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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 swift 1.142 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 zhen 1.16 <author title="Chief Architect">
6     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 swift 1.142 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 zhen 1.16 <author title="Ghost">
11     <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24     </author>
25 seo 1.41 <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27     </author>
28 zhware 1.43 <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30     </author>
31 jhhudso 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33     </author>
34     <author title="Editor">
35     <mail link="">Colin Morey</mail>
36 drobbins 1.97 </author>
37 peesh 1.96 <author title="Editor">
38     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
39 jhhudso 1.75 </author>
40 carl 1.101 <author title="Editor">
41     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
42     </author>
43 swift 1.142 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
44     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
45     </author>
46 swift 1.112 <author title="Editor">
47 swift 1.142 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
48     </author>
49     <author title="Reviewer">
50     <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
51     </author>
52     <author title="Reviewer">
53     <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
54 swift 1.112 </author>
55 zhen 1.16 <abstract>These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
56 swift 1.142 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions.) The Gentoo Linux installation process supports various installation
57 zhen 1.6 approaches, depending upon how much of the system you want to custom-build from
58     scratch.
59     </abstract>
60 swift 1.141
61     <license/>
63 avenj 1.146 <version>2.6.4</version>
64     <date>6th of August 2003</date>
65 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
66     <title>About the Install</title>
67     <section>
68     <body>
69 swift 1.142 <p>First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
70     Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
71     for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
72     the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
73     from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
74     you.</p>
76     <p>One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
77     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
78     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
79     addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
80     installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
81     Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Athlon XP.
82     To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
83     descriptions of each product in the <uri
84     link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
85     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.</p>
87     <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
88     CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation," and is a bootable CD-ROM,
89     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
90     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
91     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
92     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, every CD 1
93     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
94     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
95     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
96     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
97     file for CD 1, its name will end in "-cd1.iso".</p>
99     <p>In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable, and contains
100     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
101     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
102     Mozilla, Evolution, and others. CD 2 is <i>optional</i> and is
103     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
104     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
105     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
106     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
107     2, its name will end in "-cd2.iso". </p>
109     <note>A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
110     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
111     KDE, Mozilla, and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
112     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux installs
113     packages for those who need this capability. The "compile from
114     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
115     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
116     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
117     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
118     installation process in any way.</note>
120     <p>In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
121     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
122     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
123     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
124     that it is small, and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
125     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
126     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available, and have a
127     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
128     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
129     end in "-basic.iso".</p>
130 drobbins 1.70
131 swift 1.142 <p>To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
132     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
133     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
134     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
135     those conditions.)</p>
137     <p>Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
138     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
139     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
140     you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
141     want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
142     stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
143     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
144     contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
145     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
146     stage3 tarball should be used.</p>
148     <p><b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
149     stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
150     make this decision.
151     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
152     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
153     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
154     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
155 swift 1.147 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
156     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.</p>
157 swift 1.142
158     <p>
159     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process, and doing
160     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
161     chose for your particular stage2 tarball. And choosing to go with a
162     stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also
163     means that your base system will have the optimization settings that
164     we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
165     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
166     stability.) Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
167     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
168     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
169     and a system that is well-optimized.
170     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the
171     first time, consider using a stage3 tarball for
172     installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b></p>
173 drobbins 1.70
174 swift 1.142 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> if you use a stage3 install, you should not
175     change the default CHOST setting in make.conf. If you need to make
176     such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
177     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
178     typically looks something like this:
179     <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.</note>
181 drobbins 1.70 <impo>If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
182 drobbins 1.21 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
183 jhhudso 1.75 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (eg the KDE team) the
184 drobbins 1.70 <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
185     </impo>
186 swift 1.142
187     <note>Another note: the installation instructions in the LiveCD may not
188     be as up-to-date as our Web documentation at
189     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>. Refer to
190     our Web documentation for the most up-to-date
191 peesh 1.127 installation instructions.
192     </note>
193 swift 1.142
196     <p>Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will
197     download, burn CD(s),
198 jhhudso 1.75 and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create partitions, create
199 drobbins 1.21 our filesystems, and extract either a stage1, stage2 or stage3 tarball. If we
200     are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take the appropriate steps to get
201 jhhudso 1.75 our system to stage3. Once our system is at stage3, we can configure it
202 swift 1.142 (customize configuration files, install a boot loader, etc), boot it and have a
203     fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After your basic Gentoo Linux system
204     is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of our 2-CD set and install any
205     number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice, Mozilla, or
206     others that you'd like on your system.
207     </p>
208     <p>Depending on what stage of the build
209 jhhudso 1.75 process you're starting from, here is what is required for installation: </p>
210 zhen 1.26 <table>
211 zhen 1.16 <tr>
212     <th>stage tarball</th>
213 swift 1.142 <th>Internet access required</th>
214     <th>Media required</th>
215     <th>steps</th>
216 zhen 1.16 </tr>
217     <tr>
218     <ti>1</ti>
219 swift 1.142 <ti>Yes</ti>
220     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
221     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
222 zhen 1.16 </tr>
223     <tr>
224     <ti>2</ti>
225 swift 1.142 <ti>Yes</ti>
226     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
227     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
228 zhen 1.16 </tr>
229     <tr>
230     <ti>3</ti>
231 swift 1.142 <ti>No if using "CD 1", Yes otherwise</ti>
232     <ti>"basic" or "CD 1"</ti>
233     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if
234     using "CD 1"), final config</ti>
235 zhen 1.16 </tr>
236 swift 1.142 <tr>
237     <ti>3+GRP</ti>
238     <ti>No</ti>
239     <ti>"CD 1", optionally "CD 2"</ti>
240     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1
241     pre-built packages (optional), reboot,
242     install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using
243     "CD 2").</ti>
244     </tr>
245     </table>
246 swift 1.137 <note>Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about
247     ATA RAID on the bottom of this document before proceeding.
248     </note>
249 zhen 1.16 </body>
250     </section>
251     </chapter>
252     <chapter>
253     <title>Booting</title>
254     <section>
255     <body>
256 swift 1.134 <warn>Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the
257     available boot options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong
258     keyboard settings, unstarted pcmcia services etc.</warn>
259 swift 1.142
260     <p>Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
261     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
262     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
263     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
264     and then hitting Enter. For example <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
265     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
266     processor ("SMP",) then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
267     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
268     the processors in your system, not just the first one.</p>
270     <p>
271     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
272     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.</p>
274     <table>
275 antifa 1.105 <tr>
276 swift 1.142 <th>Available kernels</th>
277 antifa 1.105 <th>description</th>
278     </tr>
280 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
281 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
282     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
283     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
284     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
286     </table>
287 swift 1.142
288 antifa 1.105 <p>
289     <table>
290     <tr>
291 swift 1.142 <th>Available boot options</th>
292 antifa 1.105 <th>description</th>
293     </tr>
294 antifa 1.106
295     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti>
296     <ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
297 antifa 1.105
298 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti>
299     <ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc)</ti></tr>
301     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti>
302     <ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
304     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti>
305     <ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
307 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti>
308     <ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
310 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>noapm</ti>
311     <ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
313 antifa 1.105 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti>
314     <ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
316     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti>
317     <ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
319 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti>
320     <ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
321 antifa 1.105
322     <tr><ti>noraid</ti>
323     <ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
325 antifa 1.106 <tr><ti>nousb</ti>
326     <ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
327 antifa 1.105
328     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti>
329     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
331     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti>
332     <ti>Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram, This uses 40mb of RAM , but allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another cdrom.</ti></tr>
334     </table></p>
335 drobbins 1.70
336 swift 1.142
337     <p>Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
338 swift 1.147 screen and progress bar.</p>
339     <!--
340 swift 1.142 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
341     Linux Live CD booting" />
342 swift 1.147 -->
343 swift 1.142
344     <p>Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
345     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as
346     &quot;<c>root</c>&quot;, the "super user." You should have a root (&quot;<c>#</c>&quot;) prompt
347 seemant 1.78 on the current console, and can also switch to other consoles by pressing
348 jhhudso 1.75 Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing
349 swift 1.147 Alt-F1. </p>
350     <!--
351 swift 1.142
352     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
353     Linux Live CD console" />
354 swift 1.147 -->
355 swift 1.144
356 swift 1.142 <note><b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
357     set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
358     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
359     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
360     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
361     CD over the network. </note>
363 zhen 1.26 <p>You've probably also noticed that above your <c>#</c> prompt is a bunch of help text
364 drobbins 1.70 that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking and telling you where you can find
365 drobbins 1.21 the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages on your CD.
366 zhen 1.6 </p>
367 zhen 1.16 </body>
368     </section>
369     </chapter>
370     <chapter>
371 swift 1.142 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
372 zhen 1.16 <section>
373     <body>
374 swift 1.142 <p>When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
375     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
376     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
377     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
378     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
379 jhhudso 1.75 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
380 zhen 1.6 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
381 swift 1.142 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
382 zhen 1.6 type:
383     </p>
384 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
385 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe pcnet32</c>
386 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
387 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
388 drobbins 1.70 <p>Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't detected
389 jhhudso 1.75 during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to load the appropriate
390 zhen 1.6 modules from /lib/modules, again using <c>modprobe</c>:
391     </p>
392 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
393 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe aic7xxx</c>
394 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
395 drobbins 1.1 # <c>modprobe sd_mod</c>
396 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
397 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
398 zhen 1.6 <note>
399 swift 1.142 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
400 zhen 1.52 </note>
401 swift 1.142
402     <note><b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
403     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
404     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
405     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
406 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>Replace hdX with your disk device.</comment>
407 drobbins 1.21 # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX <comment>Enables DMA </comment>
408 jhhudso 1.75 # hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX
409     <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
410     # hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX
411     <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
412     </pre>
413 swift 1.142 </note>
416     </body>
417 zhen 1.16 </section>
418     </chapter>
419     <chapter>
420 swift 1.142 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
421 drobbins 1.70 <section>
422     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
423     <body>
424 swift 1.142 <p>If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
425     likely that your networking configuration has already been
426     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of the many included
427 drobbins 1.70 network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>,
428     among others.</p>
430     <p>If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command should
431     list some internet interfaces besides <c>lo</c>, such as <c>eth0</c>:
432     </p>
433 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
434 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
435     inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
436     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
438     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
439     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
440     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
441     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
442     Interrupt:11
443 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
444 drobbins 1.70 <p>You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>),
445     and a Web site of choice, just to make sure that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name
446     resolution is working correctly, etc.
447     </p>
448 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
449 drobbins 1.94 # <c>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com </c>
450 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
451 drobbins 1.70 <p>Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this section.</p>
452     </body>
453     </section>
454 zhen 1.16 <section>
455     <title> PPPoE configuration</title>
456     <body>
457 drobbins 1.70 <p>Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version) has
458 drobbins 1.21 made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided <c>adsl-setup</c>
459 zhen 1.6 script to configure your connection. You will be prompted for the ethernet
460     device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username and password,
461     the IPs of your DNS servers, and if you need a basic firewall or not. </p>
462 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
463 zhen 1.6 # <c> adsl-setup </c>
464     # <c> adsl-start </c>
465 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
466 drobbins 1.70 <p>If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed
467 zhen 1.6 your username and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
468     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path>, and make sure you are using the right ethernet device. </p>
469 zhen 1.16 </body>
470     </section>
471     <section>
472     <title> Automatic Network Configuration </title>
473     <body>
474 drobbins 1.70 <p>The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script.</p>
475 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
476 drobbins 1.1 # <c>net-setup eth0</c>
477 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
478 drobbins 1.70 <p>Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is covered next.</p>
479 zhen 1.16 </body>
480     </section>
481     <section>
482     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
483     <body>
484     <p>Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
485     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below. </p>
486 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
487     # <c>dhcpcd eth0</c>
488     </pre>
489 zhen 1.16 <note>Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that,
490 zhen 1.6 add a <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
491     </note>
492 zhen 1.16 <p>If you receive <i>dhcpConfig</i> warnings, don't panic; the errors
493 zhen 1.6 are most likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.</p>
494 zhen 1.16 </body>
495     </section>
496     <section>
497     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
498     <body>
499     <p>We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download
500 swift 1.117 sources for the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed information is explained in the next table.</p>
502     <table>
503     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
504 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
505     <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network.</ti><ti></ti></tr>
506 swift 1.117 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
507 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
508 swift 1.117 </table>
510     <p>Type in the following commands, replacing
511 zhen 1.6 $IFACE with your network interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), $IPNUM
512     with your IP address, $BCAST with your broadcast address, and $NMASK
513     with your network mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace
514     $GTWAY with your default gateway.
515     </p>
516 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
517 drobbins 1.1 # <c>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</c>
518 swift 1.117 # <c>/sbin/route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</c>
519 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
520 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
521 swift 1.115 file so that name resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather
522     than just by IP address) will work. You can use <c>nano -w
523     /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>.
524     <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use editor.</p>
525 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is a template to follow for creating your /etc/resolv.conf file: </p>
526 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
527 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
528     nameserver
529     nameserver
530 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
531 zhen 1.16 <p>Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
532 zhen 1.6 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.</p>
533 zhen 1.16 </body>
534     </section>
535     <section>
536     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
537     <body>
538 swift 1.115 <p>If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy before
539 peesh 1.104 you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy accordingly.
540 zhen 1.6 </p>
541 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
542 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</codenote>
543 zhen 1.16 # <c>export http_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com:1234&quot; </c>
544 swift 1.115 <codenote>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</codenote>
545     # <c>export ftp_proxy=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
546     <codenote>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</codenote>
547     # <c>export RSYNC_PROXY=&quot;machine.company.com&quot; </c>
548 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
549 zhen 1.16 </body>
550     </section>
551 drobbins 1.70 <section>
552 zhen 1.16 <title>Networking is go!</title>
553     <body>
554 seemant 1.78 <p>Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the included
555 drobbins 1.21 <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c> commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.</p>
556 zhen 1.16 </body>
557     </section>
558     </chapter>
559     <chapter>
560 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
561     <section>
562     <body>
563     <p>Now you need to set your system's date and time.
564     You can do this using the <c>date</c> command.</p>
565     <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
566     # <c>date</c>
567     Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
568     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
569     # <c>date 022709042003</c>
570     <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
571     </pre>
572     </body>
573     </section>
574     </chapter>
575     <chapter>
576 drobbins 1.86 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
577 zhen 1.16 <section>
578 drobbins 1.86 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
579 zhen 1.16 <body>
580 drobbins 1.86 <p>
581     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including
582 peesh 1.99 Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
583 drobbins 1.86 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux
584     install.
585     </p>
586     <p>
587     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
588     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
589     </p>
590     <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
591     /dev/hda
592     </pre>
594     <p>
595     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
596     </p>
598     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
599     /dev/sda
600     </pre>
602     <p>The block devices above represent an <i>abstract</i> interface to the disk.
603     User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
604     worrying about whether your drivers are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
605     program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
606     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks. </p>
607     </body>
608     </section>
609     <section>
610     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
611     <body>
612     <p> Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
613     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc,) specifying a particular
614     block device as a command-line argument. </p>
616     <p> However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
617     device (one that represents the <i>entire</i> disk) like <c>/dev/hda</c> or
618     <c>/dev/sda</c> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never done in
619     practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller, more
620 peesh 1.99 manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created using a
621 drobbins 1.86 tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the partition table
622     that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines exactly how to split
623     up the full disk. </p>
625     <p> We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
626     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument: </p>
628     <note>Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
629 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
630     more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.</note>
631 drobbins 1.86
632     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
633     # fdisk /dev/hda
634     </pre>
635     <p>
636     or
637     </p>
638     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
639     # fdisk /dev/sda
640     </pre>
642     <impo>
643     <b>Note that you should <i>not</i> save or make any changes to a disk's
644     partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
645     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
646     lost.</b>
647     </impo>
649     <p>
650     Once in fdisk, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
651     </p>
653     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
654     Command (m for help):
655     </pre>
658     <p>
659     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
660     </p>
662     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
663     Command (m for help): p
665     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
666     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
668     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
669     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
670     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
671     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
672     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
673     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
674     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
675     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
676     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
677     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
679     Command (m for help):
680     </pre>
682     <p> This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
683     with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
684     (listed as "Linux swap"). </p>
686     <p>
687     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
688     devices on the left hand side, starting with <c>/dev/hda1</c> and going up to
689     <c>/dev/hda9</c>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning software only
690     allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary" partitions). This was
691     too limiting, so a workaround called an <i>extended partitioning</i> was
692     created. An extended partition is very similar to a primary partition, and
693     counts towards the primary partition limit of four. However, extended
694     partitions can hold any number of so-called <i>logical</i> partitions inside
695     them, providing an effective means of working around the four partition limit.
696     </p>
698     <p>
699     All partitions <c>hda5</c> and higher are logical partitions. The numbers 1
700     through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions. </p>
702     <p> So, In our example, <c>hda1</c> through <c>hda3</c> are primary partitions.
703     <c>hda4</c> is an extended partition that contains logical partitions
704 drobbins 1.87 <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. You would never actually
705 drobbins 1.86 <i>use</i> <c>/dev/hda4</c> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
706     acts as a container for partitions <c>hda5</c> through <c>hda9</c>. </p>
708     <p> Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
709     type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
710     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
711 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
712     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
713     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
714 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
715 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
716 drobbins 1.86 </p>
717     </body>
718     </section>
719     <section>
720     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
721     <body>
723 drobbins 1.87 <p>Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
724 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
725     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
726     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
727     look like this: </p>
729     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
730     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
731     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
732     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
734     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
735     /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
736     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
737     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
739     Command (m for help):
740     </pre>
742     <p>In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
743     The first one (<c>/dev/hda1</c>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
744     partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
745     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
746     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
747     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
748     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
749 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
750     likely end up being <c>/dev/sda1</c>.</p>
751 drobbins 1.86
752 drobbins 1.98 <p>It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
753     the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
754     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
755     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
756     cylinder 1024.
757     </p>
759 drobbins 1.86 <p>The second partition (<c>/dev/hda2</c>) is used to for swap space. The
760     kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
761     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
762 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
763     being called <c>/dev/sda2</c>. </p>
764 drobbins 1.86
765     <p>The third partition (<c>/dev/hda3</c>) is quite large and takes up the rest
766     of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be used to
767     store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI system,
768     this partition would likely end up being <c>/dev/sda3</c>.</p>
771     <p>Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
772     suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
773     Linux:</p>
775     <table>
776     <tr>
777     <th>Partition</th>
778     <th>Size</th>
779     <th>Type</th>
780     <th>example device</th>
781     </tr>
782     <tr>
783     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
784 swift 1.115 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
785 swift 1.122 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
786 drobbins 1.86 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
787     </tr>
788     <tr>
789     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
790 swift 1.142 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM
791 drobbins 1.86 in your system.</ti>
792     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
793     <ti>/dev/hda2</ti>
794     </tr>
795     <tr>
796     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc)</ti>
797     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
798     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
799     <ti>/dev/hda3</ti>
800     </tr>
801     </table>
803     <p>OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
804 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
805 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
806     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
807     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
808     existing data on your disk will be erased.</b></p>
810     <impo>Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
811     to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
812     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
813     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
814     from the wrong drive.</impo>
816     <p>Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
817     and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
818     to delete. To delete a pre-existing <c>/dev/hda1</c>, you would type:</p>
820     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
821     Command (m for help): d
822     Partition number (1-4): 1
823     </pre>
824 zhen 1.54
825 drobbins 1.86 <p>The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
826     you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
827     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
828     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
829     deleted.</p>
830     <p>Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
831     system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
832     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
833     with a partition table with nothing in it:</p>
835     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
836     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
837     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
838     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
840     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
842     Command (m for help):
843     </pre>
845     <p>Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
846     boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
847     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
848     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
849 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
850     partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:</p>
852     <note>
853     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
854 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
855 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
856     for the last cylinder.
857     </note>
858 drobbins 1.86
859     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
860     Command (m for help): n
861     Command action
862     e extended
863     p primary partition (1-4)
864     p
865     Partition number (1-4): 1
866     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1):
867     Using default value 1
868 swift 1.115 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): +32M
869 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
871     <p>Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:</p>
873     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
874     Command (m for help): p
876     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
877     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
878     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
880     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
881     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
882     </pre>
884     <p>Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
885     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition. Then
886     type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition, <c>/dev/hda2</c> in our case.
887     When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder,
888     type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type
889 swift 1.124 <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just
890     created, and then type in <c>82</c> to set the partition
891 drobbins 1.86 type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display
892     a partition table that looks similar to this:</p>
894     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
895     Command (m for help): p
897     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
898     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
899     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
901     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
902     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
903     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
904     </pre>
906     <p>Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
907     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
908 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
909 drobbins 1.86 <c>/dev/hda3</c> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter.
910     When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a partition that takes
911     up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After completing these steps,
912     typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
913     this:</p>
915     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
916     Command (m for help): p
918     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
919     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
920     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
922     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
923     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
924     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
925     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
926     </pre>
928     <p>
929     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
930     our changes to disk. To tag <c>/dev/hda1</c> as a "bootable" partition, type
931     <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number. If you
932     type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <c>/dev/hda1</c> has a <c>*</c> in the "Boot"
933     column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do this, type <c>w</c> and hit
934     enter. Your disk partitions are now properly configured for a Gentoo Linux
935     install.
936     </p>
938     <note>If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
939     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.</note>
940     </body>
941     </section>
942     <section>
943     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
944     <body>
945     <p>Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
946     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store data.
947     We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
948     </p>
950     <p>Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
951     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics. Currently,
952     we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS filesystems.</p>
954     <p>ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
955     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
956     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
957     <i>journaled</i> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
958     and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
959     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
960     filesystem happens to be in an <i>inconsistent</i> state.</p>
962     <p>ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
963     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
964     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
965 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
966     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
967     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
968     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
969     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
970     its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.</p>
971 drobbins 1.86
972     <p>ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
973     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
974     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
975     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
976     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
977     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
978     use of many small files, very large files, and directories containing tens of
979     thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
980     non-boot partitions.</p>
982     <p>XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
983     Gentoo Linux's <path>xfs-sources</path> kernel. It comes with a robust
984     feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
985     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
986     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
987     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
988     when writing files to disk, and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
989     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.</p>
991 swift 1.142 <p>JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
992 drobbins 1.86 become production-ready, and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
993 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
994 drobbins 1.86 point.</p>
996     <p>If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
997     you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
998     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
999     refined and recommended for general use.</p>
1001     <!-- Corner case, confusing
1002 drobbins 1.70 <p>But before creating filesystems, you may want to initialize the
1003 jhhudso 1.81 beginning of your partition using <c>dd</c> if you are using a pre-existing partition that has been used before.
1004 drobbins 1.70 This is particularly helpful when you're going to create a new XFS filesystem on a partition that previously contained
1005     a ReiserFS filesystem. Doing this will ensure that your new filesystem
1006 seemant 1.78 will not be mis-identified by Linux's filesystem auto-detection code.
1007 drobbins 1.21 This can be done as follows:
1008 zhen 1.6 </p>
1009 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing first 1024 bytes of your partition">
1010     # <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda3 bs=1k count=1</c>
1011     <comment>(Replace /dev/hda3 with the partition you wish to &quot;clean.&quot;)</comment>
1012     </pre>
1013     <warn>The command above will destroy all data from <path>/dev/hda3</path>.
1014 zhware 1.43 Be careful and check twice which partition you specify for zeroing.
1015     If you make a mistake it might result in a loss of data.
1016     </warn>
1017 drobbins 1.86 -->
1019     <p>Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1020     all our partitions for use:</p>
1022     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1023     # mke2fs -j /dev/hda1
1024     # mkswap /dev/hda2
1025     # mkreiserfs /dev/hda3
1026     </pre>
1028 drobbins 1.98 <p>We choose ext3 for our <c>/dev/hda1</c> boot partition because it is a
1029     robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1030     <c>mkswap</c> for our <c>/dev/hda2 </c> swap partition -- the choice is obvious
1031     here. And for our main root filesystem on <c>/dev/hda3</c> we choose ReiserFS,
1032     since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent performance. Now,
1033     go ahead and initialize your partitions.</p>
1035     <p>For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1036     during the installation process:</p>
1037 drobbins 1.86
1038 drobbins 1.89 <p><c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:</p>
1039 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1040 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkswap /dev/hda2</c>
1041 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1042 drobbins 1.89 <p>You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:</p>
1043 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1044 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1045 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1046 drobbins 1.86 <p>If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1047 drobbins 1.89 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:</p>
1048 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1049     # <c>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</c>
1050     </pre>
1051     <note>You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1052     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.</note>
1053 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:</p>
1054 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1055     # <c>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</c>
1056     </pre>
1057 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:</p>
1058 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1059 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</c>
1060 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1061     <note>You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the
1062     <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>.
1063     The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command will lower the number of allocation groups.
1064     XFS will insist on using at least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your
1065     partition, so, for example, if you have a 20 GB partition you will need
1066     a minimum agcount of 5. The <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the
1067     journal size to 32 Mb, increasing performance.</note>
1068 drobbins 1.86
1069 drobbins 1.89 <p>To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:</p>
1070 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1071 zhen 1.50 # <c>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</c>
1072 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1073 zhen 1.16 </body>
1074     </section>
1075     </chapter>
1076     <chapter>
1077     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1078     <section>
1079     <body>
1080 drobbins 1.86 <p>Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need the additional virtual memory that it
1081 zhen 1.6 provides later:
1082     </p>
1083 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1084 drobbins 1.1 # <c>swapon /dev/hda2</c>
1085 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1086 drobbins 1.86
1087 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount points,
1088 zhen 1.93 and we will mount our filesystems to these mount points. Once our boot and root filesystems are
1089 drobbins 1.86 mounted, any files we copy or create inside <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1090     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo
1091     Linux with separate <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1092     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1093     </p>
1095     <impo>If your <e>boot</e> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS, be sure to mount it
1096 peesh 1.103 with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly installed. Make sure
1097 drobbins 1.86 that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1098 drobbins 1.102 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS, then the <c>-o notail</c>
1099     is not needed. It's always safe to specify the <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're
1100     not sure what to do.
1101 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
1103 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1104 drobbins 1.1 # <c>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</c>
1105     # <c>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1106     # <c>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
1107 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1108 drobbins 1.86
1109     <impo>If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1110 zhen 1.6 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2 </c> </impo>
1111 zhen 1.16 </body>
1112     </section>
1113     </chapter>
1114     <chapter>
1115 drobbins 1.86 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1116 zhen 1.16 <section>
1117 drobbins 1.86 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1118 zhen 1.16 <body>
1119 zhen 1.55
1120 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1121     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1122 swift 1.142 basis for the install if you haven't already.
1123     The stages on the Live CD are
1124     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path>, and you can type <c>ls
1125     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c>
1126     to see what's available on your CD.</p>
1127 drobbins 1.86
1128 swift 1.142 <p><b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.</p>
1129 drobbins 1.86
1130     <p>If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1131 swift 1.142 <i>not</i> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1132     "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1133 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1134 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1135     "Extracting the stage tarball" section.</p>
1136 drobbins 1.86
1137 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1138 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1139 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1140 swift 1.142 # <c>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</c>
1141 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1142     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1143     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1144     Save the file and quit the browser
1146     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1147     # <c>wget <comment>insert URL to the required stage tarball here.</comment></c>
1148 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1149 zhen 1.16 </body>
1150     </section>
1151     <section>
1152 drobbins 1.86 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1153 zhen 1.16 <body>
1154 drobbins 1.86
1155     <p>Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1156     <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1157     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1158     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1159     Unpack the stage tarball as follows:</p>
1161     <impo>Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1162     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.</impo>
1164 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1165 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /mnt/gentoo</c>
1166 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1167     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1168 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1169     # <c>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</c>
1170 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1172     <p>If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now delete it by typing
1173 drobbins 1.90 <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.</p>
1174 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1175     </section>
1176     <section>
1177 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1178     <body>
1179     <impo>The following instructions are for GRP users only.</impo>
1180     <p><b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1181     need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1182     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1183     connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:</p>
1184     <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1185     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1186     # <c>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</c>
1187     </pre>
1188     <p>This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1189     install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1190     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1191     from the Live CD into place:</p>
1193     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1194     # <c>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>
1195 avenj 1.146 # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</c>
1196 swift 1.142 </pre>
1198     <p>All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1199     everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1200     -- even without a network connection.</p>
1202     </body>
1203     </section>
1204     <section>
1205 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1206     <body>
1207     <p>
1208     Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to &quot;enter&quot; the new
1209     Gentoo Linux system.
1210     </p>
1211 swift 1.112
1212     <note>
1213     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1214 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1215 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1216 swift 1.112 the problem.
1217     </note>
1218 drobbins 1.86
1219     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1220 drobbins 1.94 # <c>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
1221 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</c>
1222     # <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</c>
1223     # <c>env-update</c>
1224     Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1225     # <c>source /etc/profile</c>
1226 swift 1.142 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries).</comment>
1227 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1228 drobbins 1.86 <p>After you execute these commands, you will be &quot;inside&quot; your new Gentoo Linux environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>.
1229     We can perform the rest of the installation process inside the chroot.
1230     </p>
1231 zhen 1.16 </body>
1232     </section>
1233     </chapter>
1234     <chapter>
1235 jhhudso 1.75 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1236 zhen 1.16 <section>
1237     <body>
1238 swift 1.133
1239     <!-- This is not yet implemented. Uncomment when it is!
1241 swift 1.132 <p>In order to maximize the downloadspeed, you should now select rsync- and distfiles mirrors. To simplify this task, we have a tool called <c>mirrorselect</c>. Issue the following two commands:</p>
1243     <pre caption="Selecting a mirror">
1244     <comment>First we have mirrorselect select 5 close mirrors for us.</comment>
1245     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s5</i>
1246     <comment>Now we select an rsync-mirror ourselves:</comment>
1247     # <i>mirrorselect -i -r</i>
1248     </pre>
1249 swift 1.133
1250     -->
1251 swift 1.132
1252 swift 1.142
1254     <impo>If you doing a GRP install you can ignore the following section on
1255     <c>emerge sync</c>.</impo>
1257     <p>Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1258     to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1259     Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from "CD 1" earlier, you
1260     can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1261     (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1262     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1263     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1264     <path>/usr/portage</path>.</p>
1265 drobbins 1.86
1266 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1267 zhen 1.6 # <c>emerge sync</c>
1268 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1269 zhen 1.60
1270 zhen 1.16 </body>
1271     </section>
1272     </chapter>
1273     <chapter>
1274     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1275     <section>
1276     <body>
1277 drobbins 1.86
1278     <p>Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1279     customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1280     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1281     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1282     this file, you should set your <c>USE</c> flags, which specify optional
1283     functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1284     generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset <c>USE</c> variable) are
1285     fine. More information on <c>USE</c> flags can be found <uri
1286     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1287     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1288     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>. </p>
1290 swift 1.142 <p>If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate <c>CHOST</c>, <c>CFLAGS</c> and
1291 drobbins 1.86 <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings for the kind of system that you are creating
1292 swift 1.142 (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you are using
1293     a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1294     optimally and should not require any modification.</p>
1296     <impo><b>Advanced users:</b> The <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings
1297     settings
1298     are used to tell the C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that
1299 drobbins 1.86 is generated on your system. It is common for users with Athlon XP processors
1300     to specify a "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings
1301     so that all packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and
1302     performance characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1303 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1304     </impo>
1306     <!-- needs qa
1307     <note><b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1308     to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1309     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1310     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1311     <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS, and
1312     CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1313     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.</note>
1314     -->
1316 drobbins 1.86 <p>If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1317     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> using <c>nano</c>,
1318     a simple visual editor.
1319     </p>
1320 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1321     # <c>nano -w /etc/make.conf</c>
1322     </pre>
1323 zhen 1.16 <note>
1324 swift 1.142 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build process should take a look at
1325 zhen 1.6 the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This file comprises gentoo defaults and
1326 drobbins 1.70 should never be touched. If the defaults do not suffice, then new values should
1327 zhen 1.6 be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, as entries in <path>make.conf</path>
1328     <comment>override</comment> the entries in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're
1329 jhhudso 1.75 interested in customizing USE settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1330 zhen 1.16 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate <c>USE=&quot;-foo&quot;</c>
1331 drobbins 1.86 in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c> USE setting enabled by default
1332     in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1333 zhen 1.6 </note>
1334 swift 1.142 <warn>Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your <c>USE</c> variables until after stage1.</warn>
1335 zhen 1.16 </body>
1336     </section>
1337     </chapter>
1338     <chapter>
1339 zhen 1.18 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1340 zhen 1.16 <section>
1341     <body>
1342 drobbins 1.86 <note>If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.</note>
1343 jhhudso 1.75 <p>The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you have picked this tarball,
1344 swift 1.142 you are most likely looking to have an uber-optimized and up-to-date
1345     system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1 takes a lot of time, but the result
1346 drobbins 1.70 is a system that has been optimized from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1347 zhen 1.18 </p>
1348 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, it is time to start the &quot;bootstrap&quot; process. This process takes about two hours on
1349 peesh 1.99 my 1200MHz AMD Athlon system.
1350 drobbins 1.86 During this time, the GNU C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start the bootstrap
1351     as follows:</p>
1352 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1353 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/portage</c>
1354     # <c>scripts/bootstrap.sh</c>
1355 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1356 antifa 1.125 <p>The &quot;bootstrap&quot; process will now begin.</p>
1357     <note><c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related files in one go for later compilation. <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more information.</note>
1358 zhen 1.16 <note>
1359 zhen 1.6 Portage by default uses <c>/var/tmp</c> during package building, often
1360     using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would like to
1361     change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e>
1362     starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1363     </note>
1364 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1365 zhen 1.16 # <c>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR=&quot;/otherdir/tmp&quot;</c>
1366 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1367 zhen 1.16 <p><c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1368 antifa 1.125 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c>
1369 zhen 1.6 after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to say, this process takes a while.
1370 jhhudso 1.75 Once this process completes, your system will be equivalent to a &quot;stage2&quot; system,
1371 zhen 1.33 which means you can now move on to the stage2 instructions.
1372 zhen 1.6 </p>
1373 zhen 1.16 </body>
1374     </section>
1375     </chapter>
1376     <chapter>
1377 drobbins 1.86 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1378 zhen 1.16 <section>
1379     <body>
1380 drobbins 1.86
1381     <note>This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1382 swift 1.142 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1383 drobbins 1.86 </note>
1384 swift 1.140
1385     <warn>
1386     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1387     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1388     broad compilation failures. We are working on fixing this
1389 swift 1.142 of course.
1390 swift 1.140 </warn>
1391 drobbins 1.86
1392     <p>The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you have
1393 zhen 1.18 to do is install the rest of the system.
1394 zhen 1.6 </p>
1395 drobbins 1.108 <note>If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1396     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1397     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1398     safe to skip this suggestion.</note>
1400 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing the Rest of the System">
1401 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge -p system</c>
1402 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1403 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge system</c>
1404 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1405 jhhudso 1.75 <p>It is going to take a while
1406 zhen 1.6 to finish building the entire base system. Your reward is that it will be
1407     thoroughly optimized for your system. The drawback is that you have to find a
1408 zhen 1.16 way to keep yourself occupied for some time to come. The author suggests &quot;Star
1409 zhen 1.37 Wars - Super Bombad Racing&quot; for the PS2.
1410     </p>
1411 drobbins 1.108 <p>
1412     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1413     your time zone" section.
1414 zhen 1.18 </p>
1415     </body>
1416     </section>
1417     </chapter>
1418     <chapter>
1419     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1420     <section>
1421     <body>
1422 drobbins 1.86 <note>This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3, and not for those who have started
1423 swift 1.142 with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users should skip ahead to the next section.</note>
1424 drobbins 1.108
1425 swift 1.140 <warn>
1426 swift 1.142 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1427     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1428 swift 1.140 </warn>
1430 swift 1.142 <p>The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1431     so no building is required.</p>
1433     <note><b>Advanced users:</b>
1434 drobbins 1.86 However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern
1435 drobbins 1.108 for you, you can automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date versions of all system packages
1436 swift 1.142 by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-* /etc/make.conf" emerge -u
1437     system</c> (this requires a network connection). Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1438 drobbins 1.86 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit from the very latest
1439     Gentoo updates and fixes.
1440     In any case, feel free to skip these
1441     steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1442 swift 1.142 </note>
1443 zhen 1.57
1444 seemant 1.79 </body>
1445     </section>
1446     </chapter>
1447     <chapter>
1448 jhhudso 1.81 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1449 seemant 1.79 <section>
1450     <body>
1451 jhhudso 1.81 <p>Now you need to set your time zone.</p>
1452     <p>Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1453     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1454     /etc/localtime by typing:</p>
1455     <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1456 seemant 1.79 # <c>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</c>
1457 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1458 zhen 1.16 </body>
1459     </section>
1460     </chapter>
1461     <chapter>
1462 avenj 1.146 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1463     <section>
1464     <body>
1465     <impo>
1466     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1467     </impo>
1468     <p>Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is configure
1469     a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1470     The first file we need to
1471     configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember that you should use
1472     the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it.
1473     Remember to specify <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1474     </p>
1475     <p>Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be sure to replace &quot;BOOT&quot;,
1476     &quot;ROOT&quot; and &quot;SWAP&quot; with the actual block devices you are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.)</p>
1477     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1478     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1479     #
1480     # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1481     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1482     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1483     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1485     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1487     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1488     </comment>
1489     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1490     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1491     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1492     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1493     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1494     </pre>
1495     <warn>Please notice that <i>/boot</i> is NOT mounted at boot time.
1496     This is to protect the data in <i>/boot</i> from
1497     corruption. If you need to access <i>/boot</i>, please mount it!
1498     </warn>
1499     </body>
1500     </section>
1501     </chapter>
1502     <chapter>
1503 swift 1.142 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1504 zhen 1.16 <section>
1505 swift 1.142 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1506 zhen 1.16 <body>
1507 swift 1.142
1508     <p>There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c>
1509     utility to configure and compile your kernel automatically.</p>
1512     <p>Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1513     you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1514 swift 1.122 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1515     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1516 swift 1.142 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1517     <!--or <c>vanilla-sources</c>.(2.4.21-vanilla has sound issues)--> If you want XFS support, you should choose
1518     <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses
1519     <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a
1520     <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing
1521     responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when the
1522     "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1523     </p>
1526     <p>Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:</p>
1527 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1528 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</c>
1529     </pre>
1531     <p>The
1532     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1533     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1534     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any
1535     ebuilds you install that contain kernel modules will be configured
1536     to work with the kernel source tree pointed to by
1537     <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created
1538     when you emerge your first kernel source package, but after it
1539     exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic link.</p>
1540     </body>
1541     </section>
1542     <section>
1543     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1544     <body>
1546     <p>Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to
1547     compile your kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is
1548     to use our new <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel
1549     for you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly
1550     identically to the way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means
1551     that when you use <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system
1552     will generally detect all your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live
1553     CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel
1554     configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may not
1555     be comfortable compiling their own kernels.</p>
1557     <p>Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel
1558     ebuild:</p>
1560     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1561     # <c>emerge -k genkernel</c>
1562     </pre>
1564     <p>Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:</p>
1566     <note><b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1567     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel configuration before
1568     building begins.</note>
1571     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1572 avenj 1.146 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1573     # <c>genkernel gentoo-sources</c>
1574     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4, available with an emerge sync, you don't need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1575 swift 1.142 # <c>genkernel</c>
1576     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1577     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1578     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1580     Settings:
1581     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1582     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1583     config: gentoo (customized)
1584     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1585     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1587     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1588     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1589     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1590     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1591     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1592     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1593     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1594     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1595     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1596     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1598     * Build completed successfully!
1600     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1601     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1603     #
1604 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1605 swift 1.142
1606     <p>Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and <i>initial root disk</i> (initrd) will
1607     be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1608     initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD)
1609     before your "real" system starts up.</p>
1611     <p>Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live CD -- let's emerge hotplug.
1612     While the initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system, hotplug autodetects everything else.
1613     To emerge and enable hotplug, type the following:</p>
1615     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1616     # <c>emerge -k hotplug</c>
1617     # <c>rc-update add hotplug default</c>
1618     </pre>
1620     <p>Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on your system. Here is a list of
1621     kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:</p>
1623     <table>
1624     <tr>
1625     <th>ebuild</th>
1626     <th>purpose</th>
1627     <th>command</th>
1628     </tr>
1629     <tr>
1630     <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1631     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1632     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1633     </tr>
1634     <tr>
1635     <ti>nforce-net</ti>
1636     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1637     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
1638     </tr>
1639     <tr>
1640     <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
1641     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1642     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
1643     </tr>
1644     <tr>
1645     <ti>e100</ti>
1646     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1647     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
1648     </tr>
1649     <tr>
1650     <ti>e1000</ti>
1651     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
1652     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
1653     </tr>
1654     <tr>
1655     <ti>emu10k1</ti>
1656     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
1657     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
1658     </tr>
1659     <tr>
1660     <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
1661     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
1662     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
1663     </tr>
1664     <tr>
1665     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
1666     <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128,
1667     Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
1668     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
1669     </tr>
1670     </table>
1671     <p>The nvidia-kernel, ati-drivers and xfree-drm packages will require additional configuration to be enabled.
1672     All other ebuilds listed above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the hotplug package.</p>
1674     <p>Now that you've run and configured your system to use genkernel, you can skip the "manual kernel configuration"
1675     section below.</p>
1676     </body>
1677     </section>
1678     <section>
1679     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1680     <body>
1682     <p>If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
1683     will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
1684     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
1685     current emerged kernel source package, and is set automatically by Portage at
1686     emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
1687     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
1688     proceeding. </p>
1690     <warn>
1691     If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i> option. Being too aggressive with your
1692     security settings can cause certain programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
1693     </warn>
1695     <note>
1696 swift 1.122 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
1697     your configuration on it, you should execute
1698     <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
1699     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
1700     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
1701     </note>
1702 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
1703 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
1704     # <c>make menuconfig</c>
1705 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1706 zhen 1.16 <warn>For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
1707 zhen 1.6 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <i>be enabled and not
1708 jhhudso 1.81 compiled as modules</i>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you have
1709     any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're using XFS, enable the
1710     &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's always a good idea to leave ext2
1711     enabled whether you are using it or not. Below are some common options that you will need:</warn>
1712     <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
1713     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
1714     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
1715     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below.)</comment>
1716     ...
1718     File systems ---&gt;
1719     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
1720     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs.)</comment>
1721     ...
1722     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
1723     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3.)</comment>
1724     ...
1725     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
1726     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1727     ...
1728     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
1729     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS.)</comment>
1730     ...
1731     [*] /proc file system support
1732     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1733     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
1734     [*] Automatically mount at boot
1735     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux.)</comment>
1736     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
1737     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed.)</comment>
1738     ...
1739     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
1740     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2.)</comment>
1741     ...
1742     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
1743     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS.)</comment>
1744     </pre>
1745 zhen 1.16 <p>If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
1746 zhen 1.6 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) :
1747 zhen 1.16 &quot;PPP (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial ports&quot;,
1748     &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression options won't harm but
1749     are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP over Ethernet&quot; option,
1750 zhen 1.6 that might only be used by <i>rp-pppoe</i> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
1751     </p>
1752 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
1753     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA and ATAPI Block
1754     devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot; (I usually make it a module), then
1755     under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and
1756     &quot;SCSI generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
1757     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
1758     &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot time.
1759 zhen 1.6 </p>
1760 peesh 1.130 <p>If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.</p>
1761 zhen 1.16 <note>
1762 zhen 1.6 For those who prefer it,
1763     it is now possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2 kernel.
1764 drobbins 1.21 However, doing this comes at a price:
1765 zhen 1.6 you will lose many of the nifty features that
1766     are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
1767     filesystems, iptables, and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
1768 drobbins 1.21 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
1769     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the kernel, so
1770 zhen 1.6 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled in (ie, not a module).
1771     It is <comment>vital</comment> that a <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel
1772 peesh 1.103 line in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so
1773 peesh 1.85 that a ramdisk is mounted for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
1774 zhen 1.6 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
1775     </note>
1776 swift 1.121
1777     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
1778     # <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</c>
1779     # <c>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</c>
1780     </pre>
1781 swift 1.142 </body>
1782     </section>
1783     <section>
1784     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
1785     <body>
1786 zhen 1.16 <p>Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose a system
1787 zhen 1.6 logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is the traditional set
1788     of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem
1789     to gravitate away from sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the
1790     newer alternatives.
1791     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
1792 swift 1.142 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four
1793     lines. </p>
1794 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
1795 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</c>
1796 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add sysklogd default</c>
1797     <comment>or</comment>
1798 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</c>
1799 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add syslog-ng default</c>
1800     <comment>or</comment>
1801 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</c>
1802 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add metalog default</c>
1803     <comment>or</comment>
1804 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</c>
1805 drobbins 1.1 # <c>rc-update add msyslog default</c>
1806 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1807 zhen 1.16 <impo>
1808 zhen 1.6 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately recorded into
1809     the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this performance-enhancing behavior
1810     is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux system is up and running, you can send
1811     metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily turn off this message buffering (meaning that
1812     <i>tail -f <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></i> will now work
1813     in real time, as expected),
1814     and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on
1815 zhen 1.39 again. If you want to disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to METALOG_OPTS="-B -s"
1816     in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1817 zhen 1.6 </impo>
1818 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1819     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1820     # <c>killall -USR1 metalog</c>
1821     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1822     # <c>killall -USR2 metalog</c>
1823     </pre>
1824 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
1825     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to choose,
1826 swift 1.142 you might as well grab vcron.
1827 zhen 1.6 </p>
1828 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
1829 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</c>
1830 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add dcron default</c>
1831 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1832     <comment>or</comment>
1833 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</c>
1834 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add fcron default</c>
1835 drobbins 1.1 # <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c>
1836     <comment>or</comment>
1837 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</c>
1838 jhhudso 1.81 # <c>rc-update add vcron default</c>
1839     <comment>You do not need to run <c>crontab /etc/crontab</c> if using vcron.</comment>
1840     </pre>
1841     <p>For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
1842 drobbins 1.21 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
1843 zhen 1.6 </p>
1844 zhen 1.16 </body>
1845     </section>
1846     </chapter>
1847     <chapter>
1848 swift 1.117 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
1849 zhen 1.16 <section>
1850     <body>
1851     <p>If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
1852 zhen 1.6 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it. </p>
1853 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
1854 zhen 1.40 # <c>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</c>
1855 swift 1.142 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
1856     # <c>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</c>
1857 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1858 zhen 1.40
1859     <note>The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface, which is a good thing,
1860     because X and its dependencies would also be emerged. You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with
1861     X support later.
1862     </note>
1863 zhen 1.16 <note> Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured.
1864 zhen 1.6 You will have to do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
1865     for the first time.
1866     </note>
1867 zhen 1.16 <p>You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
1868 zhen 1.6 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
1869 zhen 1.50 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
1870 zhen 1.6 </p>
1871 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
1872 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</c>
1873 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
1874 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</c>
1875 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
1876 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k jfsutils</c>
1877 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
1878 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</c>
1879 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1880 zhen 1.16 <p>If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
1881 jhhudso 1.75 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i> package.
1882 zhen 1.6 </p>
1883 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
1884 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</c>
1885 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1886 swift 1.142 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
1887     (drobbins)
1888     <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
1889 zhen 1.10 to work.
1890     </warn>
1891 swift 1.142 -->
1892     </body>
1893 zhen 1.16 </section>
1894     </chapter>
1895     <chapter>
1896 swift 1.134 <title>User Management</title>
1897 zhen 1.16 <section>
1898 swift 1.134 <title>Setting a root password</title>
1899 zhen 1.16 <body>
1900     <p>Before you forget, set the root password by typing: </p>
1901 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
1902 zhen 1.16 # <c>passwd</c>
1903 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1904 swift 1.134 </body>
1905     </section>
1906     <section>
1907     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
1908     <body>
1909     <p>Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
1910     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
1911     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use.</p>
1912     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
1913 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
1914 swift 1.134 # <i>passwd your_user</i></pre>
1915 swift 1.142 <p>Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.</p>
1916 swift 1.134 <p>Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
1917     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
1918     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.</p>
1919 zhen 1.16 </body>
1920     </section>
1921     </chapter>
1922     <chapter>
1923 zhen 1.61 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
1924 zhen 1.16 <section>
1925     <body>
1926 swift 1.121 <p>
1927     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
1928     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
1929     </p>
1930 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
1931 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
1932     </pre>
1933     <p>
1934     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
1935     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
1936     </p>
1937     <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
1938     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
1939     </pre>
1940     <p>
1941     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
1942     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
1943     </p>
1944     <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
1945     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
1946 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1947 zhen 1.16 </body>
1948     </section>
1949     </chapter>
1950     <chapter>
1951 zhen 1.61 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
1952 zhen 1.16 <section>
1953     <body>
1954 peesh 1.99 <p>This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
1955 jhhudso 1.75 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses
1956     of any hostnames that may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
1957 zhen 1.6 </p>
1958 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
1959 drobbins 1.1 localhost
1960     <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN, and your associated machine name</comment>
1961 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
1962 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1963 swift 1.136 <note>If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
1964     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
1965     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
1966     </note>
1967 zhen 1.16 </body>
1968     </section>
1969     </chapter>
1970     <chapter>
1971     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
1972     <section>
1973     <body>
1974     <p>Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of your system to
1975 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any options you
1976     need to the same line.) When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules will be automatically
1977     loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet card module, if you happened to compile
1978     it as a module:
1979     </p>
1980 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload"><comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
1981     Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
1982 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
1983 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1984 zhen 1.16 <p>Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured for your
1985 zhen 1.6 first boot: </p>
1986 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
1987 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</c>
1988     # <c>rc-update add net.eth0 default</c>
1989 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1990 swift 1.115 <p>If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path>
1991     scripts respectively for each one (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...): </p>
1992 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
1993 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd /etc/init.d</c>
1994     # <c>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></c>
1995     # <c>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</c>
1996 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1997 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
1998 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for your setup,
1999 zhen 1.45 then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
2000 zhen 1.6 </p>
2001 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
2002 drobbins 1.1 depend() {
2003     need pcmcia
2004     }
2005 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2006 zhen 1.16 <p>This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network is loaded.
2007 zhen 1.10 </p>
2008 zhen 1.16 </body>
2009     </section>
2010     </chapter>
2011     <chapter>
2012     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2013     <section>
2014     <body>
2015 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2016 drobbins 1.1 # <c>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</c>
2017 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2018 zhen 1.16 <p>Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings.
2019 zhen 1.6 All users will want to make sure that <c>CLOCK</c> is set to his/her
2020     liking. International keyboard users will want to set the <c>KEYMAP</c>
2021     variable (browse <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various
2022     possibilities).
2023     </p>
2024 zhen 1.16 </body>
2025     </section>
2026     </chapter>
2027     <chapter>
2028 zhen 1.61 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2029 zhen 1.49 <section>
2030     <title>Notes</title>
2031     <body>
2032     <p> In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose from.
2033     Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between both GRUB and
2034 swift 1.142 LILO as their bootloaders.
2035 zhen 1.49 </p>
2036     <p> Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2037 jhhudso 1.75 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2038 zhen 1.49 </p>
2039 swift 1.142 <p>In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending upon
2040     whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a kernel you
2041     compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important differences.</p>
2043 drobbins 1.69 <impo>If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or nForce2 chipset
2044     with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board
2045 drobbins 1.70 video enabled, the low memory area of your RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low
2046     memory at boot time, it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2047 drobbins 1.69 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using off-board video
2048 jhhudso 1.75 right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics card and use the on-board video in a
2049 drobbins 1.69 pinch, wouldn't it? :)</impo>
2050 zhen 1.49 </body>
2051     </section>
2052 zhen 1.16 <section>
2053 zhen 1.49 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2054 zhen 1.16 <body>
2055     <p>The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how GRUB
2056 zhen 1.6 refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called
2057     <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required.
2058 zhen 1.16 Hard drives count from zero rather than &quot;a&quot;, and partitions start at zero rather than one.
2059 swift 1.142 Be aware too that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices such as
2060 zhen 1.6 cdrom players, burners, and that the same construct can be used with scsi drives.
2061     (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the bios is configured
2062 swift 1.142 to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive on /dev/hda, a cdrom player on /dev/hdb,
2063     a burner on /dev/hdc, a second hard drive on /dev/hdd and no SCSI hard drive,
2064 zhen 1.6 <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to <path>(hd1,6)</path>.
2066 swift 1.142 It might sound tricky, and tricky it is indeed, but as we will see, GRUB
2067 zhen 1.6 offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for those of you having
2068 swift 1.142 a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little lost in the
2069     GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that,
2070 jhhudso 1.75 it is time to install GRUB.
2071 zhen 1.6 </p>
2072 zhen 1.16 <p>The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted shell prompt: </p>
2073 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2074 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k grub</c>
2075 drobbins 1.1 # <c>grub</c>
2076 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2077 jhhudso 1.75 <p>You will be presented with the <c>grub&gt;</c> grub
2078 zhen 1.6 command-line prompt. Now, you need to type in the
2079     right commands to install the GRUB boot record onto your hard drive. In my example configuration,
2080     I want to install the GRUB boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that
2081     the first thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the commands
2082     I want to type are:
2083     </p>
2084 zhen 1.68
2085 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2086 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2087     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here, it is the MBR</codenote>
2088 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2089 zhen 1.68
2090 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2091 zhen 1.53 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR</comment>
2092 zhen 1.68 grub&gt; <c>root (hd0,0)</c> <codenote>Your boot partition</codenote>
2093     grub&gt; <c>setup (hd0,4)</c> <codenote>Where the boot record is installed, here it is /dev/hda5</codenote>
2094 drobbins 1.1 grub&gt; <c>quit</c>
2095 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2096 swift 1.136
2097 jhhudso 1.75 <p>Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells GRUB
2098 zhen 1.6 the location of your boot partition (in our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> or
2099     <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the second <c>setup ( )
2100     </c> command tells GRUB where to install the
2101     boot record - it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root
2102     ( )</c> location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the
2103     MBR of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as <path>(hd0)</path>).
2104     If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I
2105     could install GRUB to the boot record of a particular partition. In that case,
2106 jhhudso 1.75 I would specify a particular partition rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB
2107 zhen 1.6 boot record has been successfully installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2108 zhen 1.52 </p>
2109 zhen 1.6
2110 swift 1.142 <note> The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2111 zhen 1.6 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2112 swift 1.142 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2113     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2114     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2115     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2116 zhen 1.6
2117 swift 1.142 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2118 zhen 1.6 to make the right choice.
2119     </note>
2121 zhen 1.52 <p>
2122 zhen 1.6 Gentoo Linux is now
2123     installed, but we need to create the <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that
2124 jhhudso 1.75 we get a nice GRUB boot menu when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2125 zhen 1.6 </p>
2126 zhen 1.16 <impo>To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2127 zhen 1.6 <i>grub.conf</i> to <i>menu.lst</i>. You can do this by doing
2128 swift 1.142 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>. </impo>
2129 zhen 1.16 <p>Now, create the grub.conf file (<c>nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>), and add the following to it:
2130 zhen 1.6 </p>
2131 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2132 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2133     timeout 30
2134     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2136 swift 1.142 <comment>#if you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2137 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2138     root (hd0,0)
2139 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2140 drobbins 1.1
2141 swift 1.142 <comment>#if you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2142     title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2143     root (hd0,0)
2144     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2145     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2147 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2148 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2149 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2150 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2151 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2152 zhen 1.16 <note>
2153 zhen 1.6 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2154     </note>
2155 zhen 1.16 <impo>
2156 swift 1.142 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2157 zhen 1.16 actually work you need to add an &quot;hdx=ide-scsi&quot; fragment to the kernel
2158     line in grub.conf (where &quot;hdx&quot; should be the device for your cd burner).
2159 zhen 1.6 </impo>
2160 zhen 1.16 <p>After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the first option will
2161 zhen 1.6 tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second part of the grub.conf file is optional,
2162     and shows you how to use GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2163     </p>
2164 zhen 1.16 <note>Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your &quot;boot&quot; partition
2165 zhen 1.6 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> should point to
2166     your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT boot
2167     loader.
2168 zhware 1.9 </note>
2169 zhen 1.16 <note>
2170 zhware 1.9 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the grub.conf file above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2171 zhen 1.6 </note>
2172 zhen 1.16 <p>If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply
2173 zhen 1.6 add them to the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2174     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you can
2175     turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're doing) by
2176     adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c> command.
2177     </p>
2178 zhen 1.16 <note>Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2179 swift 1.142 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2180     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2181 zhen 1.6 </note>
2182 zhen 1.16 </body>
2183     </section>
2184 zhen 1.49 <section>
2185     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2186 zhen 1.16 <body>
2187 drobbins 1.21 <p>While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the best choice.
2188 jhhudso 1.75 LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux bootloaders. Here is how to install
2189 drobbins 1.21 LILO if you would like to use it instead of GRUB:
2190 zhen 1.16 </p>
2191     <p>The first step is to emerge LILO:
2192     </p>
2193 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2194 swift 1.142 # <c>emerge -k lilo</c>
2195 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2196 zhen 1.82 <p>Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>
2197 zhen 1.16 </p>
2198 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2199 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2200     map=/boot/map
2201     install=/boot/boot.b
2202     prompt
2203     timeout=50
2204     lba32
2205     default=linux
2207 swift 1.142 #use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself
2208 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2209 zhen 1.16 label=linux
2210     read-only
2211 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
2212 swift 1.142
2213     #if you used genkernel, use something like this:
2214     image=/boot/kernel-KV
2215     label=gk_linux
2216     root=/dev/hda3
2217     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2218     append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2220 zhen 1.16
2221     #For dual booting windows/other OS
2222     other=/dev/hda1
2223     label=dos
2224 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2225 zhen 1.52 <ul>
2226 zhen 1.16 <li><i>boot=/dev/hda</i> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller. </li>
2227     <li><i>map=/boot/map</i> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2228     <li><i>install=/boot/boot.b</i> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector.
2229     In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will
2230     assume a default of /boot/boot.b as the file to be used. </li>
2231 zhen 1.83 <li>The existence of <i>prompt</i> tells LILO to display the classic <i>lilo:</i> prompt at bootup.
2232 zhen 1.16 While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still
2233     get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2234     <li><i>timeout=50</i> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding
2235     with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2236     <li><i>lba32</i> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should
2237     not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put
2238     your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2239     <li><i>default=linux</i> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the
2240     options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2241 swift 1.111 <li><i>image=/boot/bzImage</i> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2242 zhen 1.16 <li><i>label=linux</i> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case,
2243     it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2244     <li><i>read-only</i> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be
2245     altered during the boot process. </li>
2246 peesh 1.128 <li><i>root=/dev/hda3</i> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2247 zhen 1.52 </ul>
2248 zhen 1.16 <p>After you have edited your <i>lilo.conf</i> file, it is time to run LILO to load the information
2249     into the MBR:
2250     </p>
2251 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2252 zhen 1.16 # <c>/sbin/lilo</c>
2253 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2254 zhen 1.16 <p>LILO is configured, and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2255     </p>
2256     </body>
2257     </section>
2258 swift 1.142 <section>
2259     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2260     <body>
2261     <p>
2262     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c> to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the following table:
2263     </p>
2264     <table>
2265     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2266     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2267     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2268     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2269     </table>
2270     <p>
2271     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2272     file.
2273     </p>
2274     <p>
2275     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2276     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2277     </p>
2278     </body>
2279     </section>
2280 zhen 1.16 </chapter>
2281     <chapter>
2282 zhen 1.66 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2283 zhen 1.16 <section>
2284     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2285     <body>
2286 swift 1.142 <impo>
2287     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2288     before proceeding.
2289     </impo>
2290 drobbins 1.21 <p>It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2291 zhen 1.16 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2292 swift 1.136 blanket, and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2293     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2294     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2295     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk, and when you reboot
2296     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2297     like this:
2298 zhen 1.6 </p>
2299 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2300 swift 1.116 # <c>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</c>
2301     # <c>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</c>
2302 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2303 zhen 1.26 <p>Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you can now execute the necessary <c>root</c>
2304 drobbins 1.21 and <c>setup</c> commands.</p>
2305 zhen 1.16 </body>
2306     </section>
2307     <section>
2308     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2309     <body>
2310 swift 1.142 <impo>
2311     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive
2312     before proceeding.
2313     </impo>
2315 zhen 1.16 <p>If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2316     </p>
2317 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2318 zhen 1.18 # <c>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </c>
2319     <comment>This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB</comment>
2320 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2321 zhen 1.16 </body>
2322     </section>
2323     </chapter>
2324 swift 1.142
2325     <chapter>
2326     <title>Using GRP</title>
2327     <section>
2328     <body>
2330     <p>GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:</p>
2332     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2333     # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</c>
2334     <codenote>USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86.</codenote>
2335     </pre>
2337     <p>CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2338     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including KDE, GNOME, Mozilla, and others.
2339     To install these packages, you will need to reboot into your new Gentoo
2340     system first (covered in the "Installation complete!" section near the end of this document.) After you are running your basic Gentoo system from the hard
2341     drive, you can mount the second CD and copy files:</p>
2343     <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2344     # <c>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</c>
2345     # <c>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</c>
2346     </pre>
2348     <p>Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:</p>
2350     <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2351     # <c>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</c>
2352     </pre>
2354     </body>
2355     </section>
2356     </chapter>
2357 zhen 1.16 <chapter>
2358     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2359     <section>
2360     <body>
2361 swift 1.142 <p>Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary configuration files, exit the chrooted shell,
2362 jhhudso 1.75
2363 zhen 1.6 safely unmount your partitions
2364     and reboot the system:
2365     </p>
2366 swift 1.142 <warn>
2367     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2368     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2369     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2370     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2371     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2372     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2373     </warn>
2374 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2375 drobbins 1.1 # <c>etc-update</c>
2376     # <c>exit</c>
2377 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <c>^D</c>)</comment>
2378 drobbins 1.1 # <c>cd / </c>
2379     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</c>
2380     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</c>
2381     # <c>umount /mnt/gentoo</c>
2382     # <c>reboot</c>
2383 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2384 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2385 zhen 1.16 <note>
2386 zhen 1.6 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to create
2387     the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this file directly, you should
2388     generally make changes to the files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2389     </note>
2390 zhen 1.16 <p>If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux development,
2391 zhen 1.6 consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2392 seo 1.84 (more information on our <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2393 zhen 1.6 We also have a handy <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration guide</uri>
2394     that will
2395     help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux system, and a useful
2396     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2397     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the Gentoo Documentation
2398 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any other questions
2399 zhen 1.10 involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the Gentoo Linux
2400 zhen 1.16 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>.
2401 zhen 1.6 Enjoy and welcome to Gentoo Linux!
2402     </p>
2403 zhen 1.16 </body>
2404     </section>
2405     </chapter>
2406     <chapter>
2407     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2408     <section>
2409     <body>
2410     <p>The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give the developers
2411 zhen 1.6 a way to find out about their user base. It collects information about Gentoo Linux usage to help
2412     us in set priorities our development. Installing it is completely optional, and it would be greatly
2413     appreciated if you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
2414     </p>
2415 zhen 1.16 <p>The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
2416 zhen 1.6 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID will not be used
2417 peesh 1.99 to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched against an IP address or
2418 zhen 1.6 other personal information. Every precaution has been taken to assure your privacy in the
2419     development of this system. The following are the things that we are monitoring
2420 zhen 1.16 right now through our &quot;gentoo-stats&quot; program:
2421 zhen 1.6 </p>
2422 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2423     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
2424     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like &quot;mmx&quot; or &quot;3dnow&quot;)</li>
2425     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
2426     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
2427     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the /etc/make.profile link is pointing to).</li>
2428     </ul>
2429     <p>We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most Gentoo Linux users
2430 zhen 1.6 (just as it is to the developers).
2431     </p>
2432 zhen 1.16 <ul>
2433     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive
2434 zhen 1.6 information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
2435 zhen 1.16 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
2436     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged
2437     in such a way that we can identify you. There are no &quot;IP address/system ID&quot; pairs.</li>
2438     </ul>
2439     <p>The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
2440 zhen 1.6 </p>
2441 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
2442 drobbins 1.1 # <c>emerge gentoo-stats</c> <codenote>Installs gentoo-stats</codenote>
2443     # <c>gentoo-stats --new</c> <codenote>Obtains a new system ID</codenote>
2444 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2445 zhen 1.16 <p>The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
2446 zhen 1.6 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view this file
2447     to see additional configuration options.
2448     </p>
2449 zhen 1.16 <p>After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule
2450 zhen 1.6 (gentoo-stats does not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
2451     </p>
2452 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
2453     <c>0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null</c>
2454     </pre>
2455 zhen 1.16 <p>The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
2456 jhhudso 1.75 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>. </p>
2457 zhen 1.16 </body>
2458     </section>
2459     </chapter>
2460 swift 1.137 <chapter>
2461     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
2462     <section>
2463     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
2464     <body>
2465     <p>
2466     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
2467     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
2468     install Gentoo Linux:
2469     </p>
2470     <ul>
2471     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c>
2472     kerneloption.</li>
2473     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup,
2474     or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
2475     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
2476     # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
2477     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
2478     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
2479     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
2480 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
2481 swift 1.137 </pre>
2482     </li>
2483     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after
2484     partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
2485     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new
2486     environment:
2487     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
2488     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
2489     </pre>
2490     </li>
2491     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
2492     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
2493     <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
2494     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2495     [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
2496     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2497     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
2498     <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
2499     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
2500     [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
2501     <comment>and/or</comment>
2502     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
2503     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
2504     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
2505     </pre></li>
2506     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when
2507     running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
2508     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
2509     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
2510     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
2511     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2512     </pre>
2513     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
2514     to the appropriate RAID device:
2515     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
2516     title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
2517     root (hd0,0)
2518     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2519     </pre></li>
2520     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the
2521     appropriate RAID device:
2522     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
2523     image=/boot/bzImage
2524     label=linux
2525     read-only
2526     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
2527     </pre></li>
2528     </ul>
2529     </body>
2530     </section>
2531     </chapter>
2532 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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