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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 swift 1.149 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5     <author title="Chief Architect">
6 zhen 1.16 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 swift 1.149 </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 swift 1.158 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 zhen 1.16 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 swift 1.149 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 zhen 1.16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 swift 1.149 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 zhen 1.16 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 swift 1.149 </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20 zhen 1.16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 swift 1.149 </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23 zhen 1.16 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 swift 1.149 </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26 seo 1.41 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 swift 1.149 </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 zhware 1.43 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 swift 1.149 </author>
31     <author title="Editor">
32 jhhudso 1.75 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 swift 1.149 </author>
34     <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35     <author title="Editor">
36 peesh 1.96 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 swift 1.149 </author>
38     <author title="Editor">
39 carl 1.101 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 swift 1.149 </author>
41     <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 swift 1.142 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 swift 1.149 </author>
44     <author title="Editor">
45 swift 1.142 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 swift 1.149 </author>
47 antifa 1.150 <author title="Editor">
48     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49     </author>
50 swift 1.149 <author title="Reviewer">
51 swift 1.142 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 swift 1.149 </author>
53     <author title="Reviewer">
54 swift 1.142 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 swift 1.149 </author>
56 swift 1.154 <author title="Reviewer">
57     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58     </author>
59 swift 1.164 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
60 bennyc 1.162 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61     </author>
62 swift 1.149
63     <abstract>
64     These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65     Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66     process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67     the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68     </abstract>
69    
70     <license/>
71 swift 1.141
72 swift 1.166 <version>2.6.9</version>
73     <date>September 11, 2003</date>
74 swift 1.149
75     <chapter>
76     <title>About the Install</title>
77     <section>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82     Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83     for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84     the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85     from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86     you.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90     One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93 bennyc 1.165 addition to being available on our
94     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
95     We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
96     i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
97     Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
98     the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
99 swift 1.149 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
100     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
101     </p>
102    
103     <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
104     CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
105     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
106     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
107     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
108     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
109     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
110     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
111     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
112     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
113     file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
114     </p>
115    
116     <p>
117     In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
118     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
119     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
120     Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
121     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
122     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
123     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
124     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
125     2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
126     </p>
127    
128     <note>
129     A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
130     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
131     KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
132     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
133     for those who need this capability. The "compile from
134     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
135     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
136     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
137     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
138     installation process in any way.
139     </note>
140    
141     <p>
142     In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
143     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
144     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
145     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
146     that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
147     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
148     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
149     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
150     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
151     end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
152     </p>
153 drobbins 1.70
154 swift 1.149 <p>
155     To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
156     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
157     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
158     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
159     those conditions.)
160     </p>
161    
162     <p>
163     Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
164     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
165     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
166     you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
167     want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
168     stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
169     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
170     contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
171     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
172     stage3 tarball should be used.
173     </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
177     stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
178     make this decision.
179     </p>
180    
181     <p>
182     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
183     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
184     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
185     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
186     It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
187     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
188     </p>
189 swift 1.142
190 swift 1.149 <p>
191     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
192     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
193     chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
194     </p>
195 swift 1.142
196 swift 1.149 <p>
197     And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
198     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
199     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
200     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
201     stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
202     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
203     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
204     and a system that is well-optimized.
205     </p>
206 swift 1.142
207 swift 1.149 <p>
208     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
209     stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
210     </p>
211 antifa 1.106
212 swift 1.149 <note>
213     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
214     change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
215     to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
216     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
217     typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
218     </note>
219 antifa 1.106
220 swift 1.149 <impo>
221     If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
222     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
223     needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
224     team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
225     </impo>
226 antifa 1.106
227 swift 1.149 <note>
228     The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
229     Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
230     Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
231     instructions.
232     </note>
233 antifa 1.106
234 swift 1.149 <p>
235     Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
236     CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
237     partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
238     stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
239     the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
240     stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
241     loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
242     your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
243     our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
244     OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
245     </p>
246 antifa 1.105
247 swift 1.149 <p>
248     Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
249     what is required for installation:
250     </p>
251 antifa 1.106
252 swift 1.149 <table>
253     <tr>
254     <th>Stage Tarball</th>
255     <th>Internet Access Required</th>
256     <th>Media Required</th>
257     <th>Steps</th>
258     </tr>
259     <tr>
260     <ti>1</ti>
261     <ti>Yes</ti>
262     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
263     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
264     </tr>
265     <tr>
266     <ti>2</ti>
267     <ti>Yes</ti>
268     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
269     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
270     </tr>
271     <tr>
272     <ti>3</ti>
273     <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
274     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
275     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
276     </tr>
277     <tr>
278     <ti>3+GRP</ti>
279     <ti>No</ti>
280     <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
281     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
282     </tr>
283     </table>
284 antifa 1.105
285 swift 1.149 <note>
286     Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
287     of this document before proceeding.
288     </note>
289 antifa 1.105
290 swift 1.149 </body>
291     </section>
292     </chapter>
293 antifa 1.105
294 swift 1.149 <chapter>
295     <title>Booting</title>
296     <section>
297     <body>
298 antifa 1.105
299 swift 1.149 <warn>
300     Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
301     options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
302     pcmcia services etc..
303     </warn>
304 antifa 1.105
305 swift 1.149 <p>
306     Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
307     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
308     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
309     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
310     and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
311     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
312     processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
313     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
314     the processors in your system, not just the first one.
315     </p>
316    
317     <p>
318     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
319     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
320     </p>
321 antifa 1.105
322 swift 1.149 <table>
323     <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
324     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
325     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
326     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
327     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
328     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
329     </table>
330 antifa 1.105
331 swift 1.149 <table>
332     <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
333     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
334     <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
335     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
336     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
337     <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
338     <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
339     <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
340     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
341     <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
342     <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
343     <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
344     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
345     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
346     </table>
347 drobbins 1.70
348 swift 1.149 <p>
349     Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
350     screen and progress bar.
351     </p>
352 swift 1.142
353 swift 1.147 <!--
354 swift 1.142 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
355     Linux Live CD booting" />
356 swift 1.147 -->
357 swift 1.142
358 swift 1.149 <p>
359     Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
360     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
361     have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
362     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
363     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
364     </p>
365    
366 swift 1.147 <!--
367 swift 1.142
368     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
369     Linux Live CD console" />
370 swift 1.147 -->
371 swift 1.144
372 swift 1.149 <note>
373     <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
374 swift 1.142 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
375     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
376     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
377     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
378 swift 1.149 CD over the network.
379     </note>
380    
381     <p>
382     You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
383     help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
384     and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
385     on your CD.
386     </p>
387    
388     </body>
389     </section>
390     </chapter>
391    
392     <chapter>
393     <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
394     <section>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
399     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
400     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
401     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
402     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
403     will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
404     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
405     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
406     type:
407     </p>
408 swift 1.142
409 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
410 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
411 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
412 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
413 swift 1.149
414     <p>
415     Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
416     detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
417     load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
418     <c>modprobe</c>:
419     </p>
420    
421 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
422 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
423 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
424 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
425 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
426 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
427 swift 1.149
428     <note>
429     Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
430     </note>
431    
432     <note>
433     <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
434     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
435     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
436     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
437     <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
438     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
439     <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
440     # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
441 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
442 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
443 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
444     </pre>
445 swift 1.149 </note>
446 swift 1.142
447    
448 swift 1.149 </body>
449     </section>
450     </chapter>
451     <chapter>
452     <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
453     <section>
454     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
455     <body>
456    
457     <p>
458     If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
459     likely that your networking configuration has already been
460     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
461     the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
462     <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
463     others.
464     </p>
465 drobbins 1.70
466 swift 1.149 <p>
467     If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
468     should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
469     </p>
470    
471 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
472 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
473     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
474     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
475     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
476     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
477     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
478     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
479     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
480 swift 1.149 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
481 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
482 swift 1.149
483     <p>
484     You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
485     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
486     that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
487     correctly, etc..
488     </p>
489    
490 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
491 swift 1.149 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
492 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
493 swift 1.149
494     <p>
495     Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
496     section.
497     </p>
498    
499     </body>
500     </section>
501     <section>
502     <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
503     <body>
504    
505     <p>
506     Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
507     has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
508     <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
509     for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
510     and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
511     or not.
512     </p>
513    
514 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
515 swift 1.149 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
516     # <i> adsl-start </i>
517 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
518 swift 1.149
519     <p>
520     If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
521     and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
522     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
523     ethernet device.
524     </p>
525    
526     </body>
527     </section>
528    
529     <section>
530     <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
531     <body>
532    
533     <p>
534     The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
535     automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
536     </p>
537    
538 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
539 swift 1.149 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
540 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
541 swift 1.149
542     <p>
543     Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
544     covered next.
545     </p>
546    
547     </body>
548     </section>
549     <section>
550     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
551     <body>
552    
553     <p>
554     Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
555     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
556     </p>
557    
558 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
559 swift 1.149 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
560 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
561 swift 1.149
562     <note>
563     Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
564     <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
565     </note>
566    
567     <p>
568     If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
569     likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
570     </p>
571    
572     </body>
573     </section>
574     <section>
575     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
576     <body>
577    
578     <p>
579     We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
580     the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
581     information is explained in the next table.
582     </p>
583 swift 1.117
584     <table>
585     <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
586 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
587 swift 1.149 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
588 swift 1.117 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
589 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
590 swift 1.117 </table>
591 swift 1.149
592     <p>
593     Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
594     interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
595     <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
596     mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
597     gateway.
598     </p>
599    
600 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
601 swift 1.149 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
602     # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
603 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
604 swift 1.149
605     <p>
606     Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
607     resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
608     will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
609     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
610     editor.
611     </p>
612    
613     <p>
614     Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
615     file:
616     </p>
617    
618 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
619 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
620     nameserver 10.0.0.1
621     nameserver 10.0.0.2
622 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
623 swift 1.149
624     <p>
625     Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
626     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
627     </p>
628    
629     </body>
630     </section>
631    
632     <section>
633     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
634     <body>
635    
636     <p>
637     If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
638     before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
639     accordingly.
640     </p>
641    
642 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
643 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
644 swift 1.158 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
645 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
646 swift 1.158 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
647 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
648 swift 1.158 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
649 swift 1.149 </pre>
650    
651     </body>
652     </section>
653    
654     <section>
655     <title>Networking is go!</title>
656     <body>
657    
658     <p>
659     Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
660     included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
661     commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
662     </p>
663    
664     </body>
665     </section>
666     </chapter>
667    
668     <chapter>
669     <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
670     <section>
671     <body>
672    
673     <p>
674     Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
675     <c>date</c> command.
676     </p>
677    
678 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
679 swift 1.149 # <i>date</i>
680 jhhudso 1.81 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
681     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
682 swift 1.149 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
683 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
684     </pre>
685 swift 1.149
686     </body>
687     </section>
688     </chapter>
689    
690     <chapter>
691     <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
692     <section>
693     <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
694     <body>
695    
696     <p>
697     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
698     Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
699     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
700     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
701     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
702 drobbins 1.86 </p>
703 swift 1.149
704 drobbins 1.86 <p>
705     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
706     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
707     </p>
708 swift 1.149
709 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
710     /dev/hda
711     </pre>
712    
713     <p>
714     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
715     </p>
716    
717     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
718     /dev/sda
719     </pre>
720    
721 swift 1.149 <p>
722     The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
723 drobbins 1.86 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
724 swift 1.149 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
725 drobbins 1.86 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
726 swift 1.149 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
727     </p>
728    
729 drobbins 1.86 </body>
730     </section>
731     <section>
732     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
733     <body>
734    
735 swift 1.149 <p>
736     Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
737     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
738     block device as a command-line argument.
739     </p>
740    
741     <p>
742     However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
743     device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
744     or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
745     done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
746     more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
747     using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
748     partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
749     exactly how to split up the full disk.
750     </p>
751    
752     <p>
753     We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
754     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
755     </p>
756 drobbins 1.86
757 swift 1.149 <note>
758     Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
759 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
760 swift 1.149 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
761     </note>
762 drobbins 1.86
763     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
764 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
765 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
766 swift 1.149
767 drobbins 1.86 <p>
768     or
769     </p>
770 swift 1.149
771 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
772 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
773 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
774    
775     <impo>
776 swift 1.149 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
777 drobbins 1.86 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
778     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
779 swift 1.149 lost.
780 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
781    
782     <p>
783 swift 1.149 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
784 drobbins 1.86 </p>
785    
786     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
787     Command (m for help):
788     </pre>
789    
790     <p>
791     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
792     </p>
793    
794     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
795 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
796 drobbins 1.86
797     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
798     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
799    
800     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
801     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
802     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
803     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
804     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
805     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
806     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
807     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
808     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
809     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
810    
811     Command (m for help):
812     </pre>
813    
814 swift 1.149 <p>
815     This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
816 drobbins 1.86 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
817 swift 1.149 (listed as "Linux swap").
818     </p>
819 drobbins 1.86
820     <p>
821     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
822 swift 1.149 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
823     up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
824     software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
825     partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
826     partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
827     primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
828     However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
829     partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
830     four partition limit.
831     </p>
832    
833     <p>
834     All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
835     The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
836 drobbins 1.86 </p>
837    
838     <p>
839 swift 1.149 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
840     primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
841     contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
842     <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
843     <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
844     acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
845     <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
846     </p>
847 drobbins 1.86
848 swift 1.149 <p>
849     Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
850 drobbins 1.86 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
851     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
852 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
853     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
854     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
855 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
856 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
857 drobbins 1.86 </p>
858 swift 1.149
859 drobbins 1.86 </body>
860     </section>
861 swift 1.149
862 drobbins 1.86 <section>
863     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
864     <body>
865    
866 swift 1.149 <p>
867     Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
868 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
869     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
870     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
871 swift 1.149 look like this:
872     </p>
873 drobbins 1.86
874     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
875     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
876     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
877     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
878    
879 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
880 drobbins 1.86 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
881     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
882     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
883    
884     Command (m for help):
885     </pre>
886    
887 swift 1.149 <p>
888     In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
889     The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
890 drobbins 1.86 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
891     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
892     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
893     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
894     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
895 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
896 swift 1.149 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
897     </p>
898 drobbins 1.86
899 swift 1.149 <p>
900     It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
901 drobbins 1.98 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
902     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
903     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
904     cylinder 1024.
905     </p>
906    
907 swift 1.149 <p>
908     The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
909 drobbins 1.86 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
910     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
911 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
912 swift 1.149 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
913     </p>
914 drobbins 1.86
915 swift 1.149 <p>
916     The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
917     rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
918     used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
919     system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
920     </p>
921 drobbins 1.86
922 swift 1.149 <p>
923     Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
924 drobbins 1.86 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
925 swift 1.149 Linux:
926     </p>
927 drobbins 1.86
928     <table>
929 swift 1.149 <tr>
930     <th>Partition</th>
931     <th>Size</th>
932     <th>Type</th>
933     <th>example device</th>
934     </tr>
935     <tr>
936     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
937     <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
938     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
939     <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
940     </tr>
941     <tr>
942     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
943     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
944     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
945     <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
946     </tr>
947     <tr>
948     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
949     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
950     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
951     <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
952     </tr>
953 drobbins 1.86 </table>
954    
955 swift 1.149 <p>
956     OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
957 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
958 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
959     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
960     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
961 swift 1.149 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
962     </p>
963 drobbins 1.86
964 swift 1.149 <impo>
965     Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
966 drobbins 1.86 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
967     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
968     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
969 swift 1.149 from the wrong drive.
970     </impo>
971 drobbins 1.86
972 swift 1.149 <p>
973     Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
974 drobbins 1.86 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
975 swift 1.149 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
976     </p>
977 drobbins 1.86
978     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
979 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
980     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
981 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
982 zhen 1.54
983 swift 1.149 <p>
984     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
985 drobbins 1.86 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
986     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
987     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
988 swift 1.149 deleted.
989     </p>
990    
991     <p>
992     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
993 drobbins 1.86 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
994     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
995 swift 1.149 with a partition table with nothing in it:
996     </p>
997 drobbins 1.86
998     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
999     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1000     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1001     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1002    
1003 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1004 drobbins 1.86
1005     Command (m for help):
1006     </pre>
1007    
1008 swift 1.149 <p>
1009     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1010 drobbins 1.86 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1011     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1012     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1013 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1014 swift 1.149 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1015     </p>
1016 swift 1.115
1017     <note>
1018     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1019 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1020 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1021     for the last cylinder.
1022     </note>
1023 drobbins 1.86
1024     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1025 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1026 drobbins 1.86 Command action
1027 swift 1.149 e extended
1028     p primary partition (1-4)
1029     <i>p</i>
1030     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1031     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1032 drobbins 1.86 Using default value 1
1033 swift 1.149 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1034 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1035    
1036 swift 1.149 <p>
1037     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1038     printout:
1039     </p>
1040 drobbins 1.86
1041     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1042 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1043 drobbins 1.86
1044     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1045     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1046     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1047    
1048 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1049     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1050 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1051    
1052 swift 1.149 <p>
1053     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1054     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1055     Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1056     <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1057     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1058     a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1059     partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1060     type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1061     these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1062     similar to this:
1063     </p>
1064 drobbins 1.86
1065     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1066 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1067 drobbins 1.86
1068     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1069     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1070     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1071    
1072 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1073     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1074     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1075 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1076    
1077 swift 1.149 <p>
1078     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1079 drobbins 1.86 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1080 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1081 swift 1.149 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1082     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1083     partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1084     completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1085     looks similar to this:
1086     </p>
1087 drobbins 1.86
1088     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1089 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1090 drobbins 1.86
1091     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1092     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1093     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1094    
1095 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1096     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1097     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1098     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1099 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1100    
1101     <p>
1102     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1103 swift 1.149 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1104     type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1105     If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1106     <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1107     this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1108     configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1109 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1110    
1111 swift 1.149 <note>
1112     If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1113     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1114     </note>
1115    
1116 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1117     </section>
1118 swift 1.149
1119 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1120     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1121     <body>
1122 swift 1.149
1123     <p>
1124     Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1125     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1126     data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1127 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1128    
1129 swift 1.149 <p>
1130     Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1131     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1132     Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1133     filesystems.
1134     </p>
1135 drobbins 1.86
1136 swift 1.149 <p>
1137     ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1138 drobbins 1.86 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1139     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1140 swift 1.149 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1141 drobbins 1.86 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1142     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1143 swift 1.149 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1144     </p>
1145 drobbins 1.86
1146 swift 1.149 <p>
1147     ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1148 drobbins 1.86 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1149     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1150 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1151     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1152     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1153     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1154     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1155 swift 1.149 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1156     </p>
1157 drobbins 1.86
1158 swift 1.149 <p>
1159     ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1160 drobbins 1.86 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1161     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1162     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1163     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1164     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1165 swift 1.149 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1166 drobbins 1.86 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1167 swift 1.149 non-boot partitions.
1168     </p>
1169 drobbins 1.86
1170 swift 1.149 <p>
1171     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1172     Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1173 drobbins 1.86 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1174     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1175     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1176     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1177 swift 1.149 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1178     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1179     </p>
1180 drobbins 1.86
1181 swift 1.149 <p>
1182     JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1183     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1184 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1185 swift 1.149 point.
1186     </p>
1187 drobbins 1.86
1188 swift 1.149 <p>
1189     If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1190 drobbins 1.86 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1191     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1192 swift 1.149 refined and recommended for general use.
1193     </p>
1194 drobbins 1.86
1195 swift 1.149 <p>
1196     Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1197     all our partitions for use:
1198     </p>
1199 drobbins 1.86
1200     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1201 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1202     # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1203     # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1204 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1205    
1206 swift 1.149 <p>
1207     We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1208 drobbins 1.98 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1209 swift 1.149 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1210     obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1211     choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1212     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1213     </p>
1214    
1215     <p>
1216     For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1217     during the installation process:
1218     </p>
1219 drobbins 1.98
1220 swift 1.149 <p>
1221     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1222     </p>
1223 drobbins 1.86
1224 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1225 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1226 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1227 swift 1.149
1228     <p>
1229     You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1230     </p>
1231    
1232 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1233 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1234 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1235 swift 1.149
1236     <p>
1237     If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1238     <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1239     </p>
1240    
1241 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1242 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1243 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1244 swift 1.149
1245     <note>
1246     You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1247     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1248     </note>
1249    
1250     <p>
1251     To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1252     </p>
1253    
1254 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1255 swift 1.149 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1256 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1257 swift 1.149
1258     <p>
1259     To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1260     </p>
1261    
1262 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1263 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1264 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1265 drobbins 1.86
1266 swift 1.149 <note>
1267     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1268     command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1269     will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1270     least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1271     you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1272     <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1273     performance.
1274     </note>
1275    
1276     <p>
1277     To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1278     </p>
1279    
1280 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1281 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1282 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1283 swift 1.149
1284     </body>
1285     </section>
1286     </chapter>
1287    
1288     <chapter>
1289     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1290     <section>
1291     <body>
1292    
1293     <p>
1294     Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1295     the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1296     </p>
1297    
1298 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1299 swift 1.149 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1300 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1301 drobbins 1.86
1302 swift 1.149 <p>
1303     Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1304     and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1305     root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1306     <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1307     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1308     <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1309     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1310     </p>
1311    
1312     <impo>
1313     If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1314     be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1315     installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1316     <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1317     We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1318     then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1319     <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1320     </impo>
1321 drobbins 1.86
1322 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1323 swift 1.149 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1324     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1325     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1326 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1327 drobbins 1.86
1328 swift 1.149 <impo>
1329     If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1330     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1331     </impo>
1332    
1333     </body>
1334     </section>
1335     </chapter>
1336    
1337    
1338     <chapter>
1339     <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1340     <section>
1341     <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1342     <body>
1343 zhen 1.55
1344 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1345     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1346 swift 1.149 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1347     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1348     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1349     </p>
1350 drobbins 1.86
1351 swift 1.149 <p>
1352     <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1353     </p>
1354 drobbins 1.86
1355 swift 1.149 <p>
1356     If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1357     <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1358 swift 1.142 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1359 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1360 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1361 swift 1.149 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1362     </p>
1363 drobbins 1.86
1364 swift 1.163 <note>
1365     On the basic LiveCD, <c>lynx</c> is substituted with <c>links2</c>. To
1366     use <c>links2</c> with proxy, press Escape once inside <c>links2</c> and
1367     go to Setup, Network Options. Don't forget to save everything in Setup,
1368     Save Options.
1369     </note>
1370    
1371 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1372 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1373 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1374 swift 1.149 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1375 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1376     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1377     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1378     Save the file and quit the browser
1379    
1380     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1381 swift 1.149 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1382 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1383 drobbins 1.86
1384 swift 1.149 </body>
1385     </section>
1386     <section>
1387     <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1388     <body>
1389    
1390     <p>
1391     Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1392 drobbins 1.86 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1393     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1394     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1395 swift 1.149 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1396     </p>
1397 drobbins 1.86
1398 swift 1.149 <impo>
1399     Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1400     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1401     </impo>
1402 drobbins 1.86
1403 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1404 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1405 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1406     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1407 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1408 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1409 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1410    
1411 swift 1.149 <p>
1412     If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1413     delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1414     </p>
1415    
1416 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1417     </section>
1418 swift 1.149
1419 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1420 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1421     <body>
1422 swift 1.149
1423     <impo>
1424     The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1425     </impo>
1426    
1427     <p>
1428     <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1429 swift 1.142 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1430     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1431 swift 1.149 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1432     </p>
1433    
1434 swift 1.142 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1435     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1436 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1437 swift 1.142 </pre>
1438 swift 1.149
1439     <p>
1440     This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1441 swift 1.142 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1442     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1443 swift 1.149 from the Live CD into place:
1444     </p>
1445 swift 1.142
1446     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1447 swift 1.159 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1448     # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1449 swift 1.142 </pre>
1450    
1451 swift 1.149 <p>
1452     All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1453 swift 1.142 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1454 swift 1.149 -- even without a network connection.
1455     </p>
1456 swift 1.142
1457     </body>
1458     </section>
1459 swift 1.149
1460 antifa 1.150 <section>
1461     <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1462     <body>
1463    
1464     <p>
1465     <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1466     mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1467     Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1468     </p>
1469    
1470     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1471     <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1472 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1473 antifa 1.150 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1474 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1475 antifa 1.150 </pre>
1476    
1477     <p>
1478     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1479     continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1480     </p>
1481    
1482     </body>
1483     </section>
1484 swift 1.142 <section>
1485 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1486     <body>
1487 swift 1.149
1488 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1489 swift 1.149 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1490     "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1491 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1492 swift 1.112
1493     <note>
1494     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1495 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1496 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1497 swift 1.112 the problem.
1498     </note>
1499 drobbins 1.86
1500     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1501 swift 1.149 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1502     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1503     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1504     # <i>env-update</i>
1505 drobbins 1.1 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1506 swift 1.149 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1507     <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1508 swift 1.132 </pre>
1509 swift 1.133
1510 swift 1.149 <p>
1511     After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1512     environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1513     installation process inside the chroot.
1514     </p>
1515 swift 1.132
1516 swift 1.149 </body>
1517     </section>
1518     </chapter>
1519 swift 1.142
1520 swift 1.149 <chapter>
1521     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1522     <section>
1523     <body>
1524 swift 1.142
1525 swift 1.149 <impo>
1526     If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1527     <c>emerge sync</c>.
1528     </impo>
1529 swift 1.142
1530 swift 1.149 <p>
1531     Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1532 swift 1.142 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1533 swift 1.149 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1534     you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1535 swift 1.142 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1536     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1537     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1538 swift 1.149 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1539     </p>
1540 drobbins 1.86
1541 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1542 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1543 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1544    
1545 swift 1.149 </body>
1546     </section>
1547     </chapter>
1548    
1549     <chapter>
1550     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1551     <section>
1552     <body>
1553    
1554     <p>
1555     Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1556 drobbins 1.86 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1557     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1558     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1559 swift 1.149 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1560 drobbins 1.86 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1561 swift 1.149 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1562     fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1563 drobbins 1.86 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1564     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1565 swift 1.149 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1566     </p>
1567    
1568     <p>
1569     If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1570     CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1571     creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1572     are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1573     optimally and should not require any modification.
1574     </p>
1575 drobbins 1.86
1576 swift 1.163 <warn>
1577     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1578     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1579     the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1580     </warn>
1581    
1582 swift 1.149 <impo>
1583     <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1584     C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1585     It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1586     "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1587     packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1588     characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1589 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1590     </impo>
1591    
1592     <!-- needs qa
1593 swift 1.149 <note>
1594     <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1595 swift 1.142 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1596     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1597     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1598 swift 1.149 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1599 swift 1.142 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1600 swift 1.149 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1601     </note>
1602 swift 1.142 -->
1603    
1604 swift 1.149 <p>
1605     If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1606     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1607     using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1608 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1609 swift 1.149
1610 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1611 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1612 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1613 drobbins 1.108
1614 swift 1.149 <note>
1615     <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1616     process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1617     file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1618     do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1619     as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1620     in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1621     settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1622     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1623     <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1624     USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1625     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1626     </note>
1627    
1628     <warn>
1629     Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1630     stage1.
1631     </warn>
1632    
1633     </body>
1634     </section>
1635     </chapter>
1636    
1637     <chapter>
1638     <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1639     <section>
1640     <body>
1641    
1642     <note>
1643     If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1644     </note>
1645 swift 1.140
1646 swift 1.149 <p>
1647     The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1648     have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1649     uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1650     takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1651     from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1652     </p>
1653 avenj 1.146
1654 swift 1.149 <p>
1655     Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1656     about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1657     C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1658     the bootstrap as follows:
1659     </p>
1660 avenj 1.146
1661 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1662     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1663     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1664 avenj 1.146 </pre>
1665 swift 1.142
1666 swift 1.149 <p>
1667     The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1668     </p>
1669 swift 1.142
1670 swift 1.149 <note>
1671     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1672     users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1673     files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1674     information.
1675     </note>
1676 swift 1.142
1677 swift 1.149 <note>
1678     Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1679     often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1680     like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1681     PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1682     <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1683     # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1684 swift 1.142 </pre>
1685 swift 1.149 </note>
1686    
1687     <p>
1688     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1689     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1690     say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1691     will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1692     the stage2 instructions.
1693     </p>
1694 swift 1.142
1695     </body>
1696     </section>
1697 swift 1.149 </chapter>
1698    
1699     <chapter>
1700     <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1701 swift 1.142 <section>
1702     <body>
1703    
1704 swift 1.149 <note>
1705     This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1706     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1707     </note>
1708 swift 1.142
1709 swift 1.149 <warn>
1710     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1711     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1712     broad compilation failures.
1713     </warn>
1714 swift 1.142
1715 swift 1.149 <p>
1716     The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1717     have to do is install the rest of the system:
1718     </p>
1719 swift 1.142
1720 swift 1.149 <note>
1721     If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1722     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1723     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1724     safe to skip this suggestion.
1725     </note>
1726 swift 1.142
1727 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1728     # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1729     <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1730     # <i>emerge system</i>
1731     </pre>
1732 swift 1.142
1733 swift 1.149 <p>
1734     It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1735     Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1736     The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1737     some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1738     for the PS2.
1739     </p>
1740 swift 1.142
1741 swift 1.149 <p>
1742     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1743     your time zone" section.
1744     </p>
1745 swift 1.142
1746 swift 1.149 </body>
1747     </section>
1748     </chapter>
1749    
1750    
1751     <chapter>
1752     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1753     <section>
1754     <body>
1755    
1756     <note>
1757     This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1758     have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1759     should skip ahead to the next section.
1760     </note>
1761    
1762     <warn>
1763     Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1764     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1765     </warn>
1766    
1767     <p>
1768     The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1769     so no building is required.
1770     </p>
1771    
1772     <note>
1773     <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1774     may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1775     automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1776 swift 1.161 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1777     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1778     emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1779     the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1780     very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1781     to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1782     free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1783 swift 1.149 </note>
1784    
1785     </body>
1786     </section>
1787     </chapter>
1788    
1789    
1790     <chapter>
1791     <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1792     <section>
1793     <body>
1794    
1795     <p>
1796     Now you need to set your time zone.
1797     </p>
1798    
1799     <p>
1800     Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1801     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1802     <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1803     </p>
1804 swift 1.142
1805 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1806     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1807     </pre>
1808    
1809     </body>
1810     </section>
1811     </chapter>
1812    
1813     <chapter>
1814     <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1815     <section>
1816     <body>
1817 swift 1.142
1818 swift 1.149 <impo>
1819     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1820     </impo>
1821    
1822     <p>
1823     Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1824     configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1825     The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1826     that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1827     you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1828     <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1829     </p>
1830    
1831 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
1832 swift 1.149 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1833 swift 1.163 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
1834     as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
1835     are using:
1836 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
1837 swift 1.149
1838     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1839     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1840 swift 1.142 #
1841 swift 1.149 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1842     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1843     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1844     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1845    
1846     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1847    
1848     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1849     </comment>
1850     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1851     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1852     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1853     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1854     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1855     </pre>
1856    
1857     <warn>
1858     Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1859     is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1860     access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1861     </warn>
1862    
1863     </body>
1864     </section>
1865     </chapter>
1866    
1867    
1868     <chapter>
1869     <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1870     <section>
1871     <title>Kernel selections</title>
1872     <body>
1873    
1874     <p>
1875     There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1876     own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1877     kernel automatically.
1878     </p>
1879    
1880     <p>
1881     Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1882     you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1883     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1884     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1885     which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1886     If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1887     <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1888     <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1889     for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1890     the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1891     </p>
1892    
1893     <p>
1894     Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1895     </p>
1896    
1897     <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1898     # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1899     </pre>
1900    
1901     <p>
1902     The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1903     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1904     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1905     you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1906     kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1907     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1908     source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1909     link.
1910     </p>
1911    
1912     </body>
1913     </section>
1914     <section>
1915     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1916     <body>
1917    
1918     <p>
1919     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1920     kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1921     <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1922     <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1923     our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1924     to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1925     boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1926     manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1927     not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1928     </p>
1929    
1930     <p>
1931     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1932     </p>
1933    
1934     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1935     # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1936 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1937 swift 1.149
1938     <p>
1939     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1940     </p>
1941    
1942     <note>
1943     <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1944     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1945     configuration before building begins.
1946     </note>
1947 swift 1.142
1948 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1949     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1950     # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1951     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1952     # <i>genkernel</i>
1953     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1954     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1955     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1956    
1957     Settings:
1958     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1959     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1960     config: gentoo (customized)
1961     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1962     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1963    
1964     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1965     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1966     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1967     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1968     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1969     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1970     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1971     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1972     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1973     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1974    
1975     * Build completed successfully!
1976    
1977     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1978     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1979     </pre>
1980    
1981     <p>
1982     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1983     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1984 swift 1.161 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
1985     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
1986     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
1987     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
1988     your "real" system starts up.
1989 swift 1.149 </p>
1990    
1991     <p>
1992     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1993     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1994     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1995     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1996     </p>
1997 swift 1.142
1998     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1999 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2000     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2001 swift 1.142 </pre>
2002    
2003 swift 1.149 <p>
2004     Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2005     can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2006     </p>
2007    
2008 swift 1.142 </body>
2009     </section>
2010     <section>
2011     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2012     <body>
2013    
2014 swift 1.149 <p>
2015     If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2016 swift 1.142 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2017     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2018 swift 1.149 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2019 swift 1.142 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2020     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2021 swift 1.149 proceeding.
2022     </p>
2023 swift 1.142
2024     <warn>
2025 swift 1.149 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2026     option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2027     programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2028 swift 1.142 </warn>
2029    
2030     <note>
2031 swift 1.149 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2032     your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2033     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2034     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2035     </note>
2036    
2037 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2038 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2039     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2040 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2041 swift 1.149
2042     <warn>
2043     For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2044     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2045     and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2046     have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2047     using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2048     always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2049     </warn>
2050    
2051     <p>
2052     Below are some common options that you will need:
2053     </p>
2054    
2055 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2056     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2057 swift 1.149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2058     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2059     ...
2060 jhhudso 1.81
2061     File systems ---&gt;
2062 swift 1.149 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2063     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2064     ...
2065     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2066     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2067     ...
2068     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2069     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2070     ...
2071     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2072     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2073     ...
2074     [*] /proc file system support
2075     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2076     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2077     [*] Automatically mount at boot
2078     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2079     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2080 swift 1.163 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2081 swift 1.149 ...
2082     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2083     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2084     ...
2085     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2086     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2087     </pre>
2088    
2089     <p>
2090     If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2091     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2092     (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2093     ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2094     options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2095     over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2096     configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2097     </p>
2098    
2099     <p>
2100     If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2101     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2102     and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2103     (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2104     &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2105     generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2106     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2107 swift 1.157 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2108     added at boot time.
2109 swift 1.149 </p>
2110    
2111     <p>
2112     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2113     ethernet card.
2114     </p>
2115    
2116     <note>
2117     For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2118     kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2119     features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2120     filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2121     patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2122     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2123     kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2124     in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2125     <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2126     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2127     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2128     for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2129     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2130     </note>
2131 swift 1.121
2132     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2133 swift 1.149 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2134     # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2135 swift 1.121 </pre>
2136 swift 1.158
2137     </body>
2138     </section>
2139     <section>
2140     <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2141     <body>
2142    
2143     <p>
2144     Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2145     your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2146     </p>
2147    
2148     <table>
2149     <tr>
2150     <th>Ebuild</th>
2151     <th>Purpose</th>
2152     <th>Command</th>
2153     </tr>
2154     <tr>
2155     <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2156     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2157     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2158     </tr>
2159     <tr>
2160     <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2161     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2162     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2163     </tr>
2164     <tr>
2165     <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2166     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2167     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2168     </tr>
2169     <tr>
2170     <ti>e100</ti>
2171     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2172     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2173     </tr>
2174     <tr>
2175     <ti>e1000</ti>
2176     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2177     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2178     </tr>
2179     <tr>
2180     <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2181     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2182     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2183     </tr>
2184     <tr>
2185     <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2186     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2187     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2188     </tr>
2189     <tr>
2190     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2191     <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2192     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2193     </tr>
2194     </table>
2195    
2196     <p>
2197     The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2198     will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2199     above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2200     you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2201     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2202     </p>
2203    
2204     <p>
2205     More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2206     link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2207     </p>
2208    
2209 swift 1.149
2210 swift 1.142 </body>
2211     </section>
2212     <section>
2213     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2214     <body>
2215 swift 1.149
2216     <p>
2217     Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2218     a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2219     the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2220     syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2221     sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2222     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2223     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2224     sets:
2225     </p>
2226    
2227 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2228 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2229     # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2230 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2231 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2232     # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2233 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2234 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2235     # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2236 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2237 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2238     # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2239 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2240 swift 1.149
2241     <impo>
2242     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2243     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2244     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2245     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2246     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2247     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2248     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2249     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2250     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2251 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2252     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2253 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2254 swift 1.114 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2255 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2256 swift 1.114 </pre>
2257 swift 1.149 </impo>
2258    
2259     <p>
2260     Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2261     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2262     choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2263     </p>
2264    
2265 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2266 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2267     # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2268     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2269 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2270 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2271     # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2272     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2273 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2274 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2275     # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2276     <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2277     </pre>
2278    
2279     <p>
2280     For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2281     <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2282     </p>
2283    
2284     </body>
2285     </section>
2286     </chapter>
2287    
2288     <chapter>
2289     <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2290     <section>
2291     <body>
2292    
2293     <p>
2294     If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2295     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2296     </p>
2297    
2298 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2299 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2300 swift 1.142 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2301 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2302 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2303 zhen 1.40
2304 swift 1.149 <note>
2305     The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2306     which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2307     You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2308     </note>
2309    
2310     <note>
2311     Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2312     do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2313     for the first time.
2314     </note>
2315    
2316     <p>
2317     You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2318     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2319     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2320     </p>
2321    
2322 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2323 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2324 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2325 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2326 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2327 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2328 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2329 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2330 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2331 swift 1.149
2332     <p>
2333     If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2334     real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2335     package.
2336     </p>
2337    
2338 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2339 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2340 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2341 swift 1.149
2342     <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2343 swift 1.142 (drobbins)
2344     <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2345 zhen 1.10 to work.
2346     </warn>
2347 swift 1.149 -->
2348    
2349     </body>
2350     </section>
2351     </chapter>
2352    
2353     <chapter>
2354     <title>User Management</title>
2355     <section>
2356     <title>Setting a root password</title>
2357     <body>
2358    
2359     <p>
2360     Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2361     </p>
2362    
2363 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2364 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd</i>
2365 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2366 swift 1.149
2367     </body>
2368     </section>
2369     <section>
2370     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2371     <body>
2372    
2373     <p>
2374     Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2375     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2376     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2377     </p>
2378    
2379     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2380 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2381 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2382     </pre>
2383    
2384     <p>
2385     Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2386     </p>
2387    
2388     <p>
2389     Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2390     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2391     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2392     </p>
2393    
2394     </body>
2395     </section>
2396     </chapter>
2397    
2398     <chapter>
2399     <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2400     <section>
2401     <body>
2402    
2403     <p>
2404     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2405     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2406     </p>
2407    
2408 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2409 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2410     </pre>
2411 swift 1.149
2412     <p>
2413     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2414     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2415     </p>
2416    
2417 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2418     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2419     </pre>
2420 swift 1.149
2421     <p>
2422     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2423     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2424     </p>
2425    
2426 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2427     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2428 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2429 swift 1.149
2430     </body>
2431     </section>
2432     </chapter>
2433    
2434    
2435     <chapter>
2436     <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2437     <section>
2438     <body>
2439    
2440     <p>
2441     This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2442     It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2443     may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2444     </p>
2445    
2446 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2447 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
2448 swift 1.149 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2449 drobbins 1.1 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2450 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2451 swift 1.149
2452     <note>
2453     If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2454     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2455     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2456     </note>
2457    
2458     </body>
2459     </section>
2460     </chapter>
2461    
2462    
2463     <chapter>
2464     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2465     <section>
2466     <body>
2467    
2468     <p>
2469     Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2470 swift 1.157 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2471     also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2472     modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2473     ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2474 swift 1.149 </p>
2475    
2476 swift 1.157 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2477 swift 1.149 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2478 jhhudso 1.81 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2479 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
2480 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2481 swift 1.149
2482     <p>
2483     Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2484     for your first boot:
2485     </p>
2486    
2487 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2488 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2489 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2490 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2491 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2492 swift 1.149
2493     <p>
2494     If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2495     additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2496     <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2497     (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2498     </p>
2499    
2500 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2501 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2502     # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2503 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2504 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2505     </pre>
2506    
2507     <p>
2508     If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2509     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2510 swift 1.157 your setup, then run the following command:
2511 swift 1.149 </p>
2512    
2513 swift 1.157 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2514     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2515 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2516 swift 1.149
2517     <p>
2518     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2519 swift 1.157 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2520     will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2521 swift 1.149 </p>
2522    
2523     </body>
2524     </section>
2525     </chapter>
2526    
2527     <chapter>
2528     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2529     <section>
2530     <body>
2531    
2532 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2533 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2534 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2535 swift 1.149
2536     <p>
2537     Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2538     will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2539     keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2540     <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2541     </p>
2542    
2543     </body>
2544     </section>
2545     </chapter>
2546    
2547     <chapter>
2548     <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2549     <section>
2550     <title>Notes</title>
2551     <body>
2552    
2553     <p>
2554     In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2555     from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2556     both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2557     </p>
2558    
2559     <p>
2560     Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2561     In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2562     </p>
2563    
2564     <p>
2565     In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2566     upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2567     kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2568     differences.
2569     </p>
2570    
2571     <impo>
2572     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2573     nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2574     LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2575     RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2576     it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2577     or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2578     off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2579     card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2580     </impo>
2581    
2582     </body>
2583     </section>
2584     <section>
2585     <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2586     <body>
2587    
2588     <p>
2589     The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2590     GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2591     <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2592     parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2593     rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2594     that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2595     such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2596     scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2597     bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2598     on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2599     <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2600     SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2601     <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2602     we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2603     those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2604     lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2605     time to install GRUB.
2606     </p>
2607    
2608     <p>
2609     The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2610     shell prompt:
2611     </p>
2612    
2613 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2614 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2615     # <i>grub</i>
2616 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2617 swift 1.149
2618     <p>
2619     You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2620     Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2621     onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2622     boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2623     thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2624     commands I want to type are:
2625     </p>
2626 zhen 1.68
2627 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2628 swift 1.149 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2629     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2630 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2631 zhen 1.68
2632 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2633 swift 1.149 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2634     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2635     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2636     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2637     </pre>
2638    
2639     <p>
2640     Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2641     GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2642     <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2643     second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2644     it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2645     location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2646     of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2647     <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2648     GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2649     a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2650     rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2651     installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2652     </p>
2653    
2654     <note>
2655     The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2656     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2657     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2658     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2659     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2660     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2661     Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2662     to make the right choice.
2663     </note>
2664 zhen 1.6
2665 swift 1.149 <p>
2666     Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2667     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2668     when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2669     </p>
2670    
2671     <impo>
2672     To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2673     <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2674     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2675     </impo>
2676    
2677     <p>
2678     Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2679     /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2680     </p>
2681    
2682 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2683 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2684     timeout 30
2685     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2686    
2687 swift 1.149 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2688 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2689     root (hd0,0)
2690 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2691 drobbins 1.1
2692 swift 1.149 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2693 swift 1.142 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2694     root (hd0,0)
2695     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2696     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2697    
2698 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2699 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2700 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2701 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2702 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2703 swift 1.149
2704 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2705 swift 1.152 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2706 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2707 swift 1.152
2708 swift 1.149 <note>
2709     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2710     </note>
2711    
2712     <impo>
2713     If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2714     actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2715     line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2716     burner).
2717     </impo>
2718    
2719     <p>
2720     After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2721     first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2722     part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2723     GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2724     </p>
2725    
2726     <note>
2727     Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2728     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2729     should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2730     boot loader.
2731     </note>
2732    
2733     <note>
2734     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2735     example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2736     partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2737     above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2738     </note>
2739    
2740     <p>
2741     If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2742     the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2743     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2744     can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2745     doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2746     command.
2747     </p>
2748    
2749     <note>
2750     Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2751     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2752     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2753     </note>
2754    
2755     </body>
2756     </section>
2757     <section>
2758     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2759     <body>
2760    
2761     <p>
2762     While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2763     best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2764     bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2765     of GRUB.
2766     </p>
2767    
2768     <p>
2769     The first step is to emerge LILO:
2770     </p>
2771    
2772 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2773 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2774 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2775 swift 1.149
2776     <p>
2777     Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2778     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2779     </p>
2780    
2781 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2782 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2783     map=/boot/map
2784     install=/boot/boot.b
2785     prompt
2786     timeout=50
2787     lba32
2788     default=linux
2789    
2790 swift 1.149 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2791 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2792 zhen 1.16 label=linux
2793     read-only
2794 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
2795 swift 1.142
2796 swift 1.149 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2797 swift 1.142 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2798     label=gk_linux
2799     root=/dev/hda3
2800     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2801 swift 1.166 append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
2802 swift 1.142
2803 zhen 1.16
2804 swift 1.149 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2805 zhen 1.16 other=/dev/hda1
2806     label=dos
2807 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2808 swift 1.149
2809 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2810 swift 1.155 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2811     make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2812     you used genkernel).
2813 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2814 swift 1.152
2815 swift 1.149 <ul>
2816     <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2817     <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2818     <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2819     <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2820     <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2821     <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2822     <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2823     <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2824     <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2825     <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2826     <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2827     </ul>
2828    
2829     <p>
2830     After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2831     to load the information into the MBR:
2832     </p>
2833    
2834 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2835 swift 1.149 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2836 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2837 swift 1.149
2838     <p>
2839     LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2840     </p>
2841    
2842     </body>
2843     </section>
2844    
2845     <section>
2846     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2847     <body>
2848    
2849     <p>
2850     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2851     to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2852     following table:
2853     </p>
2854    
2855 swift 1.142 <table>
2856     <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2857     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2858     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2859     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2860     </table>
2861 swift 1.149
2862 swift 1.142 <p>
2863     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2864     file.
2865     </p>
2866 swift 1.149
2867 swift 1.142 <p>
2868     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2869     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2870     </p>
2871 swift 1.149
2872 swift 1.142 </body>
2873     </section>
2874 swift 1.149 </chapter>
2875    
2876     <chapter>
2877     <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2878     <section>
2879     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2880     <body>
2881    
2882     <impo>
2883     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2884     </impo>
2885    
2886     <p>
2887     It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2888     time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2889     blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2890     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2891     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2892     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2893     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2894     like this:
2895     </p>
2896    
2897 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2898 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2899     # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2900 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2901 swift 1.142
2902 swift 1.149 <p>
2903     Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2904     can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2905     </p>
2906    
2907     </body>
2908     </section>
2909     <section>
2910     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2911     <body>
2912    
2913     <impo>
2914     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2915     </impo>
2916    
2917     <p>
2918     If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2919     </p>
2920    
2921 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2922 swift 1.149 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2923     <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2924 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2925 swift 1.142
2926 swift 1.149 </body>
2927     </section>
2928     </chapter>
2929    
2930     <chapter>
2931     <title>Using GRP</title>
2932     <section>
2933     <body>
2934    
2935     <p>
2936     GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2937     </p>
2938 swift 1.142
2939     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2940 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2941     <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2942 swift 1.142 </pre>
2943    
2944 swift 1.149 <p>
2945     CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2946     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2947     KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2948     reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2949     complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2950     basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2951     files:
2952     </p>
2953 swift 1.142
2954 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2955     # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2956 swift 1.156 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2957 swift 1.142 </pre>
2958    
2959 swift 1.149 <p>
2960     Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2961     </p>
2962 swift 1.142
2963 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2964     # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2965 swift 1.142 </pre>
2966    
2967 swift 1.149 </body>
2968     </section>
2969     </chapter>
2970    
2971     <chapter>
2972     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2973     <section>
2974     <body>
2975    
2976     <p>
2977     Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2978     configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2979     and reboot the system:
2980     </p>
2981 jhhudso 1.75
2982 swift 1.142 <warn>
2983     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2984     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2985     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2986     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2987     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2988     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2989     </warn>
2990 swift 1.149
2991 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2992 swift 1.149 # <i>etc-update</i>
2993     # <i>exit</i>
2994     <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2995     # <i>cd / </i>
2996     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2997     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2998     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2999     # <i>reboot</i>
3000 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3001 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3002 swift 1.149
3003     <note>
3004 swift 1.164 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
3005 swift 1.149 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
3006     file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3007     <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3008     </note>
3009    
3010     <p>
3011     If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3012     evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3013     (more information on our <uri
3014     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3015     We also have a handy <uri
3016     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3017     guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3018     system and a useful <uri
3019     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3020     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3021     Gentoo Documentation <uri
3022     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3023     other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3024     check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3025     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3026     Gentoo Linux!
3027     </p>
3028    
3029     </body>
3030     </section>
3031     </chapter>
3032    
3033     <chapter>
3034     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3035     <section>
3036     <body>
3037    
3038     <p>
3039     The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3040     the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3041     about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3042     Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3043     you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3044     <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3045     </p>
3046    
3047     <p>
3048     The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3049     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3050     will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3051     against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3052     taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3053     are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3054     program:
3055     </p>
3056    
3057     <ul>
3058     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3059     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3060     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3061     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3062     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3063     </ul>
3064    
3065     <p>
3066     We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3067     Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3068     </p>
3069    
3070     <ul>
3071     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3072     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3073     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3074     </ul>
3075    
3076     <p>
3077     The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3078     </p>
3079    
3080 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3081 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3082     # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3083 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3084 swift 1.149
3085     <p>
3086     The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3087     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3088     this file to see additional configuration options.
3089     </p>
3090    
3091     <p>
3092     After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3093     not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3094     </p>
3095    
3096 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3097 swift 1.149 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3098 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3099 swift 1.149
3100     <p>
3101     The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3102     viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3103     </p>
3104    
3105     </body>
3106     </section>
3107     </chapter>
3108    
3109     <chapter>
3110     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3111     <section>
3112     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3113     <body>
3114    
3115     <p>
3116     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3117     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3118     install Gentoo Linux:
3119     </p>
3120    
3121     <ul>
3122     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3123     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3124     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3125 swift 1.137 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3126     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3127     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3128     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3129 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3130 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3131     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3132     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3133     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3134 swift 1.137 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3135 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3136     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3137     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3138 swift 1.137 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3139     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3140 swift 1.149 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3141     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3142     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3143 swift 1.137 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3144     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3145 swift 1.149 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3146     <comment>and/or</comment>
3147     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3148     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3149     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3150     </pre></li>
3151     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3152     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3153 swift 1.137 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3154     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3155     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3156 swift 1.149 </pre>
3157     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3158     to the appropriate RAID device:
3159     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3160 swift 1.137 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3161     root (hd0,0)
3162     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3163 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3164     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3165     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3166 swift 1.137 image=/boot/bzImage
3167 swift 1.149 label=linux
3168     read-only
3169     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3170     </pre></li>
3171     </ul>
3172    
3173 swift 1.153 <p>
3174     If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3175     RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3176     </p>
3177    
3178     <p>
3179     Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3180     </p>
3181    
3182    
3183 swift 1.149 </body>
3184     </section>
3185 swift 1.137 </chapter>
3186 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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