path>/dev/hdaY</path> </note>
738 drobbins 1.86 -->
739     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
740     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
741     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
742     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
744     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
745     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
746     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
747     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
749     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
751     Command (m for help):
752     </pre>
754     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
755     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
756     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
757     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
758 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
759     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
761     <note>
762     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
763     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
764     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
765     for the last cylinder.
766     </note>
767 drobbins 1.86
768     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
769     Command (m for help): n
770     Command action
771     e extended
772     p primary partition (1-4)
773     p
774     Partition number (1-4): 1
775     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
776     Using default value 1
777 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
778 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
780     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
782     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
783     Command (m for help): p
785     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
786     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
787     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
789     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
790     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
791     </pre>
793     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
794     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
795     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
796     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
797     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
798 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
799     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
800 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
801     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
803     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
804     Command (m for help): p
806     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
807     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
808     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
810     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
811     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
812     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
813     </pre>
815     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
816     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
817 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
818 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
819     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
820     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
821     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
822     this:</p>
824     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
825     Command (m for help): p
827     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
828     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
829     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
831     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
832     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
833     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
834     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
835     </pre>
837     <p>
838     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
839     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
840     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
841     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
842     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
843     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
844     install.
845     </p>
847     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
848     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
849     </body>
850     </section>
851     <section>
852     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
853     <body>
854     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
855     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
856     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
857     </p>
859     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
860     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
861     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
863     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
864     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
865     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
866     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
867     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
868     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
869     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
871     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
872     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
873     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
874 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
875     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
876     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
877     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
878     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
879     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
880 drobbins 1.86
881     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
882     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
883     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
884     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
885     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
886     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
887     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
888     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
889     non-boot partitions.</p>
891     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
892     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
893     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
894     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
895     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
896     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
897     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
898     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
900     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
901     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
902     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
903     point.</p>
905     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
906     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
907     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
908     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
910     <!-- Corner case, confusing
911 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
912 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
913 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
914     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
915 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
916 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
917 zhen 1.6 </p>
918 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
919     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
920     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
921     </pre>
922     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
923 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
924     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
925     </warn>
926 drobbins 1.86 -->
928     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
929     all our partitions for use:</p>
931     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
932     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
933     # mkswap /dev/hda2
934     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
935     </pre>
937 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
938     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
939     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
940     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
941     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
942     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
944     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
945     during the installation process:</p>
946 drobbins 1.86
947 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
948 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
949 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
950 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
951 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
952 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
953 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
954 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
955 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
956 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
957 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
958     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
959     </pre>
960     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
961     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
962 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
963 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
964     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
965     </pre>
966 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
967 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
968 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
969 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
970     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
971     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
972     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
973     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
974     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
975     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
976     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
977 drobbins 1.86
978 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
979 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
980 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
981 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
982 zhen 1.16 </body>
983     </section>
984     </chapter>
985     <chapter>
986     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
987     <section>
988     <body>
989 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
990 zhen 1.6 provides later:
991     </p>
992 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
993 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
994 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
995 drobbins 1.86
996 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
997 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
998 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
999     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
1000     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1001     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1002     </p>
1004     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1005 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1006 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1007 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1008     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1009     not sure what to do.
1010 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1012 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1013 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1014     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1015     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1016 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1017 drobbins 1.86
1018     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1019 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1020 zhen 1.16 </body>
1021     </section>
1022     </chapter>
1023     <chapter>
1024 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1025 zhen 1.16 <section>
1026 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1027 zhen 1.16 <body>
1028 zhen 1.55
1029 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1030     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1031     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1033     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1034 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1035 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1036     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1037     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1038     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1039     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1040     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1042     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1043     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1044     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1045     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1046     tarball" section.</p>
1048 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1049 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1050 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1051 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1052 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1053     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1054     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1055     Save the file and quit the browser
1057     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1058     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1059 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1060 zhen 1.16 </body>
1061     </section>
1062     <section>
1063 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1064 zhen 1.16 <body>
1065 drobbins 1.86
1066     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1067     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1068     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1069     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1070     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1072     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1073     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1075 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1076 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1077 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1078     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1079     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1080 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1081 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1083     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1084 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1085 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1086     </section>
1087     <section>
1088     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1089     <body>
1090     <p>
1091     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1092     Gentoo Linux system.
1093     </p>
1094 swift 1.112
1095     <note>
1096     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1097 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1098 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1099     the problem.
1100     </note>
1101 drobbins 1.86
1102 swift 1.136 <note>
1103     Hardware RAID users who want to use GRUB should run <c>mount -o bind /dev
1104     /mnt/gentoo/dev</c> before chrooting.
1105     </note>
1107 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1108 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1109 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1110     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1111     # <c>env-update</c>
1112     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1113     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1114 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1115     </pre>
1116 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1117     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1118     </p>
1119 zhen 1.16 </body>
1120     </section>
1121     </chapter>
1122     <chapter>
1123 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1124 zhen 1.16 <section>
1125     <body>
1126 swift 1.133
1127     <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1129 swift 1.132 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1131     <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1132     <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1133     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1134     <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1135     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1136     </pre>
1137 swift 1.133
1138     -->
1139 swift 1.132
1140 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1141     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1142     The Portage tree
1143 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1144 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1145 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1147 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1148 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1149 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1150 zhen 1.60
1151 zhen 1.16 </body>
1152     </section>
1153     </chapter>
1154     <chapter>
1155     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1156     <section>
1157     <body>
1158 drobbins 1.86
1159     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1160     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1161     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1162     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1163     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1164     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1165     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1166     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1167     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1168     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1169     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1171     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1172     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1173     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1174     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1175     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1176     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1177     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1178     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1179     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1180 drobbins 1.70
1181 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1182     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1183     a simple visual editor.
1184     </p>
1185 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1186     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1187 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1188 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1189 zhen 1.16 <note>
1190 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1191 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1192 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1193 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1194     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1195 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1196 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1197 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1198     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1199 zhen 1.6 </note>
1200 zhen 1.16 </body>
1201     </section>
1202     </chapter>
1203     <chapter>
1204 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1205 zhen 1.16 <section>
1206     <body>
1207 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1208 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1209 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1210 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1211     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1212 zhen 1.18 </p>
1213 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1214 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1215 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1216     as follows:</p>
1217 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1218 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1219     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1220 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1221 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1222     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1223 zhen 1.16 <note>
1224 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1225     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1226     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1227     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1228     </note>
1229 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1230 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1231 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1232 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1233 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1234 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1235 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1236 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1237 zhen 1.6 </p>
1238 zhen 1.16 </body>
1239     </section>
1240     </chapter>
1241     <chapter>
1242 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1243 zhen 1.16 <section>
1244     <body>
1245 drobbins 1.86
1246     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1247     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1248     </note>
1250     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1251 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1252 zhen 1.6 </p>
1253 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1254     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1255     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1256     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1258 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1259 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1260 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1261 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1262 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1263 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1264 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1265     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1266 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1267 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1268     </p>
1269 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1270     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1271     your time zone" section.
1272 zhen 1.18 </p>
1273     </body>
1274     </section>
1275     </chapter>
1276     <chapter>
1277     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1278     <section>
1279     <body>
1280 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1281     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1282 drobbins 1.108
1283 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1284     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1285 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1286 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1287     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1288     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1289     In any case, feel free to skip these
1290     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1291     </p>
1292 zhen 1.57
1293 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1294 swift 1.117 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1295 drobbins 1.86 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1296     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1297     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1298     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1299     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1300 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1301 seemant 1.79 </body>
1302     </section>
1303     </chapter>
1304     <chapter>
1305 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1306 seemant 1.79 <section>
1307     <body>
1308 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1309     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1310     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1311     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1312     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1313 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1314 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1315 zhen 1.16 </body>
1316     </section>
1317     </chapter>
1318     <chapter>
1319 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1320 zhen 1.16 <section>
1321     <body>
1322     <note>
1323 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1324     </note>
1325 swift 1.122 <p>You now need to merge the Linux kernel sources.
1326     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1327     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1328     which kernel sources to choose, we advise the <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
1329     <c>vanilla-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
1330     <c>xfs-sources</c>. Btw, Gentoo's LiveCD uses the <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1331 zhen 1.6 </p>
1332 swift 1.122 <warn>
1333 drobbins 1.21 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1334     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1335 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1336 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1337 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1338 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1339 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1340 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1341 zhen 1.6 </p>
1342 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1343 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1344 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1345     to the correct one before proceeding.
1346     </p>
1347 swift 1.122 <note>
1348     If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1349     your configuration on it, you should execute
1350     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1351     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1352     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1353     </note>
1354 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1355 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1356     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1357 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1358 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1359 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1360 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1361     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1362     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1363     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1364     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1365     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1366     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1367     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1368     ...
1370     File systems ---&gt;
1371     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1372     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1373     ...
1374     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1375     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1376     ...
1377     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1378     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1379     ...
1380     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1381     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1382     ...
1383     [*] /proc file system support
1384     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1385     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1386     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1387     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1388     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1389     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1390     ...
1391     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1392     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1393     ...
1394     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1395     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1396     </pre>
1397 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using hardware RAID you will need to enable a couple more options in the kernel:
1398 zhen 1.6 For Highpoint RAID controllers select hpt366 chipset support, support for IDE RAID controllers and Highpoint
1399     370 software RAID.For Promise RAID controllers select PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67|68|69|70} support,
1400     support for IDE RAID
1401     controllers and Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
1402     </p>
1403 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1404 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1405 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1406     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1407     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1408 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1409     </p>
1410 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1411     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1412     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1413     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1414     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1415     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1416     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1417 zhen 1.6 </p>
1418 peesh 1.130 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1419 zhen 1.16 <note>
1420 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1421     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1422 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1423 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1424     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1425     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1426 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1427     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1428 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1429     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1430 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1431 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1432 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1433     </note>
1434 swift 1.121
1435     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1436     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1437     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1438     </pre>
1440 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1441 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1442     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1443     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1444     newer alternatives.
1445     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1446     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1447     </p>
1448 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1449 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1450     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1451     <comment>or</comment>
1452     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1453     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1454     <comment>or</comment>
1455     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1456     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1457     <comment>or</comment>
1458     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1459     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1460 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1461 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1462 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1463     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1464     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1465     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1466     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1467     in real time, as expected),
1468     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1469 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1470     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1471 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1472 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1473     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1474     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1475     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1476     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1477     </pre>
1478 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1479     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1480 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1481     </p>
1482 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1483 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1484 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1485 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1486     <comment>or</comment>
1487     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1488 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1489 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1490     <comment>or</comment>
1491     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1492 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1493     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1494     </pre>
1495     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1496 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1497 zhen 1.6 </p>
1498 zhen 1.16 </body>
1499     </section>
1500     </chapter>
1501     <chapter>
1502 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1503 zhen 1.16 <section>
1504     <body>
1505     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1506 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1507 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1508 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1509 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1510 zhen 1.40
1511     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1512     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1513     X support later.
1514     </note>
1515 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1516 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1517     for the first time.
1518     </note>
1519 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1520 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1521 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1522 zhen 1.6 </p>
1523 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1524 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1525 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1526 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1527 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1528 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1529 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1530 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1531 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1532 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1533 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1534 zhen 1.6 </p>
1535 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1536 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1537 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1538 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1539 zhen 1.10 to work.
1540     </warn>
1541 zhen 1.16 </body>
1542     </section>
1543     </chapter>
1544     <chapter>
1545 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1546 zhen 1.16 <section>
1547     <body>
1548     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1549 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1550 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1551     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1552     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1553     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1554     </p>
1555 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1556     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1557 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1558     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1559 drobbins 1.1 #
1560 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1561 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1562 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1563 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1565 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1566 drobbins 1.1
1567     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1568     </comment>
1569     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1570     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1571     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1572     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1573     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1574 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1575 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1576 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1577     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1578     </warn>
1579 zhen 1.16 </body>
1580     </section>
1581     </chapter>
1582     <chapter>
1583 swift 1.134 <title>User Management</title>
1584 zhen 1.16 <section>
1585 swift 1.134 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1586 zhen 1.16 <body>
1587     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1588 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1589 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1590 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1591 swift 1.134 </body>
1592     </section>
1593     <section>
1594     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1595     <body>
1596     <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1597     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1598     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1599     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1600 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1601 swift 1.134 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1602     <p>Ofcourse substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1603     <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1604     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1605     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1606 zhen 1.16 </body>
1607     </section>
1608     </chapter>
1609     <chapter>
1610 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1611 zhen 1.16 <section>
1612     <body>
1613 swift 1.121 <p>
1614     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1615     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1616     </p>
1617 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1618 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1619     </pre>
1620     <p>
1621     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1622     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1623     </p>
1624     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1625     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1626     </pre>
1627     <p>
1628     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1629     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1630     </p>
1631     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1632     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1633 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1634 zhen 1.16 </body>
1635     </section>
1636     </chapter>
1637     <chapter>
1638 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1639 zhen 1.16 <section>
1640     <body>
1641 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1642 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1643     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1644 zhen 1.6 </p>
1645 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1646 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1647     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1648 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1649 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1650 swift 1.136 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1651     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1652     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1653     </note>
1654 zhen 1.16 </body>
1655     </section>
1656     </chapter>
1657     <chapter>
1658     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1659     <section>
1660     <body>
1661     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1662 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1663     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1664     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1665     it as a module:
1666     </p>
1667 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1668     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1669 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1670 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1671 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1672 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1673 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1674 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1675     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1676 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1677 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1678     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1679 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1680 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1681     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1682     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1683 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1684 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1685 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1686 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1687 zhen 1.6 </p>
1688 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1689 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1690     need pcmcia
1691     }
1692 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1693 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1694 zhen 1.10 </p>
1695 zhen 1.16 </body>
1696     </section>
1697     </chapter>
1698     <chapter>
1699     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1700     <section>
1701     <body>
1702 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1703 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1704 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1705 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1706 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1707     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1708     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1709     possibilities).
1710     </p>
1711 zhen 1.16 </body>
1712     </section>
1713     </chapter>
1714     <chapter>
1715 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1716 zhen 1.49 <section>
1717     <title>Notes</title>
1718     <body>
1719     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1720     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1721     LILO as their bootloaders.
1722     </p>
1723     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1724 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1725 zhen 1.49 </p>
1726 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1727     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1728 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1729     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1730 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1731 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1732 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1733 swift 1.117 <p>
1734     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1735     </p>
1736     <table>
1737     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1738     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1739     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1740 swift 1.120 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1741 swift 1.117 </table>
1742 zhen 1.49 </body>
1743     </section>
1744 zhen 1.16 <section>
1745 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1746 zhen 1.16 <body>
1747     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1748 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1749     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1750 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1751 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1752     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1753     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1754     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1755 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1756 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1758     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1759     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1760     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1761     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1762 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1763 zhen 1.6 </p>
1764 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1765 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1766 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1767 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1768 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1769 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1770 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1771     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1772     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1773     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1774     I want to type are:
1775     </p>
1776 zhen 1.68
1777 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1778 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1779     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1780 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1781 zhen 1.68
1782 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1783 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1784 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1785     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1786 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1787 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1788 swift 1.136
1789     <p>
1790     Hardware RAID users will have to add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> to
1791     the <c>setup</c> command:
1792     </p>
1794     <pre caption = "GRUB on hardware RAID">
1795     grub&lt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
1796     grub&lt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
1797     grub&lt; <i>quit</i>
1798     </pre>
1800 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1801 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1802     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1803     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1804     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1805     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1806     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1807     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1808     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1809 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1810 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1811 zhen 1.52 </p>
1812 zhen 1.6
1813     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1814     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1815     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1816     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1817     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1818     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1820     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1821     to make the right choice.
1822     </note>
1824 zhen 1.52 <p>
1825 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1826     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1827 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1828 zhen 1.6 </p>
1829 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1830 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1831     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1832 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1833 zhen 1.6 </p>
1834 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1835 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1836     timeout 30
1837     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1839     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1840     root (hd0,0)
1841 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1842 drobbins 1.1
1843 jhhudso 1.81 <comment># Below is for setup using hardware RAID</comment>
1844 drobbins 1.1 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
1845     root (hd0,0)
1846 zhen 1.63 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
1847 drobbins 1.1
1848     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1849 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1850 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1851 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1852 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1853 zhen 1.16 <note>
1854 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1855     </note>
1856 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1857 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1858 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1859     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1860 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1861 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1862 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1863     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1864     </p>
1865 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1866 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1867     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1868     loader.
1869 zhware 1.9 </note>
1870 zhen 1.16 <note>
1871 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1872 zhen 1.6 </note>
1873 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1874 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1875     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1876     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1877     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1878     </p>
1879 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1880 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1881     devfs is enabled by default.
1882     </note>
1883 zhen 1.16 </body>
1884     </section>
1885 zhen 1.49 <section>
1886     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1887 zhen 1.16 <body>
1888 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1889 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1890 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1891 zhen 1.16 </p>
1892     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1893     </p>
1894 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1895 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1896 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1897 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1898 zhen 1.16 </p>
1899 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1900 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1901     map=/boot/map
1902     install=/boot/boot.b
1903     prompt
1904     timeout=50
1905     lba32
1906     default=linux
1908 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1909 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1910     read-only
1911 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1912 zhen 1.16
1913     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1914     other=/dev/hda1
1915     label=dos
1916 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1917 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1918 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1919     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1920     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1921     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1922     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1923 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1924 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1925     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1926     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1927     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1928     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1929     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1930     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1931     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1932     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1933 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1934 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1935     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1936     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1937     altered during the boot process. </li>
1938 peesh 1.128 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1939 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1940 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1941     into the MBR:
1942     </p>
1943 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1944 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1945 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1946 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1947     </p>
1948     </body>
1949     </section>
1950     </chapter>
1951     <chapter>
1952 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1953 zhen 1.16 <section>
1954     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1955     <body>
1956 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1957 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1958 swift 1.136 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
1959     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
1960     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
1961     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot
1962     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
1963     like this:
1964 zhen 1.6 </p>
1965 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1966 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1967     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1968 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1969 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1970 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1971 zhen 1.16 </body>
1972     </section>
1973     <section>
1974     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1975     <body>
1976     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1977     </p>
1978 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
1979 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1980     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1981 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1982 zhen 1.16 </body>
1983     </section>
1984     </chapter>
1985     <chapter>
1986     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1987     <section>
1988     <body>
1989 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1991 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1992     and reboot the system:
1993     </p>
1994 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1995 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1996     # <c>exit</c>
1997 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1998 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1999     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
2000     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
2001     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
2002     # <c>reboot</c>
2003 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2004 zhen 1.16 <note>
2005 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
2006     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
2007     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2008     </note>
2009 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
2010 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2011 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2012 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
2013     that will
2014     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
2015     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2016     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
2017 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
2018 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
2019 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
2020 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
2021     </p>
2022 zhen 1.16 </body>
2023     </section>
2024     </chapter>
2025     <chapter>
2026     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2027     <section>
2028     <body>
2029     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
2030 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
2031     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
2032     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2033     </p>
2034 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2035 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2036 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2037 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2038     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2039 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2040 zhen 1.6 </p>
2041 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2042     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2043     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2044     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2045     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2046     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2047     </ul>
2048     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2049 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2050     </p>
2051 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2052     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2053 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2054 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2055     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2056     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2057     </ul>
2058     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2059 zhen 1.6 </p>
2060 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2061 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2062     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2063 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2064 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2065 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2066     to see additional configuration options.
2067     </p>
2068 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2069 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2070     </p>
2071 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2072     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2073     </pre>
2074 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2075 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2076 zhen 1.16 </body>
2077     </section>
2078     </chapter>
2079 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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