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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 antifa 1.105 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4_rc4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">
10 jhhudso 1.76 <mail link="">Jerry Alexandratos</mail>
11 zhen 1.16 </author>
12     <author title="Ghost">
13     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
26     </author>
27 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
28     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
29     </author>
30 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
32     </author>
33 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
34     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
35     </author>
36     <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
38 drobbins 1.97 </author>
39 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
40     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
41 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
42 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
43     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
44     </author>
45 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
46     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
47     </author>
48 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
49 antifa 1.105 Linux 1.4_rc4. The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
50 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
51     scratch.
52     </abstract>
53 drobbins 1.109 <version>2.6.1</version>
54 swift 1.137 <date>7th of July 2003</date>
55 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
56     <title>About the Install</title>
57     <section>
58     <body>
59 zhen 1.26 <p>This new boot CD will boot from nearly any modern IDE CD-ROM drive, as well
60 jhhudso 1.71 as many SCSI CD-ROM drives, assuming that your CD-ROM and BIOS both support booting.
61 drobbins 1.21 Included on the CD-ROM is Linux support for IDE (and PCI IDE) (built-in to the
62     kernel) as well as support for all SCSI devices (available as modules.) In
63     addition, we provide modules for literally every kind of network card that
64     Linux supports, as well as tools to allow you to configure your network and
65 jhhudso 1.75 establish outbound (as well as inbound) <c>ssh</c> connections and to download
66 drobbins 1.21 files. </p>
67 zhen 1.26 <p>To install from the build CD, you will need to have a 486+ processor and
68 drobbins 1.69 ideally at least 64 Megabytes of RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully
69 drobbins 1.21 built with 64MB of RAM + 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully
70     slow under those conditions.)</p>
71 zhen 1.26 <p>Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot; tarball files. The
72 drobbins 1.21 one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself.
73 jhhudso 1.75 The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire
74 drobbins 1.21 system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system
75 jhhudso 1.75 from a bootstrapped state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system.</p>
76 drobbins 1.70 <p><b>So, should you choose to start from a stage1, stage2, or stage3 tarball?</b>
77     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings
78     and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This
79 jhhudso 1.75 makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. Stage2 installs
80     allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing this is fine if you are happy with
81 drobbins 1.70 the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball. Choosing to
82     go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that
83 jhhudso 1.75 your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you. Since major
84     releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's specifically optimized for various popular processors,
85     this may be sufficient for you. <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider
86 drobbins 1.70 using a stage3 tarball for installation.</b></p>
89 jhhudso 1.75 <p> So, how does one begin the install process? First, you will want to decide which one of our LiveCD ISO images to grab from
90 swift 1.131 <uri>ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/x86</uri> . Please consider using one of our mirrors to alleviate the heavy load from
91 peesh 1.100 the main server. A list of servers can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml</uri>.
92 drobbins 1.22 </p>
93 zhen 1.26 <p> The LiveCDs are full CD images that should be burned to a CDR or CD-RW
94 jhhudso 1.75 using CD burning software. Currently, we have two types of LiveCDs. The first
95     carries the &quot;gentoo-basic&quot; label, and is approximately 40MB in size, contains only the stage 1 tarball and lives
96 drobbins 1.24 in the <path>x86/livecd/</path> directory. This LiveCD is of minimal size to
97     allow for a initial quick download and contains a stage1 tarball that can be
98     found in <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/</path> after the CD has booted.</p>
99 seemant 1.78 <p>The second flavor of LiveCD we currently offer is labeled &quot;gentoo-3stages.&quot;
100 jhhudso 1.75 This CD is also found in <path>x86/livecd</path>. It
101 jhhudso 1.77 contains stage 1, 2 and 3 tarballs. Using this LiveCD, it will be possible
102 jhhudso 1.75 for you to install a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system very quickly.</p>
103 jhhudso 1.77 <p><b>What happened to i686, pentium3, athlon, athlon-mp stages, LiveCDs and GRP (Gentoo Reference Platform)?</b>
104 swift 1.107 Gentoo 1.4_rc4 is meant to be a minimal release candidate only. 1.4_final will contain all the usual x86 architectures and GRP. If you want to install stages optimized for these other x86 architectures or GRP, use the 1.4_rc2 documentation, which can be found at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-1.4_rc2-install.xml</uri>
105 jhhudso 1.77 </p>
106 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
107 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
108 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
109 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
110     </impo>
111 peesh 1.127 <note>The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be the most up-to-date. Always refer to
112 klieber 1.129 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> for the most up-to-date
113 peesh 1.127 installation instructions.
114     </note>
115 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
116     and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
117 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
118     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
119 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
120 seemant 1.78 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc) and boot it and have a
121 drobbins 1.21 fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. Depending on what stage of the build
122 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
123 zhen 1.26 <table>
124 zhen 1.16 <tr>
125     <th>stage tarball</th>
126     <th>requirements for installation</th>
127     </tr>
128     <tr>
129     <ti>1</ti>
130 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
131 zhen 1.16 </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <ti>2</ti>
134 jhhudso 1.75 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, emerge kernel sources, final configuration</ti>
135 zhen 1.16 </tr>
136     <tr>
137     <ti>3</ti>
138     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, final configuration</ti>
139     </tr>
140     </table>
141 swift 1.137 <note>Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about
142     ATA RAID on the bottom of this document before proceeding.
143     </note>
144 zhen 1.16 </body>
145     </section>
146     </chapter>
147     <chapter>
148     <title>Booting</title>
149     <section>
150     <body>
151 swift 1.134 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
152     available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
153     keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
154 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Start by booting the LiveCD. You should see a fancy boot screen
155 drobbins 1.21 with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process,
156 antifa 1.105 or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>. Consult the following table for a list of available kernels and options or press F2 to view the help screen.</p>
158     <table>
159     <tr>
160     <th>Available kernels.</th>
161     <th>description</th>
162     </tr>
164     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>basic gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
165     <tr><ti>800</ti><ti>800x600 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
166 swift 1.107 <tr><ti>1024</ti><ti>1024x768 framebuffer mode (default)</ti></tr>
167 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>1280</ti><ti>1280x1024 framebuffer mode</ti></tr>
168     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
169     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
170     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
171     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
173     </table>
175     <p>
176     <table>
177     <tr>
178     <th>Available boot options.</th>
179     <th>description</th>
180     </tr>
181 antifa 1.106
182     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
183     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
184 antifa 1.105
185 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
186     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
188     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
189     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
191     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
192     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
194 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
195     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
197 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
198     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
200 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
201     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
203     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
204     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
206 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
207     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
208 antifa 1.105
209     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
210     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
212 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
213     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
214 antifa 1.105
215     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
216     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
218     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
219     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
221     </table></p>
222 drobbins 1.70
223 jhhudso 1.75 <p> Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with the standard kernel
224     booting output, kernel and initrd messages, followed by the normal Gentoo
225     Linux boot sequence. You will be automatically logged in as
226     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot; and the root password will be set to a random string
227     for security purposes. You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
228 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
229 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
230 peesh 1.110 Alt-F1. At this point you should set the root password, type <c>passwd</c> and
231 jhhudso 1.75 follow the prompts.
232 zhen 1.6 </p>
233 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
234 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
235 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
236 zhen 1.6 </p>
237 zhen 1.16 </body>
238     </section>
239     </chapter>
240     <chapter>
241     <title>Load Kernel Modules</title>
242     <section>
243     <body>
244     <p>If the PCI autodetection missed some of your hardware, you
245 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
246 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
247     /lib/modules/*/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
248     type:
249     </p>
250 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
251 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
252 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
254 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
255 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
256 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
257     </p>
258 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
259 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
260 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
261 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
262 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
263 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
264 zhen 1.6 <note>
265 drobbins 1.21 Support for a SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
266 zhen 1.52 </note>
267 zhen 1.16 <p>The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA on your disks, but if it did not,
268 zhen 1.6 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives. </p>
269 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
270     <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
271 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
272 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
273     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
274     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
275     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
276     </pre>
277 zhen 1.16 </body>
278     </section>
279     </chapter>
280 drobbins 1.70 <!-- THIS SECTION SHOULD BE DEPRECATED WITH HOTPLUG ENABLED IN 1.4_rc3 (drobbins)
281 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
282     <title>Loading PCMCIA Kernel Modules</title>
283     <section>
284     <body>
285 drobbins 1.70 <p>If you have a PCMCIA network card, you will need to perform a few extra steps.
286 zhen 1.6 </p>
287 zhen 1.16 <warn>To avoid problems with <c>cardmgr</c>, you <e>must</e> run it <e>before</e> you enter the chroot
288 zhen 1.6 portion of the install. </warn>
289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading PCMCIA Modules">
290 zhen 1.33 # <i>modprobe pcmcia_core</i>
291     # <i>modprobe i82365</i>
292     # <i>modprobe ds</i>
293 drobbins 1.1 # <i>cardmgr -f</i>
294 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
295 drobbins 1.21 <p>As <c>cardmgr</c> detects which hardware is present, your speaker should emit a
296 jhhudso 1.75 few reassuring beeps, and your PCMCIA network card should be active. You can
297     of course insert the PCMCIA card after loading <c>cardmgr</c> too, if that is
298 zhen 1.6 preferable. (Technically, you need not run
299 drobbins 1.21 <c>cardmgr</c> if you know exactly which module your PCMCIA card requires.
300 zhen 1.6 But if you don't, loading all PCMCIA modules and see which sticks won't work,
301     as all PCMCIA modules load obligingly and hang around for a PCMCIA card to
302 drobbins 1.21 drop by. <c>cardmgr</c> will also unload the module(s) for any card when you
303 zhen 1.6 remove it). </p>
304 zhen 1.16 </body>
305     </section>
306     </chapter>
307 drobbins 1.70 -->
308 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
309     <title>Configuring Networking</title>
310 drobbins 1.70 <section>
311     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
312     <body>
313 jhhudso 1.75 <p>If you're using a 1.4_rc3 or later LiveCD, it is possible that your networking has already been
314 drobbins 1.70 configured automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
315     network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
316     among others.</p>
318     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
319     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
320     </p>
321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
322 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
323     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
324     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
326     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
327     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
328     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
329     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
330     Interrupt:11
331 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
332 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
333     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
334     resolution is working correctly, etc.
335     </p>
336 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
337 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
338 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
339 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
340     </body>
341     </section>
342 zhen 1.16 <section>
343     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
344     <body>
345 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
346 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
347 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
348     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
349     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
351 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
352     # <c> adsl-start </c>
353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
354 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
355 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
356     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
357 zhen 1.16 </body>
358     </section>
359     <section>
360     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
361     <body>
362 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
364 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
366 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
373     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
375     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
376     </pre>
377 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
378 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
379     </note>
380 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
381 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
382 zhen 1.16 </body>
383     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
386     <body>
387     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
388 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
390     <table>
391     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
392     <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP-address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
393     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP-address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti></ti></tr>
394     <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
395 swift 1.118 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP-address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
396 swift 1.117 </table>
398     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
399 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
400     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
401     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
402     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
403     </p>
404 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
405 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
406 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</c>
407 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
408 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
409 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
410     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
411     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
412     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
413 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
414 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
415 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
416     nameserver
417     nameserver
418 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
419 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
420 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
421 zhen 1.16 </body>
422     </section>
423     <section>
424     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
425     <body>
426 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
427 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
428 zhen 1.6 </p>
429 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
430 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
431 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
432 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
433     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
434     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
435     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
436 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
437 zhen 1.16 </body>
438     </section>
439 drobbins 1.70 <section>
440 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
441     <body>
442 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
443 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
444 zhen 1.16 </body>
445     </section>
446 peesh 1.104 <section>
447     <title>I don't have networking!</title>
448     <body>If you don't have networking there is some help in the
449     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Forums</uri>.
450     Some useful links can be found at <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=43025</uri>.
451     </body>
452     </section>
453 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
454     <chapter>
455 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
456     <section>
457     <body>
458     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
459     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
460     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
461     # <c>date</c>
462     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
463     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
464     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
465     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
466     </pre>
467     </body>
468     </section>
469     </chapter>
470     <chapter>
471 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
472 zhen 1.16 <section>
473 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
474 zhen 1.16 <body>
475 drobbins 1.86 <p>
476     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
477 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
478 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
479     install.
480     </p>
481     <p>
482     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
483     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
484     </p>
485     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
486     /dev/hda
487     </pre>
489     <p>
490     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
491     </p>
493     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
494     /dev/sda
495     </pre>
497     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
498     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
499     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
500     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
501     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
502     </body>
503     </section>
504     <section>
505     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
506     <body>
507     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
508     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
509     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
511     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
512     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
513     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
514     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
515 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
516 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
517     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
518     up the full disk. </p>
520     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
521     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
523     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
524 swift 1.123 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> becuase it's
525     more powerfull and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
526 drobbins 1.86
527     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
528     # fdisk /dev/hda
529     </pre>
530     <p>
531     or
532     </p>
533     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
534     # fdisk /dev/sda
535     </pre>
537     <impo>
538     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
539     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
540     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
541     lost.</b>
542     </impo>
544     <p>
545     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
546     </p>
548     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
549     Command (m for help):
550     </pre>
553     <p>
554     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
555     </p>
557     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
558     Command (m for help): p
560     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
561     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
563     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
564     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
565     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
566     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
567     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
568     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
569     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
570     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
571     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
572     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
574     Command (m for help):
575     </pre>
577     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
578     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
579     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
581     <p>
582     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
583     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
584     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
585     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
586     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
587     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
588     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
589     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
590     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
591     </p>
593     <p>
594     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
595     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
597     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
598     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
599 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
600 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
601     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
603     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
604     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
605     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
606 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
607     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
608     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
609 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
610 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
611 drobbins 1.86 </p>
612     </body>
613     </section>
614     <section>
615     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
616     <body>
618 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
619 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
620     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
621     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
622     look like this: </p>
624     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
625     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
626     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
627     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
629     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
630     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
631     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
632     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
634     Command (m for help):
635     </pre>
637     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
638     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
639     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
640     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
641     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
642     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
643     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
644 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
645     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
646 drobbins 1.86
647 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
648     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
649     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
650     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
651     cylinder 1024.
652     </p>
654 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
655     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
656     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
657 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
658     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
659 drobbins 1.86
660     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
661     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
662     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
663     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
666     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
667     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
668     Linux:</p>
670     <table>
671     <tr>
672     <th>Partition</th>
673     <th>Size</th>
674     <th>Type</th>
675     <th>example device</th>
676     </tr>
677     <tr>
678     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
679 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
680 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
681 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
682     </tr>
683     <tr>
684     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
685     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one to two times the size of the physical RAM
686     in your system.</ti>
687     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
688     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
689     </tr>
690     <tr>
691     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
692     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
693     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
694     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
695     </tr>
696     </table>
698     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
699 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
700 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
701     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
702     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
703     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
705     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
706     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
707     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
708     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
709     from the wrong drive.</impo>
711     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
712     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
713     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
715     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
716     Command (m for help): d
717     Partition number (1-4): 1
718     </pre>
719 zhen 1.54
720 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
721     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
722     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
723     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
724     deleted.</p>
725     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
726     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
727     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
728     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
730     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
731     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
732     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
733     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
735     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
737     Command (m for help):
738     </pre>
740     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
741     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
742     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
743     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
744 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
745     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
747     <note>
748     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
749     require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefor, if you are using a journaled
750     filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
751     for the last cylinder.
752     </note>
753 drobbins 1.86
754     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
755     Command (m for help): n
756     Command action
757     e extended
758     p primary partition (1-4)
759     p
760     Partition number (1-4): 1
761     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
762     Using default value 1
763 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
764 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
766     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
768     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
769     Command (m for help): p
771     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
772     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
773     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
775     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
776     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
777     </pre>
779     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
780     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
781     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
782     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
783     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
784 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
785     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
786 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
787     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
789     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
790     Command (m for help): p
792     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
793     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
794     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
796     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
797     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
798     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
799     </pre>
801     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
802     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
803 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
804 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
805     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
806     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
807     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
808     this:</p>
810     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
811     Command (m for help): p
813     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
814     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
815     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
817     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
818     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
819     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
820     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
821     </pre>
823     <p>
824     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
825     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
826     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
827     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
828     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
829     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
830     install.
831     </p>
833     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
834     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
835     </body>
836     </section>
837     <section>
838     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
839     <body>
840     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
841     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
842     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
843     </p>
845     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
846     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
847     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
849     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
850     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
851     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
852     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
853     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
854     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
855     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
857     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
858     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
859     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
860 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
861     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
862     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
863     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
864     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
865     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
866 drobbins 1.86
867     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
868     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
869     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
870     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
871     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
872     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
873     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
874     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
875     non-boot partitions.</p>
877     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
878     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
879     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
880     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
881     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
882     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
883     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
884     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
886     <p>JFS is IBM's own high performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
887     become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
888     comment either positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
889     point.</p>
891     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
892     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
893     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
894     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
896     <!-- Corner case, confusing
897 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
898 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
899 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
900     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
901 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
902 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
903 zhen 1.6 </p>
904 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
905     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
906     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
907     </pre>
908     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
909 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
910     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
911     </warn>
912 drobbins 1.86 -->
914     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
915     all our partitions for use:</p>
917     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
918     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
919     # mkswap /dev/hda2
920     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
921     </pre>
923 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
924     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
925     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
926     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
927     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
928     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
930     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
931     during the installation process:</p>
932 drobbins 1.86
933 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
934 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
935 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
936 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
937 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
938 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
939 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
940 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
941 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
942 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
943 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
944     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
945     </pre>
946     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
947     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
948 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
949 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
950     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
951     </pre>
952 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
953 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
954 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
955 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
956     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
957     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
958     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
959     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
960     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
961     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
962     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
963 drobbins 1.86
964 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
965 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
966 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
967 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
968 zhen 1.16 </body>
969     </section>
970     </chapter>
971     <chapter>
972     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
973     <section>
974     <body>
975 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
976 zhen 1.6 provides later:
977     </p>
978 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
979 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
980 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
981 drobbins 1.86
982 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
983 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
984 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
985     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
986     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
987     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
988     </p>
990     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
991 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
992 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
993 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
994     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
995     not sure what to do.
996 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
998 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
999 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1000     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1001     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1002 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1003 drobbins 1.86
1004     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1005 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1006 zhen 1.16 </body>
1007     </section>
1008     </chapter>
1009     <chapter>
1010 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1011 zhen 1.16 <section>
1012 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1013 zhen 1.16 <body>
1014 zhen 1.55
1015 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1016     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1017     basis for the install if you haven't already.</p>
1019     <p>If you are using the &quot;from scratch, build everything&quot; install
1020 swift 1.107 method, you will want to use the <path>stage1-x86-1.4_rc4.tar.bz2</path> image.
1021 drobbins 1.86 If you're using one of our bigger CDs like the "3stages" ISO, you will also
1022     have a choice of a stage2 and stage3 image. These images allow you to save
1023     time at the expense of configurability (we've already chosen compiler
1024     optimizations and default USE variables for you.) The stages on the CD are
1025     accessible at <path>/mnt/cdrom/gentoo</path>, and you can type <c>ls /mnt/cdrom/gentoo</c>
1026     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1028     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1029     <i>not</i> on your CD , this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1030     stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1031     tarball you want to use (most users), then proceed to the "Extracting the stage
1032     tarball" section.</p>
1034 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1035 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1036 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1037 swift 1.107 # <c>lynx http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/1.4_rc4/x86/</c>
1038 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1039     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1040     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1041     Save the file and quit the browser
1043     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1044     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1045 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1046 zhen 1.16 </body>
1047     </section>
1048     <section>
1049 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1050 zhen 1.16 <body>
1051 drobbins 1.86
1052     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1053     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1054     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1055     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1056     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1058     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1059     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1061 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1062 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1063 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1064     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1065     instead of "/mnt/cdrom/gentoo/".</comment>
1066 drobbins 1.90 # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1067 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1069     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1070 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1071 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1072     </section>
1073     <section>
1074     <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1075     <body>
1076     <p>
1077     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1078     Gentoo Linux system.
1079     </p>
1080 swift 1.112
1081     <note>
1082     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1083 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1084 swift 1.112 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document which will resolve
1085     the problem.
1086     </note>
1087 drobbins 1.86
1088     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1089 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1090 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1091     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1092     # <c>env-update</c>
1093     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1094     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1095 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries.)</comment>
1096     </pre>
1097 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1098     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1099     </p>
1100 zhen 1.16 </body>
1101     </section>
1102     </chapter>
1103     <chapter>
1104 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1105 zhen 1.16 <section>
1106     <body>
1107 swift 1.133
1108     <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1110 swift 1.132 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1112     <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1113     <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1114     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1115     <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1116     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1117     </pre>
1118 swift 1.133
1119     -->
1120 swift 1.132
1121 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage to download
1122     the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree.
1123     The Portage tree
1124 drobbins 1.94 contains all the scripts (called ebuilds) used to build every package
1125 zhen 1.93 under Gentoo Linux. Currently, we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1126 drobbins 1.86 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1128 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1129 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1130 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1131 zhen 1.60
1132 zhen 1.16 </body>
1133     </section>
1134     </chapter>
1135     <chapter>
1136     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1137     <section>
1138     <body>
1139 drobbins 1.86
1140     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1141     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1142     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1143     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1144     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1145     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1146     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1147     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1148     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1149     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1150     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1152     <p>You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1153     <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1154     (commented examples can be found further down in the file.) These settings
1155     will be used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1156     is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1157     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1158     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1159     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1160     file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.</p>
1161 drobbins 1.70
1162 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1163     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1164     a simple visual editor.
1165     </p>
1166 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1167     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1168 drobbins 1.86 <comment>(Edit CHOST, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and any necessary USE or proxy settings)</comment>
1169 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1170 zhen 1.16 <note>
1171 jhhudso 1.75 People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1172 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1173 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1174 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1175     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1176 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1177 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1178 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1179     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1180 zhen 1.6 </note>
1181 vapier 1.139 <warn>Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your <c>USE</c> variable until after stage1.</warn>
1182 zhen 1.16 </body>
1183     </section>
1184     </chapter>
1185     <chapter>
1186 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1187 zhen 1.16 <section>
1188     <body>
1189 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1190 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1191 drobbins 1.86 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun, because optimization
1192 drobbins 1.70 is what Gentoo Linux is all about! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1193     is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1194 zhen 1.18 </p>
1195 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1196 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1197 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1198     as follows:</p>
1199 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1200 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1201     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1202 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1203 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1204     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1205 zhen 1.16 <note>
1206 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1207     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1208     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1209     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1210     </note>
1211 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1212 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1213 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1214 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1215 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1216 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1217 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1218 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1219 zhen 1.6 </p>
1220 zhen 1.16 </body>
1221     </section>
1222     </chapter>
1223     <chapter>
1224 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1225 zhen 1.16 <section>
1226     <body>
1227 drobbins 1.86
1228     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1229     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3,) then skip this section.
1230     </note>
1232     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1233 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1234 zhen 1.6 </p>
1235 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1236     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1237     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1238     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1240 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1241 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1242 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1243 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1244 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1245 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1246 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1247     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1248 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1249 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1250     </p>
1251 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1252     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1253     your time zone" section.
1254 zhen 1.18 </p>
1255     </body>
1256     </section>
1257     </chapter>
1258     <chapter>
1259     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1260     <section>
1261     <body>
1262 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1263     with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section.</note>
1264 drobbins 1.108
1265 drobbins 1.86 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system, so no building is required.
1266     However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1267 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1268 drobbins 1.86 by performing the following steps. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1269     otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1270     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1271     In any case, feel free to skip these
1272     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1273     </p>
1274 zhen 1.57
1275 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Getting up-to-date">
1276 swift 1.117 # <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf"</c>
1277 drobbins 1.86 # <c>emerge -up system</c>
1278     <comment>(lists the packages that would be installed)</comment>
1279     # <c>emerge -u system</c>
1280     <comment>(actually merges the packages)</comment>
1281     # <c>unset CONFIG_PROTECT</c>
1282 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1283 seemant 1.79 </body>
1284     </section>
1285     </chapter>
1286     <chapter>
1287 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1288 seemant 1.79 <section>
1289     <body>
1290 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1291     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1292     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1293     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1294     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1295 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1296 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1297 zhen 1.16 </body>
1298     </section>
1299     </chapter>
1300     <chapter>
1301 zhen 1.61 <title>Installing the kernel and a System Logger</title>
1302 zhen 1.16 <section>
1303     <body>
1304     <note>
1305 zhen 1.6 If you haven't done so, please edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to your flavor.
1306     </note>
1307 swift 1.122 <p>You now need to merge the Linux kernel sources.
1308     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1309     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1310     which kernel sources to choose, we advise the <c>gentoo-sources</c> or
1311     <c>vanilla-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
1312     <c>xfs-sources</c>. Btw, Gentoo's LiveCD uses the <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1313 zhen 1.6 </p>
1314 swift 1.122 <warn>
1315 drobbins 1.21 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1316     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1317 zhen 1.6 </warn>
1318 drobbins 1.21 <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1319 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1320 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1321 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1322 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Once you have a Linux kernel source tree available, it is time to compile your own custom kernel.
1323 zhen 1.6 </p>
1324 zhen 1.38 <p>Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your current emerged kernel source package,
1325 jhhudso 1.75 and is set automatically by Portage at emerge time.
1326 zhen 1.38 If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink
1327     to the correct one before proceeding.
1328     </p>
1329 swift 1.122 <note>
1330     If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1331     your configuration on it, you should execute
1332     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1333     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1334     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1335     </note>
1336 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1337 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1338     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1339 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1340 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1341 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1342 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1343     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1344     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1345     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1346     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1347     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1348     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1349     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1350     ...
1352     File systems ---&gt;
1353     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1354     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1355     ...
1356     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1357     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1358     ...
1359     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1360     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1361     ...
1362     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1363     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1364     ...
1365     [*] /proc file system support
1366     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1367     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1368     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1369     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1370     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1371     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1372     ...
1373     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1374     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1375     ...
1376     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1377     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1378     </pre>
1379 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1380 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1381 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1382     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1383     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1384 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1385     </p>
1386 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1387     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1388     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1389     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1390     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1391     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1392     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1393 zhen 1.6 </p>
1394 peesh 1.130 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1395 zhen 1.16 <note>
1396 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1397     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1398 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1399 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1400     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1401     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1402 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1403     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1404 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1405     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1406 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1407 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1408 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1409     </note>
1410 swift 1.121
1411     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1412     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1413     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1414     </pre>
1416 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1417 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1418     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1419     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1420     newer alternatives.
1421     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1422     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four lines:
1423     </p>
1424 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1425 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1426     # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1427     <comment>or</comment>
1428     # <c>emerge app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1429     # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1430     <comment>or</comment>
1431     # <c>emerge app-admin/metalog</c>
1432     # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1433     <comment>or</comment>
1434     # <c>emerge app-admin/msyslog</c>
1435     # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1436 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1437 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1438 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1439     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1440     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1441     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1442     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1443     in real time, as expected),
1444     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1445 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1446     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1447 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1448 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1449     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1450     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1451     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1452     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1453     </pre>
1454 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1455     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1456 zhen 1.6 you might as well grab vcron. They can be installed as follows:
1457     </p>
1458 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1459 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/dcron</c>
1460 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1461 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1462     <comment>or</comment>
1463     # <c>emerge sys-apps/fcron</c>
1464 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1465 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1466     <comment>or</comment>
1467     # <c>emerge sys-apps/vcron</c>
1468 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1469     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1470     </pre>
1471     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1472 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1473 zhen 1.6 </p>
1474 zhen 1.16 </body>
1475     </section>
1476     </chapter>
1477     <chapter>
1478 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1479 zhen 1.16 <section>
1480     <body>
1481     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1482 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1483 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1484 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1485 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1486 zhen 1.40
1487     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1488     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1489     X support later.
1490     </note>
1491 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1492 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1493     for the first time.
1494     </note>
1495 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1496 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1497 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1498 zhen 1.6 </p>
1499 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1500 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1501 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1502 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1503 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1504 zhen 1.50 # <c>emerge jfsutils</c>
1505 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1506 drobbins 1.21 # <c>emerge sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1507 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1508 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1509 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1510 zhen 1.6 </p>
1511 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1512 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1513 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1514 zhen 1.16 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1515 zhen 1.10 to work.
1516     </warn>
1517 zhen 1.16 </body>
1518     </section>
1519     </chapter>
1520     <chapter>
1521 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1522 zhen 1.16 <section>
1523     <body>
1524     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1525 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1526 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1527     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1528     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1529     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1530     </p>
1531 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1532     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1533 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1534     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1535 drobbins 1.1 #
1536 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1537 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1538 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1539 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1541 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1542 drobbins 1.1
1543     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1544     </comment>
1545     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1546     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1547     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1548     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1549     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1550 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1551 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1552 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1553     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1554     </warn>
1555 zhen 1.16 </body>
1556     </section>
1557     </chapter>
1558     <chapter>
1559 swift 1.134 <title>User Management</title>
1560 zhen 1.16 <section>
1561 swift 1.134 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1562 zhen 1.16 <body>
1563     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1564 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1565 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1566 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1567 swift 1.134 </body>
1568     </section>
1569     <section>
1570     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1571     <body>
1572     <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1573     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1574     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1575     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1576 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1577 swift 1.134 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1578     <p>Ofcourse substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1579     <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1580     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1581     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1582 zhen 1.16 </body>
1583     </section>
1584     </chapter>
1585     <chapter>
1586 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1587 zhen 1.16 <section>
1588     <body>
1589 swift 1.121 <p>
1590     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1591     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1592     </p>
1593 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1594 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1595     </pre>
1596     <p>
1597     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1598     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1599     </p>
1600     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1601     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1602     </pre>
1603     <p>
1604     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1605     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1606     </p>
1607     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1608     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1609 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1610 zhen 1.16 </body>
1611     </section>
1612     </chapter>
1613     <chapter>
1614 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1615 zhen 1.16 <section>
1616     <body>
1617 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1618 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1619     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1620 zhen 1.6 </p>
1621 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1622 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1623     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1624 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1625 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1626 swift 1.136 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1627     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1628     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1629     </note>
1630 zhen 1.16 </body>
1631     </section>
1632     </chapter>
1633     <chapter>
1634     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1635     <section>
1636     <body>
1637     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1638 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1639     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1640     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1641     it as a module:
1642     </p>
1643 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1644     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1645 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1646 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1647 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1648 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1649 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1650 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1651     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1652 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1653 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1654     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1655 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1656 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1657     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1658     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1659 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1660 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1661 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1662 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1663 zhen 1.6 </p>
1664 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1665 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1666     need pcmcia
1667     }
1668 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1669 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
1670 zhen 1.10 </p>
1671 zhen 1.16 </body>
1672     </section>
1673     </chapter>
1674     <chapter>
1675     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
1676     <section>
1677     <body>
1678 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
1679 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
1680 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1681 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
1682 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
1683     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
1684     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
1685     possibilities).
1686     </p>
1687 zhen 1.16 </body>
1688     </section>
1689     </chapter>
1690     <chapter>
1691 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
1692 zhen 1.49 <section>
1693     <title>Notes</title>
1694     <body>
1695     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
1696     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
1697     LILO as their bootloaders.
1698     </p>
1699     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
1700 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
1701 zhen 1.49 </p>
1702 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
1703     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
1704 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
1705     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
1706 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
1707 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
1708 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
1709 swift 1.117 <p>
1710     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file as a kernel parameter. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
1711     </p>
1712     <table>
1713     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
1714     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
1715     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
1716 swift 1.120 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
1717 swift 1.117 </table>
1718 zhen 1.49 </body>
1719     </section>
1720 zhen 1.16 <section>
1721 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
1722 zhen 1.16 <body>
1723     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
1724 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
1725     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
1726 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
1727 zhen 1.6 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only harddrives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
1728     cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
1729     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
1730     to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a harddrive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
1731 peesh 1.103 a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no scsi harddrive,
1732 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
1734     It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, grub
1735     offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
1736     a lot of harddrives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
1737     grub numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
1738 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
1739 zhen 1.6 </p>
1740 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
1741 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
1742 zhen 1.51 # <c>emerge grub</c>
1743 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
1744 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1745 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
1746 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
1747     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
1748     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
1749     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
1750     I want to type are:
1751     </p>
1752 zhen 1.68
1753 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
1754 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1755     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
1756 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1757 zhen 1.68
1758 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
1759 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
1760 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
1761     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
1762 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
1763 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1764 swift 1.136
1765 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
1766 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
1767     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
1768     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
1769     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
1770     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
1771     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
1772     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
1773     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
1774 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
1775 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
1776 zhen 1.52 </p>
1777 zhen 1.6
1778     <note> The tab completion mechanism of grub can be used from within grub,
1779     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
1780     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only harddrives),
1781     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, grub would print the
1782     available harddrives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
1783     would make grub print the list of partitions on the first harddrive.
1785     Checking the syntax of the grub location with completion should really help
1786     to make the right choice.
1787     </note>
1789 zhen 1.52 <p>
1790 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
1791     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
1792 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
1793 zhen 1.6 </p>
1794 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
1795 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
1796     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst </c>. </impo>
1797 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
1798 zhen 1.6 </p>
1799 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Grub.conf for GRUB">
1800 drobbins 1.1 default 0
1801     timeout 30
1802     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
1804     title=My example Gentoo Linux
1805     root (hd0,0)
1806 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
1807 drobbins 1.1
1808     <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
1809 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
1810 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
1811 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
1812 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1813 zhen 1.16 <note>
1814 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
1815     </note>
1816 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1817 zhen 1.6 If you set up scsi emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
1818 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
1819     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
1820 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1821 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
1822 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
1823     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
1824     </p>
1825 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
1826 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
1827     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
1828     loader.
1829 zhware 1.9 </note>
1830 zhen 1.16 <note>
1831 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
1832 zhen 1.6 </note>
1833 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
1834 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
1835     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
1836     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
1837     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
1838     </p>
1839 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
1840 zhen 1.6 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs. In rc6
1841     devfs is enabled by default.
1842     </note>
1843 zhen 1.16 </body>
1844     </section>
1845 zhen 1.49 <section>
1846     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
1847 zhen 1.16 <body>
1848 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
1849 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
1850 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
1851 zhen 1.16 </p>
1852     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
1853     </p>
1854 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
1855 zhen 1.16 # <c>emerge lilo</c>
1856 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1857 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
1858 zhen 1.16 </p>
1859 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
1860 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
1861     map=/boot/map
1862     install=/boot/boot.b
1863     prompt
1864     timeout=50
1865     lba32
1866     default=linux
1868 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
1869 zhen 1.16 label=linux
1870     read-only
1871 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
1872 zhen 1.16
1873     #For dual booting windows/other OS
1874     other=/dev/hda1
1875     label=dos
1876 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1877 zhen 1.52 <ul>
1878 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
1879     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
1880     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
1881     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
1882     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
1883 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
1884 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
1885     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
1886     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
1887     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
1888     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
1889     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
1890     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
1891     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
1892     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
1893 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
1894 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
1895     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
1896     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
1897     altered during the boot process. </li>
1898 peesh 1.128 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
1899 zhen 1.52 </ul>
1900 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
1901     into the MBR:
1902     </p>
1903 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
1904 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
1905 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1906 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
1907     </p>
1908     </body>
1909     </section>
1910     </chapter>
1911     <chapter>
1912 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
1913 zhen 1.16 <section>
1914     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
1915     <body>
1916 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
1917 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
1918 swift 1.136 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
1919     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
1920     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
1921     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot
1922     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
1923     like this:
1924 zhen 1.6 </p>
1925 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
1926 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
1927     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
1928 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1929 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
1930 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
1931 zhen 1.16 </body>
1932     </section>
1933     <section>
1934     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
1935     <body>
1936     <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
1937     </p>
1938 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
1939 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
1940     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
1941 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1942 zhen 1.16 </body>
1943     </section>
1944     </chapter>
1945     <chapter>
1946     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
1947     <section>
1948     <body>
1949 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
1951 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
1952     and reboot the system:
1953     </p>
1954 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
1955 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
1956     # <c>exit</c>
1957 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
1958 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
1959     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1960     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1961     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
1962     # <c>reboot</c>
1963 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1964 zhen 1.16 <note>
1965 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
1966     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
1967     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
1968     </note>
1969 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
1970 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
1971 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
1972 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
1973     that will
1974     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
1975     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
1976     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
1977 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
1978 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
1979 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
1980 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
1981     </p>
1982 zhen 1.16 </body>
1983     </section>
1984     </chapter>
1985     <chapter>
1986     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
1987     <section>
1988     <body>
1989     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
1990 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
1991     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
1992     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
1993     </p>
1994 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
1995 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
1996 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
1997 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
1998     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
1999 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2000 zhen 1.6 </p>
2001 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2002     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2003     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2004     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2005     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2006     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2007     </ul>
2008     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2009 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2010     </p>
2011 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2012     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2013 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2014 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2015     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2016     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2017     </ul>
2018     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2019 zhen 1.6 </p>
2020 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2021 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2022     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2023 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2024 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2025 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2026     to see additional configuration options.
2027     </p>
2028 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2029 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2030     </p>
2031 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2032     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2033     </pre>
2034 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2035 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2036 zhen 1.16 </body>
2037     </section>
2038     </chapter>
2039 swift 1.137 <chapter>
2040     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
2041     <section>
2042     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
2043     <body>
2044     <p>
2045     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
2046     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
2047     install Gentoo Linux:
2048     </p>
2049     <ul>
2050     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c>
2051     kerneloption.</li>
2052     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup,
2053     or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2054     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
2055     # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
2056     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
2057     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
2058     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
2059 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
2060 swift 1.137 </pre>
2061     </li>
2062     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after
2063     partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2064     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new
2065     environment:
2066     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
2067     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
2068     </pre>
2069     </li>
2070     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
2071     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
2072     <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
2073     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2074     [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
2075     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2076     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
2077     <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
2078     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2079     [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
2080     <comment>and/or</comment>
2081     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
2082     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2083     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
2084     </pre></li>
2085     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when
2086     running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2087     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
2088     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
2089     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
2090     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2091     </pre>
2092     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
2093     to the appropriate RAID device:
2094     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
2095     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
2096     root (hd0,0)
2097     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2098     </pre></li>
2099     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the
2100     appropriate RAID device:
2101     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
2102     image=/boot/bzImage
2103     label=linux
2104     read-only
2105     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2106     </pre></li>
2107     </ul>
2108     </body>
2109     </section>
2110     </chapter>
2111 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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