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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 swift 1.142 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 swift 1.142 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 zhen 1.16 <author title="Ghost">
11     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24     </author>
25 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27     </author>
28 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30     </author>
31 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33     </author>
34     <author title="Editor">
35     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
36 drobbins 1.97 </author>
37 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
38     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
39 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
40 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
41     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
42     </author>
43 swift 1.142 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
44     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
45     </author>
46 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
47 swift 1.142 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
48     </author>
49     <author title="Reviewer">
50     <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
51     </author>
52     <author title="Reviewer">
53     <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
54 swift 1.112 </author>
55 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
56 swift 1.142 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions.) The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
57 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
58     scratch.
59     </abstract>
60 swift 1.141
61     <license/>
63 swift 1.142 <version>2.6.3</version>
64 swift 1.143 <date>5th of August 2003</date>
65 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
66     <title>About the Install</title>
67     <section>
68     <body>
69 swift 1.142 <p>First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
70     Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
71     for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
72     the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
73     from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
74     you.</p>
76     <p>One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
77     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
78     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
79     addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
80     installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
81     Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Athlon XP.
82     To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
83     descriptions of each product in the <uri
84     link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
85     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.</p>
87     <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
88     CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation," and is a bootable CD-ROM,
89     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
90     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
91     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
92     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, every CD 1
93     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
94     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
95     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
96     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
97     file for CD 1, its name will end in "-cd1.iso".</p>
99     <p>In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable, and contains
100     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
101     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
102     Mozilla, Evolution, and others. CD 2 is <i>optional</i> and is
103     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
104     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
105     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
106     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
107     2, its name will end in "-cd2.iso". </p>
109     <note>A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
110     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
111     KDE, Mozilla, and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
112     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux installs
113     packages for those who need this capability. The "compile from
114     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
115     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
116     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
117     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
118     installation process in any way.</note>
120     <p>In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
121     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
122     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
123     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
124     that it is small, and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
125     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
126     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available, and have a
127     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
128     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
129     end in "-basic.iso".</p>
130 drobbins 1.70
131 swift 1.142 <p>To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
132     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
133     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
134     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
135     those conditions.)</p>
137     <p>Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
138     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
139     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
140     you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
141     want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
142     stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
143     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
144     contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
145     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
146     stage3 tarball should be used.</p>
148     <p><b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
149     stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
150     make this decision.
151     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
152     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
153     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
154     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
155 swift 1.143 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
156     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.</p>
157 swift 1.142
158     <p>
159     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing
160     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
161     chose for your particular stage2 tarball. And choosing to go with a
162     stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also
163     means that your base system will have the optimization settings that
164     we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
165     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
166     stability.) Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
167     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
168     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
169     and a system that is well-optimized.
170     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the
171     first time, consider using a stage3 tarball for
172     installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b></p>
173 drobbins 1.70
174 swift 1.142 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> if you use a stage3 install, you should not
175     change the default CHOST setting in make.conf. If you need to make
176     such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
177     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
178     typically looks something like this:
179     <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.</note>
181 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
182 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
183 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
184 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
185     </impo>
186 swift 1.142
187     <note>Another note: the installation instructions in the LiveCD may not
188     be as up-to-date as our Web documentation at
189     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>. Refer to
190     our Web documentation for the most up-to-date
191 peesh 1.127 installation instructions.
192     </note>
193 swift 1.142
196     <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will
197     download, burn CD(s),
198 jhhudso 1.75 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
199 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
200     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
201 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
202 swift 1.142 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc), boot it and have a
203     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After your basic Gentoo Linux system
204     is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of our 2-CD set and install any
205     number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, Mozilla, or
206     others that you'd like on your system.
207     </p>
208     <p>Depending on what stage of the build
209 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
210 zhen 1.26 <table>
211 zhen 1.16 <tr>
212     <th>stage tarball</th>
213 swift 1.142 <th>Internet access required</th>
214     <th>Media required</th>
215     <th>steps</th>
216 zhen 1.16 </tr>
217     <tr>
218     <ti>1</ti>
219 swift 1.142 <ti>Yes</ti>
220     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
221     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
222 zhen 1.16 </tr>
223     <tr>
224     <ti>2</ti>
225 swift 1.142 <ti>Yes</ti>
226     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
227     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
228 zhen 1.16 </tr>
229     <tr>
230     <ti>3</ti>
231 swift 1.142 <ti>No if using "CD 1", Yes otherwise</ti>
232     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
233     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if
234     using "CD 1"), final config</ti>
235 zhen 1.16 </tr>
236 swift 1.142 <tr>
237     <ti>3+GRP</ti>
238     <ti>No</ti>
239     <ti>"CD 1", optionally "CD 2"</ti>
240     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1
241     pre-built packages (optional), reboot,
242     install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using
243     "CD 2").</ti>
244     </tr>
245     </table>
246 swift 1.137 <note>Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about
247     ATA RAID on the bottom of this document before proceeding.
248     </note>
249 zhen 1.16 </body>
250     </section>
251     </chapter>
252     <chapter>
253     <title>Booting</title>
254     <section>
255     <body>
256 swift 1.134 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
257     available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
258     keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
259 swift 1.142
260     <p>Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
261     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
262     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
263     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
264     and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
265     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
266     processor ("SMP",) then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
267     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
268     the processors in your system, not just the first one.</p>
270     <p>
271     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
272     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.</p>
274     <table>
275 antifa 1.105 <tr>
276 swift 1.142 <th>Available kernels</th>
277 antifa 1.105 <th>description</th>
278     </tr>
280 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
281 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
282     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
283     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
284     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
286     </table>
287 swift 1.142
288 antifa 1.105 <p>
289     <table>
290     <tr>
291 swift 1.142 <th>Available boot options</th>
292 antifa 1.105 <th>description</th>
293     </tr>
294 antifa 1.106
295     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
296     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
297 antifa 1.105
298 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
299     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
301     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
302     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
304     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
305     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
307 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
308     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
310 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
311     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
313 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
314     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
316     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
317     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
319 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
320     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
321 antifa 1.105
322     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
323     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
325 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
326     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
327 antifa 1.105
328     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
329     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
331     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
332     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
334     </table></p>
335 drobbins 1.70
336 swift 1.142
337     <p>Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
338     screen and progress bar:</p>
340     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
341     Linux Live CD booting" />
344     <p>Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
345     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as
346     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot;, the "super user." You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
347 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
348 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
349 swift 1.142 Alt-F1. The console will look like this:</p>
351     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
352     Linux Live CD console" />
354     <note><b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
355     set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
356     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
357     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
358     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
359     CD over the network. </note>
361 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
362 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
363 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
364 zhen 1.6 </p>
365 zhen 1.16 </body>
366     </section>
367     </chapter>
368     <chapter>
369 swift 1.142 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
370 zhen 1.16 <section>
371     <body>
372 swift 1.142 <p>When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
373     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
374     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
375     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
376     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
377 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
378 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
379 swift 1.142 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
380 zhen 1.6 type:
381     </p>
382 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
383 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
384 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
385 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
386 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
387 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
388 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
389     </p>
390 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
391 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
392 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
393 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
394 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
395 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
396 zhen 1.6 <note>
397 swift 1.142 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
398 zhen 1.52 </note>
399 swift 1.142
400     <note><b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
401     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
402     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
403     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
404 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
405 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
406 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
407     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
408     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
409     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
410     </pre>
411 swift 1.142 </note>
414     </body>
415 zhen 1.16 </section>
416     </chapter>
417     <chapter>
418 swift 1.142 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
419 drobbins 1.70 <section>
420     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
421     <body>
422 swift 1.142 <p>If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
423     likely that your networking configuration has already been
424     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
425 drobbins 1.70 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
426     among others.</p>
428     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
429     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
430     </p>
431 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
432 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
433     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
434     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
436     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
437     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
438     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
439     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
440     Interrupt:11
441 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
442 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
443     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
444     resolution is working correctly, etc.
445     </p>
446 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
447 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
448 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
449 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
450     </body>
451     </section>
452 zhen 1.16 <section>
453     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
454     <body>
455 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
456 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
457 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
458     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
459     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
460 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
461 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
462     # <c> adsl-start </c>
463 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
464 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
465 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
466     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
467 zhen 1.16 </body>
468     </section>
469     <section>
470     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
471     <body>
472 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
473 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
474 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
475 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
476 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
477 zhen 1.16 </body>
478     </section>
479     <section>
480     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
481     <body>
482     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
483     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
484 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
485     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
486     </pre>
487 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
488 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
489     </note>
490 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
491 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
492 zhen 1.16 </body>
493     </section>
494     <section>
495     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
496     <body>
497     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
498 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
500     <table>
501     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
502 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
503     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti></ti></tr>
504 swift 1.117 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
505 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
506 swift 1.117 </table>
508     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
509 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
510     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
511     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
512     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
513     </p>
514 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
515 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
516 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</c>
517 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
518 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
519 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
520     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
521     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
522     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
523 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
524 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
525 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
526     nameserver
527     nameserver
528 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
529 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
530 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
531 zhen 1.16 </body>
532     </section>
533     <section>
534     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
535     <body>
536 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
537 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
538 zhen 1.6 </p>
539 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
540 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
541 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
542 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
543     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
544     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
545     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
546 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
547 zhen 1.16 </body>
548     </section>
549 drobbins 1.70 <section>
550 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
551     <body>
552 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
553 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
554 zhen 1.16 </body>
555     </section>
556     </chapter>
557     <chapter>
558 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
559     <section>
560     <body>
561     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
562     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
563     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
564     # <c>date</c>
565     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
566     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
567     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
568     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
569     </pre>
570     </body>
571     </section>
572     </chapter>
573     <chapter>
574 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
575 zhen 1.16 <section>
576 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
577 zhen 1.16 <body>
578 drobbins 1.86 <p>
579     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
580 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
581 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
582     install.
583     </p>
584     <p>
585     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
586     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
587     </p>
588     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
589     /dev/hda
590     </pre>
592     <p>
593     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
594     </p>
596     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
597     /dev/sda
598     </pre>
600     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
601     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
602     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
603     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
604     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
605     </body>
606     </section>
607     <section>
608     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
609     <body>
610     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
611     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
612     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
614     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
615     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
616     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
617     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
618 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
619 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
620     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
621     up the full disk. </p>
623     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
624     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
626     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
627 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
628     more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
629 drobbins 1.86
630     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
631     # fdisk /dev/hda
632     </pre>
633     <p>
634     or
635     </p>
636     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
637     # fdisk /dev/sda
638     </pre>
640     <impo>
641     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
642     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
643     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
644     lost.</b>
645     </impo>
647     <p>
648     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
649     </p>
651     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
652     Command (m for help):
653     </pre>
656     <p>
657     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
658     </p>
660     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
661     Command (m for help): p
663     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
664     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
666     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
667     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
668     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
669     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
670     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
671     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
672     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
673     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
674     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
675     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
677     Command (m for help):
678     </pre>
680     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
681     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
682     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
684     <p>
685     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
686     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
687     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
688     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
689     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
690     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
691     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
692     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
693     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
694     </p>
696     <p>
697     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
698     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
700     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
701     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
702 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
703 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
704     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
706     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
707     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
708     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
709 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
710     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
711     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
712 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
713 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
714 drobbins 1.86 </p>
715     </body>
716     </section>
717     <section>
718     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
719     <body>
721 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
722 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
723     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
724     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
725     look like this: </p>
727     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
728     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
729     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
730     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
732     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
733     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
734     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
735     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
737     Command (m for help):
738     </pre>
740     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
741     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
742     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
743     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
744     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
745     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
746     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
747 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
748     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
749 drobbins 1.86
750 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
751     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
752     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
753     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
754     cylinder 1024.
755     </p>
757 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
758     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
759     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
760 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
761     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
762 drobbins 1.86
763     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
764     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
765     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
766     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
769     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
770     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
771     Linux:</p>
773     <table>
774     <tr>
775     <th>Partition</th>
776     <th>Size</th>
777     <th>Type</th>
778     <th>example device</th>
779     </tr>
780     <tr>
781     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
782 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
783 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
784 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
785     </tr>
786     <tr>
787     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
788 swift 1.142 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM
789 drobbins 1.86 in your system.</ti>
790     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
791     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
792     </tr>
793     <tr>
794     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
795     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
796     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
797     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
798     </tr>
799     </table>
801     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
802 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
803 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
804     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
805     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
806     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
808     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
809     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
810     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
811     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
812     from the wrong drive.</impo>
814     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
815     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
816     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
818     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
819     Command (m for help): d
820     Partition number (1-4): 1
821     </pre>
822 zhen 1.54
823 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
824     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
825     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
826     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
827     deleted.</p>
828     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
829     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
830     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
831     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
833     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
834     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
835     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
836     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
838     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
840     Command (m for help):
841     </pre>
843     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
844     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
845     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
846     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
847 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
848     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
850     <note>
851     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
852 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
853 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
854     for the last cylinder.
855     </note>
856 drobbins 1.86
857     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
858     Command (m for help): n
859     Command action
860     e extended
861     p primary partition (1-4)
862     p
863     Partition number (1-4): 1
864     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
865     Using default value 1
866 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
867 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
869     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
871     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
872     Command (m for help): p
874     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
875     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
876     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
878     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
879     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
880     </pre>
882     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
883     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
884     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
885     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
886     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
887 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
888     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
889 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
890     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
892     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
893     Command (m for help): p
895     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
896     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
897     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
899     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
900     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
901     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
902     </pre>
904     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
905     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
906 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
907 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
908     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
909     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
910     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
911     this:</p>
913     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
914     Command (m for help): p
916     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
917     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
918     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
920     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
921     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
922     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
923     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
924     </pre>
926     <p>
927     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
928     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
929     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
930     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
931     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
932     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
933     install.
934     </p>
936     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
937     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
938     </body>
939     </section>
940     <section>
941     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
942     <body>
943     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
944     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
945     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
946     </p>
948     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
949     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
950     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
952     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
953     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
954     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
955     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
956     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
957     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
958     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
960     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
961     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
962     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
963 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
964     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
965     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
966     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
967     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
968     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
969 drobbins 1.86
970     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
971     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
972     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
973     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
974     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
975     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
976     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
977     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
978     non-boot partitions.</p>
980     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
981     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
982     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
983     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
984     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
985     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
986     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
987     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
989 swift 1.142 <p>JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
990 drobbins 1.86 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
991 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
992 drobbins 1.86 point.</p>
994     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
995     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
996     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
997     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
999     <!-- Corner case, confusing
1000 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
1001 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
1002 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
1003     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
1004 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
1005 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
1006 zhen 1.6 </p>
1007 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
1008     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
1009     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
1010     </pre>
1011     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
1012 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
1013     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
1014     </warn>
1015 drobbins 1.86 -->
1017     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1018     all our partitions for use:</p>
1020     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1021     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
1022     # mkswap /dev/hda2
1023     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
1024     </pre>
1026 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
1027     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1028     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
1029     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
1030     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
1031     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
1033     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1034     during the installation process:</p>
1035 drobbins 1.86
1036 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
1037 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1038 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
1039 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1040 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
1041 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1042 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1043 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1044 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1045 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
1046 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1047     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
1048     </pre>
1049     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1050     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
1051 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
1052 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1053     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
1054     </pre>
1055 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
1056 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1057 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
1058 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1059     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
1060     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
1061     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
1062     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
1063     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
1064     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
1065     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
1066 drobbins 1.86
1067 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
1068 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1069 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
1070 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1071 zhen 1.16 </body>
1072     </section>
1073     </chapter>
1074     <chapter>
1075     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1076     <section>
1077     <body>
1078 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
1079 zhen 1.6 provides later:
1080     </p>
1081 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1082 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
1083 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1084 drobbins 1.86
1085 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
1086 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
1087 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1088     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
1089     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1090     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1091     </p>
1093     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1094 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1095 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1096 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1097     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1098     not sure what to do.
1099 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1101 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1102 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1103     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1104     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1105 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1106 drobbins 1.86
1107     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1108 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1109 zhen 1.16 </body>
1110     </section>
1111     </chapter>
1112     <chapter>
1113 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1114 zhen 1.16 <section>
1115 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1116 zhen 1.16 <body>
1117 zhen 1.55
1118 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1119     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1120 swift 1.142 basis for the install if you haven't already.
1121     The stages on the Live CD are
1122     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path>, and you can type <c>ls
1123     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c>
1124     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1125 drobbins 1.86
1126 swift 1.142 <p><b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.</p>
1127 drobbins 1.86
1128     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1129 swift 1.142 <i>not</i> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1130     "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1131 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1132 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1133     "Extracting the stage tarball" section.</p>
1134 drobbins 1.86
1135 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1136 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1137 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1138 swift 1.142 # <c>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</c>
1139 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1140     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1141     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1142     Save the file and quit the browser
1144     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1145     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1146 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1147 zhen 1.16 </body>
1148     </section>
1149     <section>
1150 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1151 zhen 1.16 <body>
1152 drobbins 1.86
1153     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1154     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1155     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1156     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1157     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1159     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1160     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1162 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1163 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1164 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1165     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1166 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1167     # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1168 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1170     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1171 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1172 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1173     </section>
1174     <section>
1175 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1176     <body>
1177     <impo>The following instructions are for GRP users only.</impo>
1178     <p><b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1179     need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1180     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1181     connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:</p>
1182     <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1183     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1184     # <c>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</c>
1185     </pre>
1186     <p>This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1187     install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1188     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1189     from the Live CD into place:</p>
1191     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1192     # <c>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>
1193     # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</c>
1194     </pre>
1196     <p>All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1197     everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1198     -- even without a network connection.</p>
1200     </body>
1201     </section>
1202     <section>
1203 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1204     <body>
1205     <p>
1206     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1207     Gentoo Linux system.
1208     </p>
1209 swift 1.112
1210     <note>
1211     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1212 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1213 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1214 swift 1.112 the problem.
1215     </note>
1216 drobbins 1.86
1217     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1218 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1219 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1220     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1221     # <c>env-update</c>
1222     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1223     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1224 swift 1.142 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries).</comment>
1225 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1226 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1227     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1228     </p>
1229 zhen 1.16 </body>
1230     </section>
1231     </chapter>
1232     <chapter>
1233 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1234 zhen 1.16 <section>
1235     <body>
1236 swift 1.133
1237     <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1239 swift 1.132 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1241     <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1242     <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1243     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1244     <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1245     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1246     </pre>
1247 swift 1.133
1248     -->
1249 swift 1.132
1250 swift 1.142
1252     <impo>If you doing a GRP install you can ignore the following section on
1253     <c>emerge sync</c>.</impo>
1255     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1256     to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1257     Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from "CD 1" earlier, you
1258     can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1259     (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1260     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1261     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1262     <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1263 drobbins 1.86
1264 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1265 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1266 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1267 zhen 1.60
1268 zhen 1.16 </body>
1269     </section>
1270     </chapter>
1271     <chapter>
1272     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1273     <section>
1274     <body>
1275 drobbins 1.86
1276     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1277     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1278     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1279     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1280     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1281     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1282     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1283     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1284     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1285     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1286     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1288 swift 1.142 <p>If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1289 drobbins 1.86 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1290 swift 1.142 (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you are using
1291     a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1292     optimally and should not require any modification.</p>
1294     <impo><b>Advanced users:</b> The <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings
1295     settings
1296     are used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1297 drobbins 1.86 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1298     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1299     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1300     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1301 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1302     </impo>
1304     <!-- needs qa
1305     <note><b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1306     to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1307     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1308     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1309     <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS, and
1310     CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1311     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.</note>
1312     -->
1314 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1315     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1316     a simple visual editor.
1317     </p>
1318 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1319     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1320     </pre>
1321 zhen 1.16 <note>
1322 swift 1.142 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1323 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1324 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1325 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1326     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1327 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1328 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1329 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1330     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1331 zhen 1.6 </note>
1332 swift 1.142 <warn>Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your <c>USE</c> variables until after stage1.</warn>
1333 zhen 1.16 </body>
1334     </section>
1335     </chapter>
1336     <chapter>
1337 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1338 zhen 1.16 <section>
1339     <body>
1340 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1341 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1342 swift 1.142 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date
1343     system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1344 drobbins 1.70 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1345 zhen 1.18 </p>
1346 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1347 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1348 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1349     as follows:</p>
1350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1351 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1352     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1353 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1354 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1355     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1356 zhen 1.16 <note>
1357 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1358     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1359     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1360     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1361     </note>
1362 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1363 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1364 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1365 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1366 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1367 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1368 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1369 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1370 zhen 1.6 </p>
1371 zhen 1.16 </body>
1372     </section>
1373     </chapter>
1374     <chapter>
1375 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1376 zhen 1.16 <section>
1377     <body>
1378 drobbins 1.86
1379     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1380 swift 1.142 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1381 drobbins 1.86 </note>
1382 swift 1.140
1383     <warn>
1384     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1385     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1386     broad compilation failures. We are working on fixing this
1387 swift 1.142 of course.
1388 swift 1.140 </warn>
1389 drobbins 1.86
1390     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1391 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1392 zhen 1.6 </p>
1393 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1394     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1395     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1396     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1398 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1399 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1400 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1401 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1402 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1403 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1404 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1405     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1406 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1407 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1408     </p>
1409 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1410     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1411     your time zone" section.
1412 zhen 1.18 </p>
1413     </body>
1414     </section>
1415     </chapter>
1416     <chapter>
1417     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1418     <section>
1419     <body>
1420 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1421 swift 1.142 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users should skip ahead to the next section.</note>
1422 drobbins 1.108
1423 swift 1.140 <warn>
1424 swift 1.142 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1425     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1426 swift 1.140 </warn>
1428 swift 1.142 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1429     so no building is required.</p>
1431     <note><b>Advanced users:</b>
1432 drobbins 1.86 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1433 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1434 swift 1.142 by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf" emerge -u
1435     system</c> (this requires a network connection). Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1436 drobbins 1.86 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1437     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1438     In any case, feel free to skip these
1439     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1440 swift 1.142 </note>
1441 zhen 1.57
1442 seemant 1.79 </body>
1443     </section>
1444     </chapter>
1445     <chapter>
1446 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1447 seemant 1.79 <section>
1448     <body>
1449 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1450     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1451     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1452     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1453     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1454 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1455 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1456 zhen 1.16 </body>
1457     </section>
1458     </chapter>
1459     <chapter>
1460 swift 1.142 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1461 zhen 1.16 <section>
1462 swift 1.142 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1463 zhen 1.16 <body>
1464 swift 1.142
1465     <p>There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c>
1466     utility to configure and compile your kernel automatically.</p>
1469     <p>Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1470     you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1471 swift 1.122 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1472     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1473 swift 1.142 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1474     <!--or <c>vanilla-sources</c>.(2.4.21-vanilla has sound issues)--> If you want XFS support, you should choose
1475     <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses
1476     <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a
1477     <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing
1478     responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when the
1479     "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1480     </p>
1483     <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1484 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1485 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1486     </pre>
1488     <p>The
1489     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1490     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1491     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any
1492     ebuilds you install that contain kernel modules will be configured
1493     to work with the kernel source tree pointed to by
1494     <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created
1495     when you emerge your first kernel source package, but after it
1496     exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic link.</p>
1497     </body>
1498     </section>
1499     <section>
1500     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1501     <body>
1503     <p>Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to
1504     compile your kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is
1505     to use our new <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel
1506     for you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly
1507     identically to the way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means
1508     that when you use <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system
1509     will generally detect all your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live
1510     CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel
1511     configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may not
1512     be comfortable compiling their own kernels.</p>
1514     <p>Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel
1515     ebuild:</p>
1517     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1518     # <c>emerge -k genkernel</c>
1519     </pre>
1521     <p>Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:</p>
1523     <note><b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1524     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel configuration before
1525     building begins.</note>
1528     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1529     # <c>genkernel</c>
1530     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1531     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1532     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1534     Settings:
1535     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1536     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1537     config: gentoo (customized)
1538     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1539     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1541     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1542     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1543     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1544     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1545     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1546     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1547     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1548     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1549     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1550     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1552     * Build completed successfully!
1554     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1555     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1557     #
1558 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1559 swift 1.142
1560     <p>Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <i>initial root disk</i> (initrd) will
1561     be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1562     initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD)
1563     before your "real" system starts up.</p>
1565     <p>Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live CD -- let's emerge hotplug.
1566     While the initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system, hotplug autodetects everything else.
1567     To emerge and enable hotplug, type the following:</p>
1569     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1570     # <c>emerge -k hotplug</c>
1571     # <c>rc-update add hotplug default</c>
1572     </pre>
1574     <p>Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on your system. Here is a list of
1575     kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:</p>
1577     <table>
1578     <tr>
1579     <th>ebuild</th>
1580     <th>purpose</th>
1581     <th>command</th>
1582     </tr>
1583     <tr>
1584     <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1585     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1586     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1587     </tr>
1588     <tr>
1589     <ti>nforce-net</ti>
1590     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1591     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
1592     </tr>
1593     <tr>
1594     <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
1595     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1596     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
1597     </tr>
1598     <tr>
1599     <ti>e100</ti>
1600     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1601     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
1602     </tr>
1603     <tr>
1604     <ti>e1000</ti>
1605     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1606     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
1607     </tr>
1608     <tr>
1609     <ti>emu10k1</ti>
1610     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
1611     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
1612     </tr>
1613     <tr>
1614     <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
1615     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
1616     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
1617     </tr>
1618     <tr>
1619     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
1620     <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128,
1621     Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
1622     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
1623     </tr>
1624     </table>
1625     <p>The nvidia-kernel, ati-drivers and xfree-drm packages will require additional configuration to be enabled.
1626     All other ebuilds listed above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the hotplug package.</p>
1628     <p>Now that you've run and configured your system to use genkernel, you can skip the "manual kernel configuration"
1629     section below.</p>
1630     </body>
1631     </section>
1632     <section>
1633     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1634     <body>
1636     <p>If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
1637     will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
1638     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
1639     current emerged kernel source package, and is set automatically by Portage at
1640     emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
1641     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
1642     proceeding. </p>
1644     <warn>
1645     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1646     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1647     </warn>
1649     <note>
1650 swift 1.122 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1651     your configuration on it, you should execute
1652     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1653     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1654     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1655     </note>
1656 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1657 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1658     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1659 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1660 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1661 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1662 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1663     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1664     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1665     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1666     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1667     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1668     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1669     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1670     ...
1672     File systems ---&gt;
1673     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1674     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1675     ...
1676     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1677     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1678     ...
1679     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1680     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1681     ...
1682     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1683     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1684     ...
1685     [*] /proc file system support
1686     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1687     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1688     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1689     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1690     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1691     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1692     ...
1693     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1694     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1695     ...
1696     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1697     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1698     </pre>
1699 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1700 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1701 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1702     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1703     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1704 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1705     </p>
1706 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1707     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1708     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1709     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1710     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1711     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1712     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1713 zhen 1.6 </p>
1714 peesh 1.130 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1715 zhen 1.16 <note>
1716 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1717     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1718 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1719 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1720     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1721     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1722 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1723     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1724 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1725     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1726 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1727 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1728 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1729     </note>
1730 swift 1.121
1731     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1732     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1733     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1734     </pre>
1735 swift 1.142 </body>
1736     </section>
1737     <section>
1738     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
1739     <body>
1740 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1741 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1742     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1743     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1744     newer alternatives.
1745     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1746 swift 1.142 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four
1747     lines. </p>
1748 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1749 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1750 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1751     <comment>or</comment>
1752 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1753 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1754     <comment>or</comment>
1755 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</c>
1756 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1757     <comment>or</comment>
1758 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</c>
1759 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1760 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1761 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1762 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1763     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1764     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1765     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1766     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1767     in real time, as expected),
1768     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1769 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1770     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1771 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1772 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1773     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1774     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1775     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1776     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1777     </pre>
1778 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1779     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1780 swift 1.142 you might as well grab vcron.
1781 zhen 1.6 </p>
1782 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1783 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</c>
1784 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1785 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1786     <comment>or</comment>
1787 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</c>
1788 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1789 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1790     <comment>or</comment>
1791 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</c>
1792 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1793     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1794     </pre>
1795     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1796 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1797 zhen 1.6 </p>
1798 zhen 1.16 </body>
1799     </section>
1800     </chapter>
1801     <chapter>
1802 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1803 zhen 1.16 <section>
1804     <body>
1805     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1806 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1807 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1808 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1809 swift 1.142 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
1810     # <c>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</c>
1811 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1812 zhen 1.40
1813     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1814     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1815     X support later.
1816     </note>
1817 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1818 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1819     for the first time.
1820     </note>
1821 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1822 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1823 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1824 zhen 1.6 </p>
1825 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1826 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1827 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1828 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1829 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1830 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k jfsutils</c>
1831 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1832 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1833 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1834 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1835 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1836 zhen 1.6 </p>
1837 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1838 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1839 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1840 swift 1.142 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
1841     (drobbins)
1842     <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1843 zhen 1.10 to work.
1844     </warn>
1845 swift 1.142 -->
1846     </body>
1847 zhen 1.16 </section>
1848     </chapter>
1849     <chapter>
1850 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1851 zhen 1.16 <section>
1852     <body>
1853 swift 1.142 <impo>
1854     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1855     </impo>
1856 zhen 1.16 <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1857 jhhudso 1.75 a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1858 zhen 1.6 The first file we need to
1859     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1860     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1861     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1862     </p>
1863 zhen 1.16 <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1864     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1865 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1866     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1867 drobbins 1.1 #
1868 zhware 1.31 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1869 drobbins 1.1 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1870 jhhudso 1.75 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1871 drobbins 1.1 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1873 seemant 1.78 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1874 drobbins 1.1
1875     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1876     </comment>
1877     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1878     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1879     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1880     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1881     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1882 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1883 jhhudso 1.75 <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1884 zhen 1.6 This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1885     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1886     </warn>
1887 zhen 1.16 </body>
1888     </section>
1889     </chapter>
1890     <chapter>
1891 swift 1.134 <title>User Management</title>
1892 zhen 1.16 <section>
1893 swift 1.134 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1894 zhen 1.16 <body>
1895     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1896 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1897 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1898 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1899 swift 1.134 </body>
1900     </section>
1901     <section>
1902     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1903     <body>
1904     <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1905     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1906     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1907     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1908 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1909 swift 1.134 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1910 swift 1.142 <p>Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1911 swift 1.134 <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1912     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1913     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1914 zhen 1.16 </body>
1915     </section>
1916     </chapter>
1917     <chapter>
1918 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1919 zhen 1.16 <section>
1920     <body>
1921 swift 1.121 <p>
1922     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1923     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1924     </p>
1925 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1926 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1927     </pre>
1928     <p>
1929     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1930     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1931     </p>
1932     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1933     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1934     </pre>
1935     <p>
1936     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1937     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1938     </p>
1939     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1940     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1941 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1942 zhen 1.16 </body>
1943     </section>
1944     </chapter>
1945     <chapter>
1946 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1947 zhen 1.16 <section>
1948     <body>
1949 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1950 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1951     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1952 zhen 1.6 </p>
1953 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1954 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1955     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1956 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1957 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1958 swift 1.136 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1959     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1960     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1961     </note>
1962 zhen 1.16 </body>
1963     </section>
1964     </chapter>
1965     <chapter>
1966     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1967     <section>
1968     <body>
1969     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1970 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1971     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1972     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1973     it as a module:
1974     </p>
1975 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1976     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1977 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1978 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1979 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1980 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1981 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1982 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1983     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1984 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1985 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1986     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1987 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1988 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1989     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1990     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1991 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1992 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1993 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1994 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
1995 zhen 1.6 </p>
1996 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
1997 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
1998     need pcmcia
1999     }
2000 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2001 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
2002 zhen 1.10 </p>
2003 zhen 1.16 </body>
2004     </section>
2005     </chapter>
2006     <chapter>
2007     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2008     <section>
2009     <body>
2010 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2011 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
2012 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2013 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
2014 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
2015     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
2016     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
2017     possibilities).
2018     </p>
2019 zhen 1.16 </body>
2020     </section>
2021     </chapter>
2022     <chapter>
2023 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2024 zhen 1.49 <section>
2025     <title>Notes</title>
2026     <body>
2027     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
2028     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
2029 swift 1.142 LILO as their bootloaders.
2030 zhen 1.49 </p>
2031     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2032 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2033 zhen 1.49 </p>
2034 swift 1.142 <p>In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending upon
2035     whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a kernel you
2036     compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important differences.</p>
2038 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
2039     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
2040 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
2041     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2042 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
2043 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
2044 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
2045 zhen 1.49 </body>
2046     </section>
2047 zhen 1.16 <section>
2048 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2049 zhen 1.16 <body>
2050     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
2051 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
2052     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
2053 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
2054 swift 1.142 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
2055 zhen 1.6 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
2056     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
2057 swift 1.142 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
2058     a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no SCSI hard drive,
2059 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
2061 swift 1.142 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, GRUB
2062 zhen 1.6 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
2063 swift 1.142 a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
2064     GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
2065 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
2066 zhen 1.6 </p>
2067 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
2068 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2069 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k grub</c>
2070 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
2071 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2072 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
2073 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
2074     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
2075     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
2076     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
2077     I want to type are:
2078     </p>
2079 zhen 1.68
2080 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2081 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2082     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
2083 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2084 zhen 1.68
2085 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2086 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
2087 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2088     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
2089 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
2090 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2091 swift 1.136
2092 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
2093 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
2094     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
2095     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
2096     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
2097     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
2098     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
2099     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
2100     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
2101 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
2102 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2103 zhen 1.52 </p>
2104 zhen 1.6
2105 swift 1.142 <note> The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2106 zhen 1.6 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2107 swift 1.142 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2108     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2109     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2110     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2111 zhen 1.6
2112 swift 1.142 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2113 zhen 1.6 to make the right choice.
2114     </note>
2116 zhen 1.52 <p>
2117 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
2118     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
2119 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2120 zhen 1.6 </p>
2121 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2122 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
2123 swift 1.142 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>. </impo>
2124 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
2125 zhen 1.6 </p>
2126 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2127 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2128     timeout 30
2129     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2131 swift 1.142 <comment>#if you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2132 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2133     root (hd0,0)
2134 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2135 drobbins 1.1
2136 swift 1.142 <comment>#if you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2137     title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2138     root (hd0,0)
2139     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2140     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2142 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2143 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2144 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2145 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2146 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2147 zhen 1.16 <note>
2148 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2149     </note>
2150 zhen 1.16 <impo>
2151 swift 1.142 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2152 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
2153     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
2154 zhen 1.6 </impo>
2155 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
2156 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
2157     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2158     </p>
2159 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
2160 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
2161     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
2162     loader.
2163 zhware 1.9 </note>
2164 zhen 1.16 <note>
2165 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2166 zhen 1.6 </note>
2167 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
2168 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2169     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
2170     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
2171     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
2172     </p>
2173 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2174 swift 1.142 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2175     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2176 zhen 1.6 </note>
2177 zhen 1.16 </body>
2178     </section>
2179 zhen 1.49 <section>
2180     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2181 zhen 1.16 <body>
2182 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
2183 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
2184 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
2185 zhen 1.16 </p>
2186     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
2187     </p>
2188 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2189 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k lilo</c>
2190 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2191 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
2192 zhen 1.16 </p>
2193 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2194 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2195     map=/boot/map
2196     install=/boot/boot.b
2197     prompt
2198     timeout=50
2199     lba32
2200     default=linux
2202 swift 1.142 #use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself
2203 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2204 zhen 1.16 label=linux
2205     read-only
2206 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
2207 swift 1.142
2208     #if you used genkernel, use something like this:
2209     image=/boot/kernel-KV
2210     label=gk_linux
2211     root=/dev/hda3
2212     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2213     append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2215 zhen 1.16
2216     #For dual booting windows/other OS
2217     other=/dev/hda1
2218     label=dos
2219 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2220 zhen 1.52 <ul>
2221 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
2222     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2223     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
2224     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
2225     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
2226 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
2227 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
2228     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2229     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
2230     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2231     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
2232     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
2233     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2234     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
2235     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2236 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2237 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
2238     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2239     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
2240     altered during the boot process. </li>
2241 peesh 1.128 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2242 zhen 1.52 </ul>
2243 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
2244     into the MBR:
2245     </p>
2246 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2247 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
2248 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2249 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2250     </p>
2251     </body>
2252     </section>
2253 swift 1.142 <section>
2254     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2255     <body>
2256     <p>
2257     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
2258     </p>
2259     <table>
2260     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2261     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2262     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2263     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2264     </table>
2265     <p>
2266     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2267     file.
2268     </p>
2269     <p>
2270     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2271     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2272     </p>
2273     </body>
2274     </section>
2275 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
2276     <chapter>
2277 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2278 zhen 1.16 <section>
2279     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2280     <body>
2281 swift 1.142 <impo>
2282     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2283     before proceeding.
2284     </impo>
2285 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2286 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2287 swift 1.136 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2288     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2289     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2290     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot
2291     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2292     like this:
2293 zhen 1.6 </p>
2294 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2295 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
2296     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
2297 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2298 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
2299 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
2300 zhen 1.16 </body>
2301     </section>
2302     <section>
2303     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2304     <body>
2305 swift 1.142 <impo>
2306     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2307     before proceeding.
2308     </impo>
2310 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2311     </p>
2312 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2313 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
2314     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
2315 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2316 zhen 1.16 </body>
2317     </section>
2318     </chapter>
2319 swift 1.142
2320     <chapter>
2321     <title>Using GRP</title>
2322     <section>
2323     <body>
2325     <p>GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:</p>
2327     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2328     # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</c>
2329     <codenote>USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86.</codenote>
2330     </pre>
2332     <p>CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2333     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including KDE, GNOME, Mozilla, and others.
2334     To install these packages, you will need to reboot into your new Gentoo
2335     system first (covered in the "Installation complete!" section near the end of this document.) After you are running your basic Gentoo system from the hard
2336     drive, you can mount the second CD and copy files:</p>
2338     <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2339     # <c>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</c>
2340     # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</c>
2341     </pre>
2343     <p>Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:</p>
2345     <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2346     # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</c>
2347     </pre>
2349     </body>
2350     </section>
2351     </chapter>
2352 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
2353     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2354     <section>
2355     <body>
2356 swift 1.142 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
2357 jhhudso 1.75
2358 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
2359     and reboot the system:
2360     </p>
2361 swift 1.142 <warn>
2362     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2363     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2364     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2365     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2366     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2367     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2368     </warn>
2369 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2370 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
2371     # <c>exit</c>
2372 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
2373 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
2374     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
2375     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
2376     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
2377     # <c>reboot</c>
2378 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2379 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2380 zhen 1.16 <note>
2381 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
2382     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
2383     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2384     </note>
2385 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
2386 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2387 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2388 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
2389     that will
2390     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
2391     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2392     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
2393 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
2394 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
2395 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
2396 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
2397     </p>
2398 zhen 1.16 </body>
2399     </section>
2400     </chapter>
2401     <chapter>
2402     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2403     <section>
2404     <body>
2405     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
2406 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
2407     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
2408     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2409     </p>
2410 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2411 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2412 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2413 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2414     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2415 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2416 zhen 1.6 </p>
2417 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2418     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2419     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2420     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2421     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2422     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2423     </ul>
2424     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2425 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2426     </p>
2427 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2428     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2429 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2430 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2431     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2432     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2433     </ul>
2434     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2435 zhen 1.6 </p>
2436 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2437 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2438     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2439 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2440 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2441 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2442     to see additional configuration options.
2443     </p>
2444 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2445 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2446     </p>
2447 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2448     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2449     </pre>
2450 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2451 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2452 zhen 1.16 </body>
2453     </section>
2454     </chapter>
2455 swift 1.137 <chapter>
2456     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
2457     <section>
2458     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
2459     <body>
2460     <p>
2461     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
2462     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
2463     install Gentoo Linux:
2464     </p>
2465     <ul>
2466     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c>
2467     kerneloption.</li>
2468     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup,
2469     or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2470     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
2471     # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
2472     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
2473     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
2474     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
2475 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
2476 swift 1.137 </pre>
2477     </li>
2478     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after
2479     partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2480     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new
2481     environment:
2482     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
2483     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
2484     </pre>
2485     </li>
2486     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
2487     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
2488     <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
2489     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2490     [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
2491     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2492     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
2493     <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
2494     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2495     [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
2496     <comment>and/or</comment>
2497     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
2498     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2499     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
2500     </pre></li>
2501     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when
2502     running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2503     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
2504     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
2505     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
2506     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2507     </pre>
2508     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
2509     to the appropriate RAID device:
2510     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
2511     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
2512     root (hd0,0)
2513     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2514     </pre></li>
2515     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the
2516     appropriate RAID device:
2517     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
2518     image=/boot/bzImage
2519     label=linux
2520     read-only
2521     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2522     </pre></li>
2523     </ul>
2524     </body>
2525     </section>
2526     </chapter>
2527 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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