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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 swift 1.149 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5     <author title="Chief Architect">
6 zhen 1.16 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 swift 1.149 </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 swift 1.158 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 zhen 1.16 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 swift 1.149 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 zhen 1.16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 swift 1.149 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 zhen 1.16 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 swift 1.149 </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20 zhen 1.16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 swift 1.149 </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23 zhen 1.16 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 swift 1.149 </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26 seo 1.41 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 swift 1.149 </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 zhware 1.43 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 swift 1.149 </author>
31     <author title="Editor">
32 jhhudso 1.75 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 swift 1.149 </author>
34     <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35     <author title="Editor">
36 peesh 1.96 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 swift 1.149 </author>
38     <author title="Editor">
39 carl 1.101 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 swift 1.149 </author>
41     <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 swift 1.142 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 swift 1.149 </author>
44     <author title="Editor">
45 swift 1.142 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 swift 1.149 </author>
47 antifa 1.150 <author title="Editor">
48     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49     </author>
50 swift 1.149 <author title="Reviewer">
51 swift 1.142 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 swift 1.149 </author>
53     <author title="Reviewer">
54 swift 1.142 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 swift 1.149 </author>
56 swift 1.154 <author title="Reviewer">
57     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58     </author>
59 bennyc 1.162 <author title="Reviewer">
60     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61     </author>
62 swift 1.149
63     <abstract>
64     These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65     Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66     process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67     the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68     </abstract>
69    
70     <license/>
71 swift 1.141
72 swift 1.161 <version>2.6.6</version>
73     <date>25th of August 2003</date>
74 swift 1.149
75     <chapter>
76     <title>About the Install</title>
77     <section>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82     Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83     for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84     the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85     from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86     you.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90     One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93     addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
94     installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
95     Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4 and Athlon XP.
96     To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
97     descriptions of each product in the <uri
98     link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
99     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
100     </p>
101    
102     <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
103     CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
104     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
105     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
106     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
107     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
108     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
109     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
110     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
111     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
112     file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
113     </p>
114    
115     <p>
116     In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
117     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
118     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
119     Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
120     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
121     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
122     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
123     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
124     2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
125     </p>
126    
127     <note>
128     A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
129     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
130     KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
131     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
132     for those who need this capability. The "compile from
133     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
134     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
135     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
136     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
137     installation process in any way.
138     </note>
139    
140     <p>
141     In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
142     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
143     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
144     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
145     that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
146     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
147     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
148     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
149     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
150     end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
151     </p>
152 drobbins 1.70
153 swift 1.149 <p>
154     To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
155     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
156     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
157     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
158     those conditions.)
159     </p>
160    
161     <p>
162     Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
163     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
164     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
165     you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
166     want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
167     stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
168     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
169     contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
170     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
171     stage3 tarball should be used.
172     </p>
173    
174     <p>
175     <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
176     stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
177     make this decision.
178     </p>
179    
180     <p>
181     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
182     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
183     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
184     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
185     It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
186     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
187     </p>
188 swift 1.142
189 swift 1.149 <p>
190     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
191     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
192     chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
193     </p>
194 swift 1.142
195 swift 1.149 <p>
196     And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
197     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
198     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
199     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
200     stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
201     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
202     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
203     and a system that is well-optimized.
204     </p>
205 swift 1.142
206 swift 1.149 <p>
207     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
208     stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
209     </p>
210 antifa 1.106
211 swift 1.149 <note>
212     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
213     change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
214     to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
215     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
216     typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
217     </note>
218 antifa 1.106
219 swift 1.149 <impo>
220     If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
221     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
222     needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
223     team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
224     </impo>
225 antifa 1.106
226 swift 1.149 <note>
227     The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
228     Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
229     Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
230     instructions.
231     </note>
232 antifa 1.106
233 swift 1.149 <p>
234     Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
235     CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
236     partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
237     stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
238     the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
239     stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
240     loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
241     your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
242     our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
243     OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
244     </p>
245 antifa 1.105
246 swift 1.149 <p>
247     Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
248     what is required for installation:
249     </p>
250 antifa 1.106
251 swift 1.149 <table>
252     <tr>
253     <th>Stage Tarball</th>
254     <th>Internet Access Required</th>
255     <th>Media Required</th>
256     <th>Steps</th>
257     </tr>
258     <tr>
259     <ti>1</ti>
260     <ti>Yes</ti>
261     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
262     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
263     </tr>
264     <tr>
265     <ti>2</ti>
266     <ti>Yes</ti>
267     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
268     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
269     </tr>
270     <tr>
271     <ti>3</ti>
272     <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
273     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
274     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
275     </tr>
276     <tr>
277     <ti>3+GRP</ti>
278     <ti>No</ti>
279     <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
280     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
281     </tr>
282     </table>
283 antifa 1.105
284 swift 1.149 <note>
285     Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
286     of this document before proceeding.
287     </note>
288 antifa 1.105
289 swift 1.149 </body>
290     </section>
291     </chapter>
292 antifa 1.105
293 swift 1.149 <chapter>
294     <title>Booting</title>
295     <section>
296     <body>
297 antifa 1.105
298 swift 1.149 <warn>
299     Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
300     options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
301     pcmcia services etc..
302     </warn>
303 antifa 1.105
304 swift 1.149 <p>
305     Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
306     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
307     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
308     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
309     and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
310     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
311     processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
312     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
313     the processors in your system, not just the first one.
314     </p>
315    
316     <p>
317     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
318     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
319     </p>
320 antifa 1.105
321 swift 1.149 <table>
322     <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
323     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
324     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
325     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
326     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
327     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
328     </table>
329 antifa 1.105
330 swift 1.149 <table>
331     <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
332     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
333     <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
334     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
335     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
336     <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
337     <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
338     <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
339     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
340     <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
341     <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
342     <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
343     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
344     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
345     </table>
346 drobbins 1.70
347 swift 1.149 <p>
348     Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
349     screen and progress bar.
350     </p>
351 swift 1.142
352 swift 1.147 <!--
353 swift 1.142 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
354     Linux Live CD booting" />
355 swift 1.147 -->
356 swift 1.142
357 swift 1.149 <p>
358     Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
359     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
360     have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
361     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
362     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
363     </p>
364    
365 swift 1.147 <!--
366 swift 1.142
367     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
368     Linux Live CD console" />
369 swift 1.147 -->
370 swift 1.144
371 swift 1.149 <note>
372     <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
373 swift 1.142 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
374     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
375     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
376     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
377 swift 1.149 CD over the network.
378     </note>
379    
380     <p>
381     You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
382     help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
383     and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
384     on your CD.
385     </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389     </chapter>
390    
391     <chapter>
392     <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
393     <section>
394     <body>
395    
396     <p>
397     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
398     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
399     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
400     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
401     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
402     will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
403     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
404     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
405     type:
406     </p>
407 swift 1.142
408 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
409 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
410 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
411 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
412 swift 1.149
413     <p>
414     Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
415     detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
416     load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
417     <c>modprobe</c>:
418     </p>
419    
420 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
421 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
422 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
423 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
424 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
425 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
426 swift 1.149
427     <note>
428     Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
429     </note>
430    
431     <note>
432     <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
433     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
434     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
435     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
436     <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
437     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
438     <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
439     # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
440 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
441 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
442 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
443     </pre>
444 swift 1.149 </note>
445 swift 1.142
446    
447 swift 1.149 </body>
448     </section>
449     </chapter>
450     <chapter>
451     <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
452     <section>
453     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
454     <body>
455    
456     <p>
457     If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
458     likely that your networking configuration has already been
459     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
460     the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
461     <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
462     others.
463     </p>
464 drobbins 1.70
465 swift 1.149 <p>
466     If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
467     should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
468     </p>
469    
470 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
471 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
472     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
473     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
474     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
475     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
476     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
477     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
478     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
479 swift 1.149 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
480 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
481 swift 1.149
482     <p>
483     You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
484     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
485     that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
486     correctly, etc..
487     </p>
488    
489 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
490 swift 1.149 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
491 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
492 swift 1.149
493     <p>
494     Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
495     section.
496     </p>
497    
498     </body>
499     </section>
500     <section>
501     <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
502     <body>
503    
504     <p>
505     Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
506     has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
507     <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
508     for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
509     and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
510     or not.
511     </p>
512    
513 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
514 swift 1.149 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
515     # <i> adsl-start </i>
516 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
517 swift 1.149
518     <p>
519     If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
520     and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
521     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
522     ethernet device.
523     </p>
524    
525     </body>
526     </section>
527    
528     <section>
529     <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
530     <body>
531    
532     <p>
533     The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
534     automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
535     </p>
536    
537 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
538 swift 1.149 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
539 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
540 swift 1.149
541     <p>
542     Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
543     covered next.
544     </p>
545    
546     </body>
547     </section>
548     <section>
549     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
550     <body>
551    
552     <p>
553     Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
554     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
555     </p>
556    
557 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
558 swift 1.149 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
559 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
560 swift 1.149
561     <note>
562     Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
563     <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
564     </note>
565    
566     <p>
567     If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
568     likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
569     </p>
570    
571     </body>
572     </section>
573     <section>
574     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
575     <body>
576    
577     <p>
578     We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
579     the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
580     information is explained in the next table.
581     </p>
582 swift 1.117
583     <table>
584     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
585 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
586 swift 1.149 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
587 swift 1.117 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
588 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
589 swift 1.117 </table>
590 swift 1.149
591     <p>
592     Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
593     interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
594     <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
595     mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
596     gateway.
597     </p>
598    
599 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
600 swift 1.149 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
601     # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
602 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
603 swift 1.149
604     <p>
605     Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
606     resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
607     will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
608     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
609     editor.
610     </p>
611    
612     <p>
613     Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
614     file:
615     </p>
616    
617 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
618 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
619     nameserver 10.0.0.1
620     nameserver 10.0.0.2
621 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
622 swift 1.149
623     <p>
624     Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
625     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
626     </p>
627    
628     </body>
629     </section>
630    
631     <section>
632     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
633     <body>
634    
635     <p>
636     If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
637     before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
638     accordingly.
639     </p>
640    
641 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
642 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
643 swift 1.158 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
644 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
645 swift 1.158 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
646 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
647 swift 1.158 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
648 swift 1.149 </pre>
649    
650     </body>
651     </section>
652    
653     <section>
654     <title>Networking is go!</title>
655     <body>
656    
657     <p>
658     Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
659     included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
660     commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
661     </p>
662    
663     </body>
664     </section>
665     </chapter>
666    
667     <chapter>
668     <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
669     <section>
670     <body>
671    
672     <p>
673     Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
674     <c>date</c> command.
675     </p>
676    
677 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
678 swift 1.149 # <i>date</i>
679 jhhudso 1.81 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
680     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
681 swift 1.149 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
682 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
683     </pre>
684 swift 1.149
685     </body>
686     </section>
687     </chapter>
688    
689     <chapter>
690     <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
691     <section>
692     <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
693     <body>
694    
695     <p>
696     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
697     Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
698     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
699     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
700     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
701 drobbins 1.86 </p>
702 swift 1.149
703 drobbins 1.86 <p>
704     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
705     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
706     </p>
707 swift 1.149
708 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
709     /dev/hda
710     </pre>
711    
712     <p>
713     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
714     </p>
715    
716     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
717     /dev/sda
718     </pre>
719    
720 swift 1.149 <p>
721     The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
722 drobbins 1.86 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
723 swift 1.149 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
724 drobbins 1.86 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
725 swift 1.149 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
726     </p>
727    
728 drobbins 1.86 </body>
729     </section>
730     <section>
731     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
732     <body>
733    
734 swift 1.149 <p>
735     Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
736     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
737     block device as a command-line argument.
738     </p>
739    
740     <p>
741     However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
742     device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
743     or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
744     done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
745     more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
746     using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
747     partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
748     exactly how to split up the full disk.
749     </p>
750    
751     <p>
752     We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
753     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
754     </p>
755 drobbins 1.86
756 swift 1.149 <note>
757     Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
758 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
759 swift 1.149 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
760     </note>
761 drobbins 1.86
762     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
763 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
764 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
765 swift 1.149
766 drobbins 1.86 <p>
767     or
768     </p>
769 swift 1.149
770 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
771 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
772 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
773    
774     <impo>
775 swift 1.149 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
776 drobbins 1.86 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
777     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
778 swift 1.149 lost.
779 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
780    
781     <p>
782 swift 1.149 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
783 drobbins 1.86 </p>
784    
785     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
786     Command (m for help):
787     </pre>
788    
789     <p>
790     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
791     </p>
792    
793     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
794 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
795 drobbins 1.86
796     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
797     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
798    
799     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
800     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
801     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
802     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
803     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
804     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
805     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
806     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
807     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
808     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
809    
810     Command (m for help):
811     </pre>
812    
813 swift 1.149 <p>
814     This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
815 drobbins 1.86 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
816 swift 1.149 (listed as "Linux swap").
817     </p>
818 drobbins 1.86
819     <p>
820     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
821 swift 1.149 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
822     up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
823     software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
824     partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
825     partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
826     primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
827     However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
828     partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
829     four partition limit.
830     </p>
831    
832     <p>
833     All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
834     The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
835 drobbins 1.86 </p>
836    
837     <p>
838 swift 1.149 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
839     primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
840     contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
841     <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
842     <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
843     acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
844     <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
845     </p>
846 drobbins 1.86
847 swift 1.149 <p>
848     Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
849 drobbins 1.86 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
850     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
851 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
852     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
853     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
854 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
855 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
856 drobbins 1.86 </p>
857 swift 1.149
858 drobbins 1.86 </body>
859     </section>
860 swift 1.149
861 drobbins 1.86 <section>
862     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
863     <body>
864    
865 swift 1.149 <p>
866     Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
867 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
868     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
869     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
870 swift 1.149 look like this:
871     </p>
872 drobbins 1.86
873     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
874     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
875     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
876     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
877    
878 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
879 drobbins 1.86 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
880     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
881     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
882    
883     Command (m for help):
884     </pre>
885    
886 swift 1.149 <p>
887     In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
888     The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
889 drobbins 1.86 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
890     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
891     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
892     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
893     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
894 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
895 swift 1.149 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
896     </p>
897 drobbins 1.86
898 swift 1.149 <p>
899     It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
900 drobbins 1.98 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
901     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
902     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
903     cylinder 1024.
904     </p>
905    
906 swift 1.149 <p>
907     The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
908 drobbins 1.86 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
909     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
910 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
911 swift 1.149 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
912     </p>
913 drobbins 1.86
914 swift 1.149 <p>
915     The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
916     rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
917     used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
918     system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
919     </p>
920 drobbins 1.86
921 swift 1.149 <p>
922     Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
923 drobbins 1.86 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
924 swift 1.149 Linux:
925     </p>
926 drobbins 1.86
927     <table>
928 swift 1.149 <tr>
929     <th>Partition</th>
930     <th>Size</th>
931     <th>Type</th>
932     <th>example device</th>
933     </tr>
934     <tr>
935     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
936     <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
937     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
938     <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
939     </tr>
940     <tr>
941     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
942     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
943     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
944     <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
945     </tr>
946     <tr>
947     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
948     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
949     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
950     <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
951     </tr>
952 drobbins 1.86 </table>
953    
954 swift 1.149 <p>
955     OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
956 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
957 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
958     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
959     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
960 swift 1.149 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
961     </p>
962 drobbins 1.86
963 swift 1.149 <impo>
964     Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
965 drobbins 1.86 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
966     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
967     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
968 swift 1.149 from the wrong drive.
969     </impo>
970 drobbins 1.86
971 swift 1.149 <p>
972     Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
973 drobbins 1.86 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
974 swift 1.149 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
975     </p>
976 drobbins 1.86
977     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
978 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
979     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
980 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
981 zhen 1.54
982 swift 1.149 <p>
983     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
984 drobbins 1.86 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
985     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
986     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
987 swift 1.149 deleted.
988     </p>
989    
990     <p>
991     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
992 drobbins 1.86 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
993     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
994 swift 1.149 with a partition table with nothing in it:
995     </p>
996 drobbins 1.86
997     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
998     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
999     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1000     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1001    
1002 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1003 drobbins 1.86
1004     Command (m for help):
1005     </pre>
1006    
1007 swift 1.149 <p>
1008     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1009 drobbins 1.86 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1010     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1011     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1012 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1013 swift 1.149 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1014     </p>
1015 swift 1.115
1016     <note>
1017     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1018 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1019 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1020     for the last cylinder.
1021     </note>
1022 drobbins 1.86
1023     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1024 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1025 drobbins 1.86 Command action
1026 swift 1.149 e extended
1027     p primary partition (1-4)
1028     <i>p</i>
1029     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1030     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1031 drobbins 1.86 Using default value 1
1032 swift 1.149 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1033 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1034    
1035 swift 1.149 <p>
1036     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1037     printout:
1038     </p>
1039 drobbins 1.86
1040     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1041 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1042 drobbins 1.86
1043     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1044     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1045     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1046    
1047 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1048     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1049 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1050    
1051 swift 1.149 <p>
1052     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1053     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1054     Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1055     <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1056     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1057     a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1058     partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1059     type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1060     these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1061     similar to this:
1062     </p>
1063 drobbins 1.86
1064     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1065 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1066 drobbins 1.86
1067     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1068     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1069     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1070    
1071 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1072     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1073     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1074 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1075    
1076 swift 1.149 <p>
1077     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1078 drobbins 1.86 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1079 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1080 swift 1.149 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1081     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1082     partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1083     completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1084     looks similar to this:
1085     </p>
1086 drobbins 1.86
1087     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1088 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1089 drobbins 1.86
1090     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1091     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1092     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1093    
1094 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1095     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1096     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1097     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1098 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1099    
1100     <p>
1101     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1102 swift 1.149 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1103     type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1104     If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1105     <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1106     this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1107     configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1108 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1109    
1110 swift 1.149 <note>
1111     If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1112     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1113     </note>
1114    
1115 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1116     </section>
1117 swift 1.149
1118 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1119     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1120     <body>
1121 swift 1.149
1122     <p>
1123     Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1124     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1125     data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1126 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1127    
1128 swift 1.149 <p>
1129     Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1130     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1131     Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1132     filesystems.
1133     </p>
1134 drobbins 1.86
1135 swift 1.149 <p>
1136     ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1137 drobbins 1.86 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1138     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1139 swift 1.149 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1140 drobbins 1.86 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1141     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1142 swift 1.149 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1143     </p>
1144 drobbins 1.86
1145 swift 1.149 <p>
1146     ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1147 drobbins 1.86 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1148     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1149 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1150     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1151     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1152     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1153     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1154 swift 1.149 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1155     </p>
1156 drobbins 1.86
1157 swift 1.149 <p>
1158     ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1159 drobbins 1.86 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1160     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1161     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1162     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1163     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1164 swift 1.149 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1165 drobbins 1.86 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1166 swift 1.149 non-boot partitions.
1167     </p>
1168 drobbins 1.86
1169 swift 1.149 <p>
1170     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1171     Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1172 drobbins 1.86 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1173     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1174     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1175     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1176 swift 1.149 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1177     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1178     </p>
1179 drobbins 1.86
1180 swift 1.149 <p>
1181     JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1182     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1183 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1184 swift 1.149 point.
1185     </p>
1186 drobbins 1.86
1187 swift 1.149 <p>
1188     If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1189 drobbins 1.86 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1190     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1191 swift 1.149 refined and recommended for general use.
1192     </p>
1193 drobbins 1.86
1194 swift 1.149 <p>
1195     Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1196     all our partitions for use:
1197     </p>
1198 drobbins 1.86
1199     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1200 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1201     # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1202     # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1203 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1204    
1205 swift 1.149 <p>
1206     We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1207 drobbins 1.98 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1208 swift 1.149 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1209     obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1210     choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1211     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1212     </p>
1213    
1214     <p>
1215     For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1216     during the installation process:
1217     </p>
1218 drobbins 1.98
1219 swift 1.149 <p>
1220     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1221     </p>
1222 drobbins 1.86
1223 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1224 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1225 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1226 swift 1.149
1227     <p>
1228     You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1229     </p>
1230    
1231 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1232 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1233 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1234 swift 1.149
1235     <p>
1236     If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1237     <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1238     </p>
1239    
1240 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1241 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1242 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1243 swift 1.149
1244     <note>
1245     You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1246     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1247     </note>
1248    
1249     <p>
1250     To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1251     </p>
1252    
1253 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1254 swift 1.149 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1255 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1256 swift 1.149
1257     <p>
1258     To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1259     </p>
1260    
1261 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1262 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1263 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1264 drobbins 1.86
1265 swift 1.149 <note>
1266     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1267     command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1268     will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1269     least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1270     you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1271     <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1272     performance.
1273     </note>
1274    
1275     <p>
1276     To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1277     </p>
1278    
1279 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1280 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1281 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1282 swift 1.149
1283     </body>
1284     </section>
1285     </chapter>
1286    
1287     <chapter>
1288     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1289     <section>
1290     <body>
1291    
1292     <p>
1293     Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1294     the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1295     </p>
1296    
1297 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1298 swift 1.149 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1299 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1300 drobbins 1.86
1301 swift 1.149 <p>
1302     Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1303     and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1304     root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1305     <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1306     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1307     <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1308     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1309     </p>
1310    
1311     <impo>
1312     If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1313     be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1314     installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1315     <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1316     We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1317     then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1318     <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1319     </impo>
1320 drobbins 1.86
1321 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1322 swift 1.149 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1323     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1324     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1325 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1326 drobbins 1.86
1327 swift 1.149 <impo>
1328     If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1329     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1330     </impo>
1331    
1332     </body>
1333     </section>
1334     </chapter>
1335    
1336    
1337     <chapter>
1338     <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1339     <section>
1340     <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1341     <body>
1342 zhen 1.55
1343 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1344     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1345 swift 1.149 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1346     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1347     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1348     </p>
1349 drobbins 1.86
1350 swift 1.149 <p>
1351     <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1352     </p>
1353 drobbins 1.86
1354 swift 1.149 <p>
1355     If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1356     <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1357 swift 1.142 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1358 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1359 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1360 swift 1.149 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1361     </p>
1362 drobbins 1.86
1363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1364 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1365 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1366 swift 1.149 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1367 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1368     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1369     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1370     Save the file and quit the browser
1371    
1372     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1373 swift 1.149 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1374 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1375 drobbins 1.86
1376 swift 1.149 </body>
1377     </section>
1378     <section>
1379     <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1380     <body>
1381    
1382     <p>
1383     Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1384 drobbins 1.86 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1385     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1386     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1387 swift 1.149 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1388     </p>
1389 drobbins 1.86
1390 swift 1.149 <impo>
1391     Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1392     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1393     </impo>
1394 drobbins 1.86
1395 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1396 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1397 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1398     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1399 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1400 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1401 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1402    
1403 swift 1.149 <p>
1404     If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1405     delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1406     </p>
1407    
1408 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1409     </section>
1410 swift 1.149
1411 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1412 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1413     <body>
1414 swift 1.149
1415     <impo>
1416     The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1417     </impo>
1418    
1419     <p>
1420     <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1421 swift 1.142 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1422     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1423 swift 1.149 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1424     </p>
1425    
1426 swift 1.142 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1427     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1428 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1429 swift 1.142 </pre>
1430 swift 1.149
1431     <p>
1432     This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1433 swift 1.142 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1434     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1435 swift 1.149 from the Live CD into place:
1436     </p>
1437 swift 1.142
1438     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1439 swift 1.159 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1440     # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1441 swift 1.142 </pre>
1442    
1443 swift 1.149 <p>
1444     All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1445 swift 1.142 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1446 swift 1.149 -- even without a network connection.
1447     </p>
1448 swift 1.142
1449     </body>
1450     </section>
1451 swift 1.149
1452 antifa 1.150 <section>
1453     <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1454     <body>
1455    
1456     <p>
1457     <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1458     mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1459     Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1460     </p>
1461    
1462     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1463     <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1464 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1465 antifa 1.150 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1466 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1467 antifa 1.150 </pre>
1468    
1469     <p>
1470     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1471     continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1472     </p>
1473    
1474     </body>
1475     </section>
1476 swift 1.142 <section>
1477 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1478     <body>
1479 swift 1.149
1480 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1481 swift 1.149 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1482     "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1483 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1484 swift 1.112
1485     <note>
1486     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1487 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1488 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1489 swift 1.112 the problem.
1490     </note>
1491 drobbins 1.86
1492     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1493 swift 1.149 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1494     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1495     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1496     # <i>env-update</i>
1497 drobbins 1.1 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1498 swift 1.149 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1499     <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1500 swift 1.132 </pre>
1501 swift 1.133
1502 swift 1.149 <p>
1503     After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1504     environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1505     installation process inside the chroot.
1506     </p>
1507 swift 1.132
1508 swift 1.149 </body>
1509     </section>
1510     </chapter>
1511 swift 1.142
1512 swift 1.149 <chapter>
1513     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1514     <section>
1515     <body>
1516 swift 1.142
1517 swift 1.149 <impo>
1518     If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1519     <c>emerge sync</c>.
1520     </impo>
1521 swift 1.142
1522 swift 1.149 <p>
1523     Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1524 swift 1.142 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1525 swift 1.149 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1526     you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1527 swift 1.142 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1528     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1529     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1530 swift 1.149 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1531     </p>
1532 drobbins 1.86
1533 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1534 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1535 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1536    
1537 swift 1.149 </body>
1538     </section>
1539     </chapter>
1540    
1541     <chapter>
1542     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1543     <section>
1544     <body>
1545    
1546     <p>
1547     Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1548 drobbins 1.86 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1549     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1550     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1551 swift 1.149 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1552 drobbins 1.86 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1553 swift 1.149 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1554     fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1555 drobbins 1.86 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1556     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1557 swift 1.149 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1558     </p>
1559    
1560     <p>
1561     If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1562     CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1563     creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1564     are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1565     optimally and should not require any modification.
1566     </p>
1567 drobbins 1.86
1568 swift 1.149 <impo>
1569     <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1570     C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1571     It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1572     "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1573     packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1574     characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1575 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1576     </impo>
1577    
1578     <!-- needs qa
1579 swift 1.149 <note>
1580     <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1581 swift 1.142 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1582     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1583     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1584 swift 1.149 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1585 swift 1.142 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1586 swift 1.149 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1587     </note>
1588 swift 1.142 -->
1589    
1590 swift 1.149 <p>
1591     If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1592     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1593     using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1594 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1595 swift 1.149
1596 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1597 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1598 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1599 drobbins 1.108
1600 swift 1.149 <note>
1601     <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1602     process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1603     file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1604     do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1605     as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1606     in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1607     settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1608     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1609     <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1610     USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1611     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1612     </note>
1613    
1614     <warn>
1615     Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1616     stage1.
1617     </warn>
1618    
1619     </body>
1620     </section>
1621     </chapter>
1622    
1623     <chapter>
1624     <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1625     <section>
1626     <body>
1627    
1628     <note>
1629     If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1630     </note>
1631 swift 1.140
1632 swift 1.149 <p>
1633     The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1634     have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1635     uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1636     takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1637     from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1638     </p>
1639 avenj 1.146
1640 swift 1.149 <p>
1641     Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1642     about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1643     C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1644     the bootstrap as follows:
1645     </p>
1646 avenj 1.146
1647 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1648     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1649     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1650 avenj 1.146 </pre>
1651 swift 1.142
1652 swift 1.149 <p>
1653     The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1654     </p>
1655 swift 1.142
1656 swift 1.149 <note>
1657     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1658     users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1659     files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1660     information.
1661     </note>
1662 swift 1.142
1663 swift 1.149 <note>
1664     Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1665     often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1666     like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1667     PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1668     <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1669     # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1670 swift 1.142 </pre>
1671 swift 1.149 </note>
1672    
1673     <p>
1674     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1675     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1676     say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1677     will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1678     the stage2 instructions.
1679     </p>
1680 swift 1.142
1681     </body>
1682     </section>
1683 swift 1.149 </chapter>
1684    
1685     <chapter>
1686     <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1687 swift 1.142 <section>
1688     <body>
1689    
1690 swift 1.149 <note>
1691     This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1692     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1693     </note>
1694 swift 1.142
1695 swift 1.149 <warn>
1696     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1697     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1698     broad compilation failures.
1699     </warn>
1700 swift 1.142
1701 swift 1.149 <p>
1702     The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1703     have to do is install the rest of the system:
1704     </p>
1705 swift 1.142
1706 swift 1.149 <note>
1707     If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1708     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1709     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1710     safe to skip this suggestion.
1711     </note>
1712 swift 1.142
1713 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1714     # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1715     <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1716     # <i>emerge system</i>
1717     </pre>
1718 swift 1.142
1719 swift 1.149 <p>
1720     It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1721     Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1722     The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1723     some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1724     for the PS2.
1725     </p>
1726 swift 1.142
1727 swift 1.149 <p>
1728     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1729     your time zone" section.
1730     </p>
1731 swift 1.142
1732 swift 1.149 </body>
1733     </section>
1734     </chapter>
1735    
1736    
1737     <chapter>
1738     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1739     <section>
1740     <body>
1741    
1742     <note>
1743     This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1744     have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1745     should skip ahead to the next section.
1746     </note>
1747    
1748     <warn>
1749     Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1750     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1751     </warn>
1752    
1753     <p>
1754     The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1755     so no building is required.
1756     </p>
1757    
1758     <note>
1759     <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1760     may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1761     automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1762 swift 1.161 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1763     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1764     emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1765     the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1766     very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1767     to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1768     free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1769 swift 1.149 </note>
1770    
1771     </body>
1772     </section>
1773     </chapter>
1774    
1775    
1776     <chapter>
1777     <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1778     <section>
1779     <body>
1780    
1781     <p>
1782     Now you need to set your time zone.
1783     </p>
1784    
1785     <p>
1786     Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1787     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1788     <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1789     </p>
1790 swift 1.142
1791 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1792     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1793     </pre>
1794    
1795     </body>
1796     </section>
1797     </chapter>
1798    
1799     <chapter>
1800     <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1801     <section>
1802     <body>
1803 swift 1.142
1804 swift 1.149 <impo>
1805     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1806     </impo>
1807    
1808     <p>
1809     Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1810     configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1811     The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1812     that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1813     you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1814     <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1815     </p>
1816    
1817 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
1818 swift 1.149 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1819     sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you
1820     are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.):
1821 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
1822 swift 1.149
1823     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1824     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1825 swift 1.142 #
1826 swift 1.149 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1827     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1828     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1829     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1830    
1831     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1832    
1833     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1834     </comment>
1835     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1836     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1837     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1838     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1839     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1840     </pre>
1841    
1842     <warn>
1843     Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1844     is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1845     access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1846     </warn>
1847    
1848     </body>
1849     </section>
1850     </chapter>
1851    
1852    
1853     <chapter>
1854     <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1855     <section>
1856     <title>Kernel selections</title>
1857     <body>
1858    
1859     <p>
1860     There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1861     own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1862     kernel automatically.
1863     </p>
1864    
1865     <p>
1866     Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1867     you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1868     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1869     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1870     which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1871     If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1872     <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1873     <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1874     for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1875     the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1876     </p>
1877    
1878     <p>
1879     Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1880     </p>
1881    
1882     <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1883     # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1884     </pre>
1885    
1886     <p>
1887     The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1888     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1889     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1890     you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1891     kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1892     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1893     source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1894     link.
1895     </p>
1896    
1897     </body>
1898     </section>
1899     <section>
1900     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1901     <body>
1902    
1903     <p>
1904     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1905     kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1906     <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1907     <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1908     our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1909     to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1910     boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1911     manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1912     not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1913     </p>
1914    
1915     <p>
1916     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1917     </p>
1918    
1919     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1920     # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1921 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1922 swift 1.149
1923     <p>
1924     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1925     </p>
1926    
1927     <note>
1928     <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1929     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1930     configuration before building begins.
1931     </note>
1932 swift 1.142
1933 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1934     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1935     # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1936     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1937     # <i>genkernel</i>
1938     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1939     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1940     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1941    
1942     Settings:
1943     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1944     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1945     config: gentoo (customized)
1946     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1947     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1948    
1949     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1950     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1951     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1952     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1953     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1954     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1955     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1956     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1957     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1958     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1959    
1960     * Build completed successfully!
1961    
1962     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1963     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1964     </pre>
1965    
1966     <p>
1967     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1968     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1969 swift 1.161 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
1970     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
1971     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
1972     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
1973     your "real" system starts up.
1974 swift 1.149 </p>
1975    
1976     <p>
1977     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1978     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1979     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1980     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1981     </p>
1982 swift 1.142
1983     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1984 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
1985     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
1986 swift 1.142 </pre>
1987    
1988 swift 1.149 <p>
1989     Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
1990     can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
1991     </p>
1992    
1993 swift 1.142 </body>
1994     </section>
1995     <section>
1996     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
1997     <body>
1998    
1999 swift 1.149 <p>
2000     If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2001 swift 1.142 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2002     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2003 swift 1.149 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2004 swift 1.142 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2005     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2006 swift 1.149 proceeding.
2007     </p>
2008 swift 1.142
2009     <warn>
2010 swift 1.149 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2011     option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2012     programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2013 swift 1.142 </warn>
2014    
2015     <note>
2016 swift 1.149 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2017     your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2018     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2019     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2020     </note>
2021    
2022 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2023 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2024     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2025 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2026 swift 1.149
2027     <warn>
2028     For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2029     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2030     and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2031     have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2032     using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2033     always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2034     </warn>
2035    
2036     <p>
2037     Below are some common options that you will need:
2038     </p>
2039    
2040 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2041     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2042 swift 1.149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2043     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2044     ...
2045 jhhudso 1.81
2046     File systems ---&gt;
2047 swift 1.149 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2048     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2049     ...
2050     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2051     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2052     ...
2053     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2054     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2055     ...
2056     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2057     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2058     ...
2059     [*] /proc file system support
2060     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2061     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2062     [*] Automatically mount at boot
2063     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2064     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2065     <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed)</comment>
2066     ...
2067     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2068     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2069     ...
2070     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2071     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2072     </pre>
2073    
2074     <p>
2075     If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2076     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2077     (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2078     ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2079     options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2080     over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2081     configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2082     </p>
2083    
2084     <p>
2085     If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2086     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2087     and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2088     (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2089     &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2090     generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2091     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2092 swift 1.157 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2093     added at boot time.
2094 swift 1.149 </p>
2095    
2096     <p>
2097     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2098     ethernet card.
2099     </p>
2100    
2101     <note>
2102     For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2103     kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2104     features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2105     filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2106     patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2107     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2108     kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2109     in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2110     <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2111     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2112     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2113     for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2114     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2115     </note>
2116 swift 1.121
2117     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2118 swift 1.149 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2119     # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2120 swift 1.121 </pre>
2121 swift 1.158
2122     </body>
2123     </section>
2124     <section>
2125     <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2126     <body>
2127    
2128     <p>
2129     Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2130     your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2131     </p>
2132    
2133     <table>
2134     <tr>
2135     <th>Ebuild</th>
2136     <th>Purpose</th>
2137     <th>Command</th>
2138     </tr>
2139     <tr>
2140     <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2141     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2142     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2143     </tr>
2144     <tr>
2145     <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2146     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2147     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2148     </tr>
2149     <tr>
2150     <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2151     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2152     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2153     </tr>
2154     <tr>
2155     <ti>e100</ti>
2156     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2157     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2158     </tr>
2159     <tr>
2160     <ti>e1000</ti>
2161     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2162     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2163     </tr>
2164     <tr>
2165     <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2166     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2167     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2168     </tr>
2169     <tr>
2170     <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2171     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2172     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2173     </tr>
2174     <tr>
2175     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2176     <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2177     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2178     </tr>
2179     </table>
2180    
2181     <p>
2182     The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2183     will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2184     above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2185     you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2186     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2187     </p>
2188    
2189     <p>
2190     More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2191     link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2192     </p>
2193    
2194 swift 1.149
2195 swift 1.142 </body>
2196     </section>
2197     <section>
2198     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2199     <body>
2200 swift 1.149
2201     <p>
2202     Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2203     a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2204     the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2205     syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2206     sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2207     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2208     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2209     sets:
2210     </p>
2211    
2212 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2213 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2214     # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2215 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2216 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2217     # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2218 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2219 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2220     # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2221 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2222 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2223     # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2224 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2225 swift 1.149
2226     <impo>
2227     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2228     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2229     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2230     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2231     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2232     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2233     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2234     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2235     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2236 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2237     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2238 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2239 swift 1.114 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2240 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2241 swift 1.114 </pre>
2242 swift 1.149 </impo>
2243    
2244     <p>
2245     Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2246     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2247     choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2248     </p>
2249    
2250 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2251 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2252     # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2253     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2254 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2255 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2256     # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2257     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2258 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2259 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2260     # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2261     <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2262     </pre>
2263    
2264     <p>
2265     For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2266     <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2267     </p>
2268    
2269     </body>
2270     </section>
2271     </chapter>
2272    
2273     <chapter>
2274     <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2275     <section>
2276     <body>
2277    
2278     <p>
2279     If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2280     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2281     </p>
2282    
2283 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2284 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2285 swift 1.142 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2286 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2287 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2288 zhen 1.40
2289 swift 1.149 <note>
2290     The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2291     which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2292     You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2293     </note>
2294    
2295     <note>
2296     Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2297     do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2298     for the first time.
2299     </note>
2300    
2301     <p>
2302     You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2303     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2304     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2305     </p>
2306    
2307 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2308 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2309 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2310 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2311 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2312 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2313 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2314 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2315 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2316 swift 1.149
2317     <p>
2318     If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2319     real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2320     package.
2321     </p>
2322    
2323 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2324 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2325 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2326 swift 1.149
2327     <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2328 swift 1.142 (drobbins)
2329     <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2330 zhen 1.10 to work.
2331     </warn>
2332 swift 1.149 -->
2333    
2334     </body>
2335     </section>
2336     </chapter>
2337    
2338     <chapter>
2339     <title>User Management</title>
2340     <section>
2341     <title>Setting a root password</title>
2342     <body>
2343    
2344     <p>
2345     Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2346     </p>
2347    
2348 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2349 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd</i>
2350 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2351 swift 1.149
2352     </body>
2353     </section>
2354     <section>
2355     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2356     <body>
2357    
2358     <p>
2359     Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2360     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2361     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2362     </p>
2363    
2364     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2365 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2366 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2367     </pre>
2368    
2369     <p>
2370     Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2371     </p>
2372    
2373     <p>
2374     Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2375     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2376     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2377     </p>
2378    
2379     </body>
2380     </section>
2381     </chapter>
2382    
2383     <chapter>
2384     <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2385     <section>
2386     <body>
2387    
2388     <p>
2389     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2390     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2391     </p>
2392    
2393 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2394 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2395     </pre>
2396 swift 1.149
2397     <p>
2398     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2399     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2400     </p>
2401    
2402 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2403     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2404     </pre>
2405 swift 1.149
2406     <p>
2407     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2408     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2409     </p>
2410    
2411 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2412     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2413 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2414 swift 1.149
2415     </body>
2416     </section>
2417     </chapter>
2418    
2419    
2420     <chapter>
2421     <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2422     <section>
2423     <body>
2424    
2425     <p>
2426     This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2427     It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2428     may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2429     </p>
2430    
2431 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2432 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
2433 swift 1.149 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2434 drobbins 1.1 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2435 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2436 swift 1.149
2437     <note>
2438     If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2439     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2440     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2441     </note>
2442    
2443     </body>
2444     </section>
2445     </chapter>
2446    
2447    
2448     <chapter>
2449     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2450     <section>
2451     <body>
2452    
2453     <p>
2454     Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2455 swift 1.157 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2456     also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2457     modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2458     ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2459 swift 1.149 </p>
2460    
2461 swift 1.157 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2462 swift 1.149 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2463 jhhudso 1.81 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2464 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
2465 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2466 swift 1.149
2467     <p>
2468     Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2469     for your first boot:
2470     </p>
2471    
2472 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2473 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2474 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2475 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2476 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2477 swift 1.149
2478     <p>
2479     If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2480     additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2481     <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2482     (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2483     </p>
2484    
2485 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2486 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2487     # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2488 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2489 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2490     </pre>
2491    
2492     <p>
2493     If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2494     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2495 swift 1.157 your setup, then run the following command:
2496 swift 1.149 </p>
2497    
2498 swift 1.157 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2499     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2500 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2501 swift 1.149
2502     <p>
2503     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2504 swift 1.157 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2505     will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2506 swift 1.149 </p>
2507    
2508     </body>
2509     </section>
2510     </chapter>
2511    
2512     <chapter>
2513     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2514     <section>
2515     <body>
2516    
2517 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2518 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2519 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2520 swift 1.149
2521     <p>
2522     Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2523     will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2524     keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2525     <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2526     </p>
2527    
2528     </body>
2529     </section>
2530     </chapter>
2531    
2532     <chapter>
2533     <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2534     <section>
2535     <title>Notes</title>
2536     <body>
2537    
2538     <p>
2539     In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2540     from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2541     both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2542     </p>
2543    
2544     <p>
2545     Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2546     In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2547     </p>
2548    
2549     <p>
2550     In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2551     upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2552     kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2553     differences.
2554     </p>
2555    
2556     <impo>
2557     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2558     nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2559     LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2560     RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2561     it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2562     or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2563     off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2564     card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2565     </impo>
2566    
2567     </body>
2568     </section>
2569     <section>
2570     <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2571     <body>
2572    
2573     <p>
2574     The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2575     GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2576     <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2577     parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2578     rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2579     that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2580     such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2581     scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2582     bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2583     on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2584     <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2585     SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2586     <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2587     we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2588     those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2589     lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2590     time to install GRUB.
2591     </p>
2592    
2593     <p>
2594     The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2595     shell prompt:
2596     </p>
2597    
2598 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2599 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2600     # <i>grub</i>
2601 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2602 swift 1.149
2603     <p>
2604     You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2605     Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2606     onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2607     boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2608     thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2609     commands I want to type are:
2610     </p>
2611 zhen 1.68
2612 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2613 swift 1.149 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2614     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2615 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2616 zhen 1.68
2617 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2618 swift 1.149 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2619     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2620     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2621     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2622     </pre>
2623    
2624     <p>
2625     Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2626     GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2627     <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2628     second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2629     it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2630     location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2631     of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2632     <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2633     GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2634     a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2635     rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2636     installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2637     </p>
2638    
2639     <note>
2640     The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2641     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2642     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2643     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2644     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2645     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2646     Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2647     to make the right choice.
2648     </note>
2649 zhen 1.6
2650 swift 1.149 <p>
2651     Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2652     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2653     when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2654     </p>
2655    
2656     <impo>
2657     To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2658     <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2659     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2660     </impo>
2661    
2662     <p>
2663     Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2664     /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2665     </p>
2666    
2667 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2668 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2669     timeout 30
2670     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2671    
2672 swift 1.149 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2673 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2674     root (hd0,0)
2675 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2676 drobbins 1.1
2677 swift 1.149 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2678 swift 1.142 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2679     root (hd0,0)
2680     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2681     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2682    
2683 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2684 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2685 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2686 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2687 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2688 swift 1.149
2689 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2690 swift 1.152 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2691 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2692 swift 1.152
2693 swift 1.149 <note>
2694     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2695     </note>
2696    
2697     <impo>
2698     If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2699     actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2700     line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2701     burner).
2702     </impo>
2703    
2704     <p>
2705     After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2706     first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2707     part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2708     GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2709     </p>
2710    
2711     <note>
2712     Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2713     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2714     should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2715     boot loader.
2716     </note>
2717    
2718     <note>
2719     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2720     example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2721     partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2722     above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2723     </note>
2724    
2725     <p>
2726     If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2727     the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2728     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2729     can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2730     doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2731     command.
2732     </p>
2733    
2734     <note>
2735     Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2736     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2737     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2738     </note>
2739    
2740     </body>
2741     </section>
2742     <section>
2743     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2744     <body>
2745    
2746     <p>
2747     While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2748     best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2749     bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2750     of GRUB.
2751     </p>
2752    
2753     <p>
2754     The first step is to emerge LILO:
2755     </p>
2756    
2757 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2758 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2759 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2760 swift 1.149
2761     <p>
2762     Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2763     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2764     </p>
2765    
2766 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2767 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2768     map=/boot/map
2769     install=/boot/boot.b
2770     prompt
2771     timeout=50
2772     lba32
2773     default=linux
2774    
2775 swift 1.149 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2776 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2777 zhen 1.16 label=linux
2778     read-only
2779 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
2780 swift 1.142
2781 swift 1.149 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2782 swift 1.142 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2783     label=gk_linux
2784     root=/dev/hda3
2785     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2786     append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2787    
2788 zhen 1.16
2789 swift 1.149 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2790 zhen 1.16 other=/dev/hda1
2791     label=dos
2792 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2793 swift 1.149
2794 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2795 swift 1.155 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2796     make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2797     you used genkernel).
2798 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2799 swift 1.152
2800 swift 1.149 <ul>
2801     <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2802     <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2803     <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2804     <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2805     <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2806     <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2807     <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2808     <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2809     <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2810     <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2811     <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2812     </ul>
2813    
2814     <p>
2815     After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2816     to load the information into the MBR:
2817     </p>
2818    
2819 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2820 swift 1.149 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2821 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2822 swift 1.149
2823     <p>
2824     LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2825     </p>
2826    
2827     </body>
2828     </section>
2829    
2830     <section>
2831     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2832     <body>
2833    
2834     <p>
2835     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2836     to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2837     following table:
2838     </p>
2839    
2840 swift 1.142 <table>
2841     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2842     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2843     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2844     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2845     </table>
2846 swift 1.149
2847 swift 1.142 <p>
2848     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2849     file.
2850     </p>
2851 swift 1.149
2852 swift 1.142 <p>
2853     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2854     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2855     </p>
2856 swift 1.149
2857 swift 1.142 </body>
2858     </section>
2859 swift 1.149 </chapter>
2860    
2861     <chapter>
2862     <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2863     <section>
2864     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2865     <body>
2866    
2867     <impo>
2868     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2869     </impo>
2870    
2871     <p>
2872     It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2873     time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2874     blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2875     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2876     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2877     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2878     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2879     like this:
2880     </p>
2881    
2882 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2883 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2884     # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2885 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2886 swift 1.142
2887 swift 1.149 <p>
2888     Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2889     can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2890     </p>
2891    
2892     </body>
2893     </section>
2894     <section>
2895     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2896     <body>
2897    
2898     <impo>
2899     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2900     </impo>
2901    
2902     <p>
2903     If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2904     </p>
2905    
2906 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2907 swift 1.149 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2908     <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2909 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2910 swift 1.142
2911 swift 1.149 </body>
2912     </section>
2913     </chapter>
2914    
2915     <chapter>
2916     <title>Using GRP</title>
2917     <section>
2918     <body>
2919    
2920     <p>
2921     GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2922     </p>
2923 swift 1.142
2924     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2925 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2926     <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2927 swift 1.142 </pre>
2928    
2929 swift 1.149 <p>
2930     CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2931     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2932     KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2933     reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2934     complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2935     basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2936     files:
2937     </p>
2938 swift 1.142
2939 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2940     # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2941 swift 1.156 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2942 swift 1.142 </pre>
2943    
2944 swift 1.149 <p>
2945     Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2946     </p>
2947 swift 1.142
2948 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2949     # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2950 swift 1.142 </pre>
2951    
2952 swift 1.149 </body>
2953     </section>
2954     </chapter>
2955    
2956     <chapter>
2957     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2958     <section>
2959     <body>
2960    
2961     <p>
2962     Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2963     configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2964     and reboot the system:
2965     </p>
2966 jhhudso 1.75
2967 swift 1.142 <warn>
2968     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2969     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2970     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2971     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2972     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2973     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2974     </warn>
2975 swift 1.149
2976 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2977 swift 1.149 # <i>etc-update</i>
2978     # <i>exit</i>
2979     <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2980     # <i>cd / </i>
2981     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2982     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2983     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2984     # <i>reboot</i>
2985 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2986 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2987 swift 1.149
2988     <note>
2989     After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to
2990     create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2991     file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
2992     <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2993     </note>
2994    
2995     <p>
2996     If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
2997     evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2998     (more information on our <uri
2999     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3000     We also have a handy <uri
3001     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3002     guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3003     system and a useful <uri
3004     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3005     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3006     Gentoo Documentation <uri
3007     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3008     other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3009     check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3010     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3011     Gentoo Linux!
3012     </p>
3013    
3014     </body>
3015     </section>
3016     </chapter>
3017    
3018     <chapter>
3019     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3020     <section>
3021     <body>
3022    
3023     <p>
3024     The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3025     the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3026     about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3027     Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3028     you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3029     <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3030     </p>
3031    
3032     <p>
3033     The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3034     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3035     will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3036     against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3037     taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3038     are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3039     program:
3040     </p>
3041    
3042     <ul>
3043     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3044     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3045     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3046     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3047     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3048     </ul>
3049    
3050     <p>
3051     We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3052     Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3053     </p>
3054    
3055     <ul>
3056     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3057     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3058     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3059     </ul>
3060    
3061     <p>
3062     The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3063     </p>
3064    
3065 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3066 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3067     # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3068 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3069 swift 1.149
3070     <p>
3071     The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3072     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3073     this file to see additional configuration options.
3074     </p>
3075    
3076     <p>
3077     After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3078     not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3079     </p>
3080    
3081 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3082 swift 1.149 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3083 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3084 swift 1.149
3085     <p>
3086     The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3087     viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3088     </p>
3089    
3090     </body>
3091     </section>
3092     </chapter>
3093    
3094     <chapter>
3095     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3096     <section>
3097     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3098     <body>
3099    
3100     <p>
3101     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3102     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3103     install Gentoo Linux:
3104     </p>
3105    
3106     <ul>
3107     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3108     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3109     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3110 swift 1.137 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3111     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3112     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3113     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3114 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3115 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3116     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3117     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3118     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3119 swift 1.137 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3120 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3121     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3122     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3123 swift 1.137 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3124     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3125 swift 1.149 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3126     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3127     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3128 swift 1.137 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3129     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3130 swift 1.149 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3131     <comment>and/or</comment>
3132     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3133     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3134     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3135     </pre></li>
3136     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3137     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3138 swift 1.137 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3139     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3140     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3141 swift 1.149 </pre>
3142     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3143     to the appropriate RAID device:
3144     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3145 swift 1.137 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3146     root (hd0,0)
3147     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3148 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3149     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3150     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3151 swift 1.137 image=/boot/bzImage
3152 swift 1.149 label=linux
3153     read-only
3154     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3155     </pre></li>
3156     </ul>
3157    
3158 swift 1.153 <p>
3159     If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3160     RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3161     </p>
3162    
3163     <p>
3164     Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3165     </p>
3166    
3167    
3168 swift 1.149 </body>
3169     </section>
3170 swift 1.137 </chapter>
3171 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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