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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 swift 1.149 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5     <author title="Chief Architect">
6 zhen 1.16 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 swift 1.149 </author>
8     <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9     <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 swift 1.158 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
11 zhen 1.16 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 swift 1.149 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 zhen 1.16 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 swift 1.149 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 zhen 1.16 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 swift 1.149 </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20 zhen 1.16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 swift 1.149 </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23 zhen 1.16 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 swift 1.149 </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26 seo 1.41 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 swift 1.149 </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 zhware 1.43 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 swift 1.149 </author>
31     <author title="Editor">
32 jhhudso 1.75 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 swift 1.149 </author>
34     <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35     <author title="Editor">
36 peesh 1.96 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 swift 1.149 </author>
38     <author title="Editor">
39 carl 1.101 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 swift 1.149 </author>
41     <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 swift 1.142 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 swift 1.149 </author>
44     <author title="Editor">
45 swift 1.142 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 swift 1.149 </author>
47 antifa 1.150 <author title="Editor">
48     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49     </author>
50 swift 1.149 <author title="Reviewer">
51 swift 1.142 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 swift 1.149 </author>
53     <author title="Reviewer">
54 swift 1.142 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 swift 1.149 </author>
56 swift 1.154 <author title="Reviewer">
57     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
58     </author>
59 swift 1.164 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
60 bennyc 1.162 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
61     </author>
62 swift 1.149
63     <abstract>
64     These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
65     Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
66     process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
67     the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
68     </abstract>
69    
70     <license/>
71 swift 1.141
72 swift 1.170 <version>2.6.13</version>
73     <date>September 23, 2003</date>
74 swift 1.149
75     <chapter>
76     <title>About the Install</title>
77     <section>
78     <body>
79    
80     <p>
81     First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
82     Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
83     for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
84     the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
85     from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
86     you.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90     One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
91     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
92     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
93 bennyc 1.165 addition to being available on our
94     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
95     We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
96     i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
97     Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
98     the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
99 swift 1.149 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
100     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
101     </p>
102    
103 swift 1.167 <p>
104     You can find and download the ISOs for the LiveCDs from most of our
105     mirrors. The LiveCDs for the x86 architecture are located inside the
106     <path>releases/x86/1.4/livecd/</path> subdirectory.
107     </p>
108    
109 swift 1.149 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
110     CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
111     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
112     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
113     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
114     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
115     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
116     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
117     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
118     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
119 swift 1.167 file for CD 1, its name will contain <path>-cd1</path>.
120 swift 1.149 </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
124     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
125     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
126     Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
127     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
128     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
129     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
130     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
131 swift 1.167 2, its name will contain <path>-cd2</path>.
132 swift 1.149 </p>
133    
134     <note>
135     A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
136     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
137     KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
138     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
139     for those who need this capability. The "compile from
140     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
141     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
142     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
143     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
144     installation process in any way.
145     </note>
146    
147     <p>
148     In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
149     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
150     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
151     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
152     that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
153     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
154     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
155     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
156     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
157 swift 1.167 contain <path>-basic</path>.
158 swift 1.149 </p>
159 drobbins 1.70
160 swift 1.149 <p>
161     To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
162     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
163     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
164     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
165     those conditions.)
166     </p>
167    
168     <p>
169     Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
170     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
171     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
172     you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
173     want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
174     stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
175     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
176     contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
177     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
178     stage3 tarball should be used.
179     </p>
180    
181     <p>
182     <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
183     stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
184     make this decision.
185     </p>
186    
187     <p>
188     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
189     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
190     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
191     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
192     It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
193     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
194     </p>
195 swift 1.142
196 swift 1.149 <p>
197     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
198     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
199     chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
200     </p>
201 swift 1.142
202 swift 1.149 <p>
203     And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
204     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
205     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
206     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
207     stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
208     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
209     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
210     and a system that is well-optimized.
211     </p>
212 swift 1.142
213 swift 1.149 <p>
214     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
215     stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
216     </p>
217 antifa 1.106
218 swift 1.149 <note>
219     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
220     change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
221     to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
222     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
223     typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
224     </note>
225 antifa 1.106
226 swift 1.149 <impo>
227     If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
228     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
229     needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
230     team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
231     </impo>
232 antifa 1.106
233 swift 1.149 <note>
234     The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
235     Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
236     Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
237     instructions.
238     </note>
239 antifa 1.106
240 swift 1.149 <p>
241     Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
242     CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
243     partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
244     stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
245     the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
246     stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
247     loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
248     your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
249     our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
250     OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
251     </p>
252 antifa 1.105
253 swift 1.149 <p>
254     Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
255     what is required for installation:
256     </p>
257 antifa 1.106
258 swift 1.149 <table>
259 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="0.75in"/>
260     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
261     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
262     <tcolumn width="3.5in"/>
263 swift 1.149 <tr>
264     <th>Stage Tarball</th>
265     <th>Internet Access Required</th>
266     <th>Media Required</th>
267     <th>Steps</th>
268     </tr>
269     <tr>
270     <ti>1</ti>
271     <ti>Yes</ti>
272     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
273     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
274     </tr>
275     <tr>
276     <ti>2</ti>
277     <ti>Yes</ti>
278     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
279     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
280     </tr>
281     <tr>
282     <ti>3</ti>
283     <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
284     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
285     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
286     </tr>
287     <tr>
288     <ti>3+GRP</ti>
289     <ti>No</ti>
290     <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
291     <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
292     </tr>
293     </table>
294 antifa 1.105
295 swift 1.149 <note>
296     Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
297     of this document before proceeding.
298     </note>
299 antifa 1.105
300 swift 1.149 </body>
301     </section>
302     </chapter>
303 antifa 1.105
304 swift 1.149 <chapter>
305     <title>Booting</title>
306     <section>
307     <body>
308 antifa 1.105
309 swift 1.149 <warn>
310     Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
311     options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
312     pcmcia services etc..
313     </warn>
314 antifa 1.105
315 swift 1.149 <p>
316     Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
317     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
318     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
319     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
320     and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
321     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
322     processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
323     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
324     the processors in your system, not just the first one.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
329     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
330     </p>
331 antifa 1.105
332 swift 1.149 <table>
333 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
334     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
335 swift 1.149 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
336     <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
337     <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
338     <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
339     <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
340     <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
341     </table>
342 antifa 1.105
343 swift 1.149 <table>
344 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
345     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
346 swift 1.149 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
347     <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
348     <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
349     <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
350     <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
351     <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
352     <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
353     <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
354     <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
355     <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
356     <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
357     <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
358     <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
359     <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
360     </table>
361 drobbins 1.70
362 swift 1.149 <p>
363     Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
364     screen and progress bar.
365     </p>
366 swift 1.142
367 swift 1.147 <!--
368 swift 1.142 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
369     Linux Live CD booting" />
370 swift 1.147 -->
371 swift 1.142
372 swift 1.149 <p>
373     Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
374     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
375     have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
376     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
377     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
378     </p>
379    
380 swift 1.147 <!--
381 swift 1.142
382     <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
383     Linux Live CD console" />
384 swift 1.147 -->
385 swift 1.144
386 swift 1.149 <note>
387     <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
388 swift 1.142 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
389     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
390     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
391     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
392 swift 1.149 CD over the network.
393     </note>
394    
395     <p>
396     You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
397     help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
398     and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
399     on your CD.
400     </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     </chapter>
405    
406     <chapter>
407     <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
408     <section>
409     <body>
410    
411     <p>
412     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
413     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
414     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
415     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
416     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
417     will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
418     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
419     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
420     type:
421     </p>
422 swift 1.142
423 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
424 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
425 zhen 1.6 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
426 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
427 swift 1.149
428     <p>
429     Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
430     detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
431     load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
432     <c>modprobe</c>:
433     </p>
434    
435 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
436 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
437 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
438 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
439 jhhudso 1.73 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
440 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
441 swift 1.149
442     <note>
443     Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
444     </note>
445    
446     <note>
447     <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
448     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
449     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
450     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
451     <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
452     # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
453     <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
454     # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
455 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
456 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
457 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
458     </pre>
459 swift 1.149 </note>
460 swift 1.142
461    
462 swift 1.149 </body>
463     </section>
464     </chapter>
465     <chapter>
466     <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
467     <section>
468     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
473     likely that your networking configuration has already been
474     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
475     the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
476     <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
477     others.
478     </p>
479 drobbins 1.70
480 swift 1.149 <p>
481     If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
482     should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
483     </p>
484    
485 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
486 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
487     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
488     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
489     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
490     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
491     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
492     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
493     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
494 swift 1.149 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
495 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
496 swift 1.149
497     <p>
498     You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
499     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
500     that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
501     correctly, etc..
502     </p>
503    
504 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
505 swift 1.149 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
506 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
507 swift 1.149
508     <p>
509     Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
510     section.
511     </p>
512    
513     </body>
514     </section>
515     <section>
516     <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
517     <body>
518    
519     <p>
520     Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
521     has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
522     <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
523     for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
524     and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
525     or not.
526     </p>
527    
528 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
529 swift 1.149 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
530     # <i> adsl-start </i>
531 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
532 swift 1.149
533     <p>
534     If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
535     and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
536     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
537     ethernet device.
538     </p>
539    
540     </body>
541     </section>
542    
543     <section>
544     <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
545     <body>
546    
547     <p>
548     The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
549     automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
550     </p>
551    
552 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
553 swift 1.149 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
554 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
555 swift 1.149
556     <p>
557     Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
558     covered next.
559     </p>
560    
561     </body>
562     </section>
563     <section>
564     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
565     <body>
566    
567     <p>
568     Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
569     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
570     </p>
571    
572 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
573 swift 1.149 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
574 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
575 swift 1.149
576     <note>
577     Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
578     <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
579     </note>
580    
581     <p>
582     If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
583     likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
584     </p>
585    
586     </body>
587     </section>
588     <section>
589     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
590     <body>
591    
592     <p>
593     We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
594     the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
595     information is explained in the next table.
596     </p>
597 swift 1.117
598     <table>
599 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
600     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
601     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
602 swift 1.117 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
603 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti>192.168.1.2</ti></tr>
604 swift 1.149 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti>192.168.1.255</ti></tr>
605 swift 1.117 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti>255.255.255.0</ti></tr>
606 swift 1.142 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti>192.168.1.1</ti></tr>
607 swift 1.117 </table>
608 swift 1.149
609     <p>
610     Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
611     interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
612     <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
613     mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
614     gateway.
615     </p>
616    
617 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
618 swift 1.149 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
619     # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
620 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
621 swift 1.149
622     <p>
623     Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
624     resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
625     will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
626     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
627     editor.
628     </p>
629    
630     <p>
631     Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
632     file:
633     </p>
634    
635 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
636 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
637     nameserver 10.0.0.1
638     nameserver 10.0.0.2
639 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
640 swift 1.149
641     <p>
642     Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
643     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
644     </p>
645    
646     </body>
647     </section>
648    
649     <section>
650     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
651     <body>
652    
653     <p>
654     If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
655     before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
656     accordingly.
657     </p>
658    
659 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
660 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
661 swift 1.158 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
662 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
663 swift 1.158 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
664 swift 1.149 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
665 swift 1.158 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
666 swift 1.149 </pre>
667    
668     </body>
669     </section>
670    
671     <section>
672     <title>Networking is go!</title>
673     <body>
674    
675     <p>
676     Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
677     included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
678     commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
679     </p>
680    
681     </body>
682     </section>
683     </chapter>
684    
685     <chapter>
686     <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
687     <section>
688     <body>
689    
690     <p>
691     Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
692     <c>date</c> command.
693     </p>
694    
695 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
696 swift 1.149 # <i>date</i>
697 jhhudso 1.81 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
698     <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
699 swift 1.149 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
700 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
701     </pre>
702 swift 1.149
703     </body>
704     </section>
705     </chapter>
706    
707     <chapter>
708     <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
709     <section>
710     <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
711     <body>
712    
713     <p>
714     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
715     Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
716     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
717     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
718     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
719 drobbins 1.86 </p>
720 swift 1.149
721 drobbins 1.86 <p>
722     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
723     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
724     </p>
725 swift 1.149
726 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
727     /dev/hda
728     </pre>
729    
730     <p>
731     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
732     </p>
733    
734     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
735     /dev/sda
736     </pre>
737    
738 swift 1.149 <p>
739     The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
740 drobbins 1.86 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
741 swift 1.149 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
742 drobbins 1.86 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
743 swift 1.149 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
744     </p>
745    
746 drobbins 1.86 </body>
747     </section>
748     <section>
749     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
750     <body>
751    
752 swift 1.149 <p>
753     Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
754     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
755     block device as a command-line argument.
756     </p>
757    
758     <p>
759     However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
760     device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
761     or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
762     done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
763     more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
764     using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
765     partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
766     exactly how to split up the full disk.
767     </p>
768    
769     <p>
770     We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
771     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
772     </p>
773 drobbins 1.86
774 swift 1.149 <note>
775     Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
776 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
777 swift 1.149 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
778     </note>
779 drobbins 1.86
780     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
781 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
782 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
783 swift 1.149
784 drobbins 1.86 <p>
785     or
786     </p>
787 swift 1.149
788 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
789 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
790 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
791    
792     <impo>
793 swift 1.149 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
794 drobbins 1.86 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
795     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
796 swift 1.149 lost.
797 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
798    
799     <p>
800 swift 1.149 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
801 drobbins 1.86 </p>
802    
803     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
804     Command (m for help):
805     </pre>
806    
807     <p>
808     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
809     </p>
810    
811     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
812 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
813 drobbins 1.86
814     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
815     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
816    
817     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
818     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
819     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
820     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
821     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
822     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
823     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
824     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
825     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
826     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
827    
828     Command (m for help):
829     </pre>
830    
831 swift 1.149 <p>
832     This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
833 drobbins 1.86 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
834 swift 1.149 (listed as "Linux swap").
835     </p>
836 drobbins 1.86
837     <p>
838     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
839 swift 1.149 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
840     up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
841     software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
842     partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
843     partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
844     primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
845     However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
846     partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
847     four partition limit.
848     </p>
849    
850     <p>
851     All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
852     The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
853 drobbins 1.86 </p>
854    
855     <p>
856 swift 1.149 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
857     primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
858     contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
859     <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
860     <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
861     acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
862     <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
863     </p>
864 drobbins 1.86
865 swift 1.149 <p>
866     Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
867 drobbins 1.86 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
868     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
869 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
870     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
871     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
872 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
873 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
874 drobbins 1.86 </p>
875 swift 1.149
876 drobbins 1.86 </body>
877     </section>
878 swift 1.149
879 drobbins 1.86 <section>
880     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
881     <body>
882    
883 swift 1.149 <p>
884     Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
885 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
886     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
887     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
888 swift 1.149 look like this:
889     </p>
890 drobbins 1.86
891     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
892     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
893     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
894     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
895    
896 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
897 drobbins 1.86 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
898     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
899     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
900    
901     Command (m for help):
902     </pre>
903    
904 swift 1.149 <p>
905     In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
906     The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
907 drobbins 1.86 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
908     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
909     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
910     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
911     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
912 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
913 swift 1.149 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
914     </p>
915 drobbins 1.86
916 swift 1.149 <p>
917     It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
918 drobbins 1.98 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
919     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
920     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
921     cylinder 1024.
922     </p>
923    
924 swift 1.149 <p>
925     The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
926 drobbins 1.86 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
927     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
928 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
929 swift 1.149 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
930     </p>
931 drobbins 1.86
932 swift 1.149 <p>
933     The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
934     rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
935     used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
936     system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
937     </p>
938 drobbins 1.86
939 swift 1.149 <p>
940     Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
941 drobbins 1.86 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
942 swift 1.149 Linux:
943     </p>
944 drobbins 1.86
945     <table>
946 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.5in"/>
947     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
948     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
949     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
950 swift 1.149 <tr>
951     <th>Partition</th>
952     <th>Size</th>
953     <th>Type</th>
954     <th>example device</th>
955     </tr>
956     <tr>
957     <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
958     <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
959     <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
960     <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
961     </tr>
962     <tr>
963     <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
964     <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
965     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
966     <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
967     </tr>
968     <tr>
969     <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
970     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
971     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
972     <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
973     </tr>
974 drobbins 1.86 </table>
975    
976 swift 1.149 <p>
977     OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
978 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
979 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
980     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
981     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
982 swift 1.149 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
983     </p>
984 drobbins 1.86
985 swift 1.149 <impo>
986     Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
987 drobbins 1.86 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
988     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
989     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
990 swift 1.149 from the wrong drive.
991     </impo>
992 drobbins 1.86
993 swift 1.149 <p>
994     Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
995 drobbins 1.86 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
996 swift 1.149 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
997     </p>
998 drobbins 1.86
999     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
1000 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
1001     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1002 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1003 zhen 1.54
1004 swift 1.149 <p>
1005     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
1006 drobbins 1.86 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
1007     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
1008     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
1009 swift 1.149 deleted.
1010     </p>
1011    
1012     <p>
1013     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
1014 drobbins 1.86 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
1015     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
1016 swift 1.149 with a partition table with nothing in it:
1017     </p>
1018 drobbins 1.86
1019     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
1020     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1021     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1022     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1023    
1024 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1025 drobbins 1.86
1026     Command (m for help):
1027     </pre>
1028    
1029 swift 1.149 <p>
1030     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1031 drobbins 1.86 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1032     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1033     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1034 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1035 swift 1.149 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1036     </p>
1037 swift 1.115
1038     <note>
1039     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1040 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1041 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1042     for the last cylinder.
1043     </note>
1044 drobbins 1.86
1045     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1046 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1047 drobbins 1.86 Command action
1048 swift 1.149 e extended
1049     p primary partition (1-4)
1050     <i>p</i>
1051     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1052     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1053 drobbins 1.86 Using default value 1
1054 swift 1.149 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1055 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1056    
1057 swift 1.149 <p>
1058     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1059     printout:
1060     </p>
1061 drobbins 1.86
1062     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1063 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1064 drobbins 1.86
1065     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1066     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1067     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1068    
1069 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1070     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1071 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1072    
1073 swift 1.149 <p>
1074     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1075     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1076     Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1077     <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1078     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1079     a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1080     partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1081     type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1082     these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1083     similar to this:
1084     </p>
1085 drobbins 1.86
1086     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1087 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1088 drobbins 1.86
1089     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1090     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1091     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1092    
1093 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1094     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1095     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1096 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1097    
1098 swift 1.149 <p>
1099     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1100 drobbins 1.86 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1101 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1102 swift 1.149 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1103     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1104     partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1105     completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1106     looks similar to this:
1107     </p>
1108 drobbins 1.86
1109     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1110 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1111 drobbins 1.86
1112     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1113     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1114     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1115    
1116 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1117     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1118     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1119     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1120 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1121    
1122     <p>
1123     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1124 swift 1.149 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1125     type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1126     If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1127     <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1128     this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1129     configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1130 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1131    
1132 swift 1.149 <note>
1133     If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1134     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1135     </note>
1136    
1137 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1138     </section>
1139 swift 1.149
1140 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1141     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1142     <body>
1143 swift 1.149
1144     <p>
1145     Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1146     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1147     data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1148 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1149    
1150 swift 1.149 <p>
1151     Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1152     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1153     Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1154     filesystems.
1155     </p>
1156 drobbins 1.86
1157 swift 1.149 <p>
1158     ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1159 drobbins 1.86 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1160     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1161 swift 1.149 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1162 drobbins 1.86 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1163     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1164 swift 1.149 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1165     </p>
1166 drobbins 1.86
1167 swift 1.149 <p>
1168     ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1169 drobbins 1.86 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1170     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1171 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1172     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1173     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1174     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1175     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1176 swift 1.149 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1177     </p>
1178 drobbins 1.86
1179 swift 1.149 <p>
1180     ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1181 drobbins 1.86 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1182     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1183     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1184     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1185     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1186 swift 1.149 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1187 drobbins 1.86 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1188 swift 1.149 non-boot partitions.
1189     </p>
1190 drobbins 1.86
1191 swift 1.149 <p>
1192     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1193     Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1194 drobbins 1.86 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1195     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1196     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1197     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1198 swift 1.149 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1199     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1200     </p>
1201 drobbins 1.86
1202 swift 1.149 <p>
1203     JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1204     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1205 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1206 swift 1.149 point.
1207     </p>
1208 drobbins 1.86
1209 swift 1.149 <p>
1210     If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1211 drobbins 1.86 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1212     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1213 swift 1.149 refined and recommended for general use.
1214     </p>
1215 drobbins 1.86
1216 swift 1.149 <p>
1217     Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1218     all our partitions for use:
1219     </p>
1220 drobbins 1.86
1221     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1222 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1223     # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1224     # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1225 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1226    
1227 swift 1.149 <p>
1228     We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1229 drobbins 1.98 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1230 swift 1.149 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1231     obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1232     choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1233     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1234     </p>
1235    
1236     <p>
1237     For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1238     during the installation process:
1239     </p>
1240 drobbins 1.98
1241 swift 1.149 <p>
1242     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1243     </p>
1244 drobbins 1.86
1245 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1246 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1247 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1248 swift 1.149
1249     <p>
1250     You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1251     </p>
1252    
1253 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1254 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1255 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1256 swift 1.149
1257     <p>
1258     If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1259     <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1260     </p>
1261    
1262 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1263 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1264 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1265 swift 1.149
1266     <note>
1267     You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1268     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1269     </note>
1270    
1271     <p>
1272     To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1273     </p>
1274    
1275 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1276 swift 1.149 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1277 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1278 swift 1.149
1279     <p>
1280     To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1281     </p>
1282    
1283 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1284 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1285 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1286 drobbins 1.86
1287 swift 1.149 <note>
1288     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1289     command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1290     will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1291     least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1292     you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1293     <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1294     performance.
1295     </note>
1296    
1297     <p>
1298     To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1299     </p>
1300    
1301 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1302 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1303 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1304 swift 1.149
1305     </body>
1306     </section>
1307     </chapter>
1308    
1309     <chapter>
1310     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1311     <section>
1312     <body>
1313    
1314     <p>
1315     Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1316     the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1317     </p>
1318    
1319 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1320 swift 1.149 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1321 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1322 drobbins 1.86
1323 swift 1.149 <p>
1324     Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1325     and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1326     root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1327     <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1328     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1329     <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1330     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1331     </p>
1332    
1333     <impo>
1334     If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1335     be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1336     installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1337     <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1338     We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1339     then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1340     <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1341     </impo>
1342 drobbins 1.86
1343 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1344 swift 1.149 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1345     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1346     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1347 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1348 drobbins 1.86
1349 swift 1.149 <impo>
1350     If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1351     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1352     </impo>
1353    
1354     </body>
1355     </section>
1356     </chapter>
1357    
1358    
1359     <chapter>
1360     <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1361     <section>
1362     <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1363     <body>
1364 zhen 1.55
1365 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1366     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1367 swift 1.149 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1368     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1369     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1370     </p>
1371 drobbins 1.86
1372 swift 1.149 <p>
1373     <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1374     </p>
1375 drobbins 1.86
1376 swift 1.149 <p>
1377     If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1378     <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1379 swift 1.142 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1380 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1381 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1382 swift 1.149 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1383     </p>
1384 drobbins 1.86
1385 swift 1.163 <note>
1386     On the basic LiveCD, <c>lynx</c> is substituted with <c>links2</c>. To
1387     use <c>links2</c> with proxy, press Escape once inside <c>links2</c> and
1388     go to Setup, Network Options. Don't forget to save everything in Setup,
1389     Save Options.
1390     </note>
1391    
1392 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1393 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1394 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1395 swift 1.149 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1396 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1397     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1398     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1399     Save the file and quit the browser
1400    
1401     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1402 swift 1.149 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1403 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1404 drobbins 1.86
1405 swift 1.149 </body>
1406     </section>
1407     <section>
1408     <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1409     <body>
1410    
1411     <p>
1412     Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1413 drobbins 1.86 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1414     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1415     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1416 swift 1.149 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1417     </p>
1418 drobbins 1.86
1419 swift 1.149 <impo>
1420     Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1421     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1422     </impo>
1423 drobbins 1.86
1424 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1425 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1426 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1427     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1428 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1429 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1430 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1431    
1432 swift 1.149 <p>
1433     If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1434     delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1435     </p>
1436    
1437 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1438     </section>
1439 swift 1.149
1440 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1441 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1442     <body>
1443 swift 1.149
1444     <impo>
1445     The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1446     </impo>
1447    
1448     <p>
1449     <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1450 swift 1.142 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1451     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1452 swift 1.149 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1453     </p>
1454    
1455 swift 1.142 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1456     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1457 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1458 swift 1.142 </pre>
1459 swift 1.149
1460     <p>
1461     This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1462 swift 1.142 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1463     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1464 swift 1.149 from the Live CD into place:
1465     </p>
1466 swift 1.142
1467     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1468 swift 1.159 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1469     # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1470 swift 1.142 </pre>
1471    
1472 swift 1.149 <p>
1473     All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1474 swift 1.142 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1475 swift 1.149 -- even without a network connection.
1476     </p>
1477 swift 1.142
1478     </body>
1479     </section>
1480 swift 1.149
1481 antifa 1.150 <section>
1482     <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1483     <body>
1484    
1485     <p>
1486     <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1487     mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1488     Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1489     </p>
1490    
1491     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1492     <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1493 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1494 antifa 1.150 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1495 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1496 antifa 1.150 </pre>
1497    
1498     <p>
1499     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1500     continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1501     </p>
1502    
1503     </body>
1504     </section>
1505 swift 1.142 <section>
1506 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1507     <body>
1508 swift 1.149
1509 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1510 swift 1.149 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1511     "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1512 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1513 swift 1.112
1514     <note>
1515     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1516 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1517 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1518 swift 1.112 the problem.
1519     </note>
1520 drobbins 1.86
1521     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1522 swift 1.149 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1523     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1524     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1525     # <i>env-update</i>
1526 drobbins 1.1 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1527 swift 1.149 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1528     <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1529 swift 1.132 </pre>
1530 swift 1.133
1531 swift 1.149 <p>
1532     After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1533     environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1534     installation process inside the chroot.
1535     </p>
1536 swift 1.132
1537 swift 1.149 </body>
1538     </section>
1539     </chapter>
1540 swift 1.142
1541 swift 1.149 <chapter>
1542     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1543     <section>
1544     <body>
1545 swift 1.142
1546 swift 1.149 <impo>
1547     If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1548     <c>emerge sync</c>.
1549     </impo>
1550 swift 1.142
1551 swift 1.149 <p>
1552     Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1553 swift 1.142 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1554 swift 1.149 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1555     you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1556 swift 1.142 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1557     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1558     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1559 swift 1.149 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1560     </p>
1561 drobbins 1.86
1562 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1563 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1564 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1565    
1566 swift 1.149 </body>
1567     </section>
1568     </chapter>
1569    
1570     <chapter>
1571     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1572     <section>
1573     <body>
1574    
1575     <p>
1576     Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1577 drobbins 1.86 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1578     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1579     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1580 swift 1.149 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1581 drobbins 1.86 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1582 swift 1.149 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1583     fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1584 drobbins 1.86 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1585     of current USE flags can be found <uri
1586 swift 1.149 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1587     </p>
1588    
1589     <p>
1590     If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1591     CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1592     creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1593     are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1594     optimally and should not require any modification.
1595     </p>
1596 drobbins 1.86
1597 swift 1.163 <warn>
1598     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1599     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1600     the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1601     </warn>
1602    
1603 swift 1.149 <impo>
1604     <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1605     C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1606     It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1607     "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1608     packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1609     characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1610 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1611     </impo>
1612    
1613     <!-- needs qa
1614 swift 1.149 <note>
1615     <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1616 swift 1.142 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1617     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1618     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1619 swift 1.149 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1620 swift 1.142 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1621 swift 1.149 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1622     </note>
1623 swift 1.142 -->
1624    
1625 swift 1.149 <p>
1626     If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1627     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1628     using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1629 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1630 swift 1.149
1631 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1632 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1633 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1634 drobbins 1.108
1635 swift 1.149 <note>
1636     <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1637     process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1638     file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1639     do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1640     as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1641     in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1642     settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1643     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1644     <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1645     USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1646     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1647     </note>
1648    
1649     <warn>
1650     Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1651     stage1.
1652     </warn>
1653    
1654     </body>
1655     </section>
1656     </chapter>
1657    
1658     <chapter>
1659     <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1660     <section>
1661     <body>
1662    
1663     <note>
1664     If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1665     </note>
1666 swift 1.140
1667 swift 1.149 <p>
1668     The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1669     have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1670     uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1671     takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1672     from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1673     </p>
1674 avenj 1.146
1675 swift 1.149 <p>
1676     Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1677     about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1678     C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1679     the bootstrap as follows:
1680     </p>
1681 avenj 1.146
1682 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1683     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1684     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1685 avenj 1.146 </pre>
1686 swift 1.142
1687 swift 1.149 <p>
1688     The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1689     </p>
1690 swift 1.142
1691 swift 1.149 <note>
1692     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1693     users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1694     files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1695     information.
1696     </note>
1697 swift 1.142
1698 swift 1.149 <note>
1699     Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1700     often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1701     like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1702     PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1703     <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1704     # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1705 swift 1.142 </pre>
1706 swift 1.149 </note>
1707    
1708     <p>
1709     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1710     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1711     say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1712     will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1713     the stage2 instructions.
1714     </p>
1715 swift 1.142
1716     </body>
1717     </section>
1718 swift 1.149 </chapter>
1719    
1720     <chapter>
1721     <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1722 swift 1.142 <section>
1723     <body>
1724    
1725 swift 1.149 <note>
1726     This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1727     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1728     </note>
1729 swift 1.142
1730 swift 1.149 <warn>
1731     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1732     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1733     broad compilation failures.
1734     </warn>
1735 swift 1.142
1736 swift 1.149 <p>
1737     The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1738     have to do is install the rest of the system:
1739     </p>
1740 swift 1.142
1741 swift 1.149 <note>
1742     If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1743     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1744     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1745     safe to skip this suggestion.
1746     </note>
1747 swift 1.142
1748 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1749     # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1750     <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1751     # <i>emerge system</i>
1752     </pre>
1753 swift 1.142
1754 swift 1.149 <p>
1755     It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1756     Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1757     The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1758     some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1759     for the PS2.
1760     </p>
1761 swift 1.142
1762 swift 1.149 <p>
1763     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1764     your time zone" section.
1765     </p>
1766 swift 1.142
1767 swift 1.149 </body>
1768     </section>
1769     </chapter>
1770    
1771    
1772     <chapter>
1773     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1774     <section>
1775     <body>
1776    
1777     <note>
1778     This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1779     have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1780     should skip ahead to the next section.
1781     </note>
1782    
1783     <warn>
1784     Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1785     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1786     </warn>
1787    
1788     <p>
1789     The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1790     so no building is required.
1791     </p>
1792    
1793     <note>
1794     <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1795     may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1796     automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1797 swift 1.161 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1798     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1799     emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1800     the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1801     very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1802     to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1803     free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1804 swift 1.149 </note>
1805    
1806     </body>
1807     </section>
1808     </chapter>
1809    
1810    
1811     <chapter>
1812     <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1813     <section>
1814     <body>
1815    
1816     <p>
1817     Now you need to set your time zone.
1818     </p>
1819    
1820     <p>
1821     Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1822     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1823     <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1824     </p>
1825 swift 1.142
1826 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1827     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1828     </pre>
1829    
1830     </body>
1831     </section>
1832     </chapter>
1833    
1834     <chapter>
1835     <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1836     <section>
1837     <body>
1838 swift 1.142
1839 swift 1.149 <impo>
1840     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1841     </impo>
1842    
1843     <p>
1844     Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1845     configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1846     The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1847     that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1848     you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1849     <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1850     </p>
1851    
1852 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
1853 swift 1.149 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1854 swift 1.163 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
1855     as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
1856     are using:
1857 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
1858 swift 1.149
1859     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1860     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1861 swift 1.142 #
1862 swift 1.149 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1863     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1864     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1865     # switch between notail and tail freely.
1866    
1867     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1868    
1869     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1870     </comment>
1871     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1872     /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1873     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1874     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1875     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1876     </pre>
1877    
1878     <warn>
1879     Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1880     is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1881     access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1882     </warn>
1883    
1884     </body>
1885     </section>
1886     </chapter>
1887    
1888    
1889     <chapter>
1890     <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1891     <section>
1892     <title>Kernel selections</title>
1893     <body>
1894    
1895     <p>
1896     There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1897     own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1898     kernel automatically.
1899     </p>
1900    
1901     <p>
1902     Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1903     you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1904     Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1905     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1906     which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1907     If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1908     <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1909     <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1910     for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1911     the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1912     </p>
1913    
1914     <p>
1915     Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1916     </p>
1917    
1918     <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1919     # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1920     </pre>
1921    
1922     <p>
1923     The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1924     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1925     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1926     you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1927     kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1928     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1929     source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1930     link.
1931     </p>
1932    
1933     </body>
1934     </section>
1935     <section>
1936     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1937     <body>
1938    
1939     <p>
1940     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1941     kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1942     <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1943     <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1944     our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1945     to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1946     boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1947     manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1948     not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1949     </p>
1950    
1951     <p>
1952     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1953     </p>
1954    
1955     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1956     # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1957 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1958 swift 1.149
1959     <p>
1960     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1961     </p>
1962    
1963     <note>
1964     <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1965     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1966     configuration before building begins.
1967     </note>
1968 swift 1.142
1969 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1970     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1971     # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1972     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1973     # <i>genkernel</i>
1974     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1975     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1976     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1977    
1978     Settings:
1979     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1980     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1981     config: gentoo (customized)
1982     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1983     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1984    
1985     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1986     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1987     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1988     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1989     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1990     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1991     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1992     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1993     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1994     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1995    
1996     * Build completed successfully!
1997    
1998     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1999     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
2000     </pre>
2001    
2002     <p>
2003     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
2004     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
2005 swift 1.161 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
2006     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
2007     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
2008     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
2009     your "real" system starts up.
2010 swift 1.149 </p>
2011    
2012     <p>
2013     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
2014     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
2015     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
2016     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
2017     </p>
2018 swift 1.142
2019     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
2020 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2021     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2022 swift 1.142 </pre>
2023    
2024 swift 1.149 <p>
2025     Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2026     can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2027     </p>
2028    
2029 swift 1.142 </body>
2030     </section>
2031     <section>
2032     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2033     <body>
2034    
2035 swift 1.149 <p>
2036     If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2037 swift 1.142 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2038     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2039 swift 1.149 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2040 swift 1.142 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2041     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2042 swift 1.149 proceeding.
2043     </p>
2044 swift 1.142
2045     <warn>
2046 swift 1.149 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2047     option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2048     programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2049 swift 1.142 </warn>
2050    
2051     <note>
2052 swift 1.149 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2053     your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2054     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2055     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2056     </note>
2057    
2058 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2059 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2060     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2061 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2062 swift 1.149
2063     <warn>
2064     For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2065     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2066     and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2067     have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2068     using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2069     always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2070     </warn>
2071    
2072     <p>
2073     Below are some common options that you will need:
2074     </p>
2075    
2076 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2077     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2078 swift 1.149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2079     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2080     ...
2081 jhhudso 1.81
2082     File systems ---&gt;
2083 swift 1.149 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2084     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2085     ...
2086     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2087     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2088     ...
2089     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2090     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2091     ...
2092     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2093     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2094     ...
2095     [*] /proc file system support
2096     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2097     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2098     [*] Automatically mount at boot
2099     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2100     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2101 swift 1.163 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2102 swift 1.149 ...
2103     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2104     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2105     ...
2106     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2107     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2108     </pre>
2109    
2110     <p>
2111     If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2112     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2113     (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2114     ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2115     options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2116     over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2117     configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2118     </p>
2119    
2120     <p>
2121     If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2122     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2123     and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2124     (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2125     &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2126     generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2127     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2128 swift 1.157 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2129     added at boot time.
2130 swift 1.149 </p>
2131    
2132     <p>
2133     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2134     ethernet card.
2135     </p>
2136    
2137     <note>
2138     For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2139     kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2140     features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2141     filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2142     patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2143     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2144     kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2145     in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2146     <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2147     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2148     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2149     for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2150     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2151     </note>
2152 swift 1.121
2153     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2154 swift 1.149 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2155     # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2156 swift 1.121 </pre>
2157 swift 1.158
2158     </body>
2159     </section>
2160     <section>
2161     <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2162     <body>
2163    
2164     <p>
2165     Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2166     your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2167     </p>
2168    
2169     <table>
2170 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2171     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
2172     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
2173 swift 1.158 <tr>
2174     <th>Ebuild</th>
2175     <th>Purpose</th>
2176     <th>Command</th>
2177     </tr>
2178     <tr>
2179     <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2180     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2181     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2182     </tr>
2183     <tr>
2184     <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2185     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2186     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2187     </tr>
2188     <tr>
2189     <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2190     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2191     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2192     </tr>
2193     <tr>
2194     <ti>e100</ti>
2195     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2196     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2197     </tr>
2198     <tr>
2199     <ti>e1000</ti>
2200     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2201     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2202     </tr>
2203     <tr>
2204     <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2205     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2206     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2207     </tr>
2208     <tr>
2209     <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2210     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2211     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2212     </tr>
2213     <tr>
2214     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2215     <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2216     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2217     </tr>
2218     </table>
2219    
2220     <p>
2221     The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2222     will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2223     above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2224     you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2225     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2226     </p>
2227    
2228     <p>
2229     More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2230     link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2231     </p>
2232    
2233 swift 1.149
2234 swift 1.142 </body>
2235     </section>
2236     <section>
2237     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2238     <body>
2239 swift 1.149
2240     <p>
2241     Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2242     a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2243     the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2244     syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2245     sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2246     If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2247     To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2248     sets:
2249     </p>
2250    
2251 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2252 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2253     # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2254 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2255 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2256     # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2257 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2258 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2259     # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2260 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2261 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2262     # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2263 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2264 swift 1.149
2265     <impo>
2266     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2267     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2268     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2269     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2270     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2271     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2272     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2273     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2274     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2275 swift 1.114 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2276     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2277 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2278 swift 1.114 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2279 swift 1.149 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2280 swift 1.114 </pre>
2281 swift 1.149 </impo>
2282    
2283     <p>
2284     Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2285     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2286     choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2287     </p>
2288    
2289 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2290 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2291     # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2292     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2293 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2294 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2295     # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2296     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2297 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2298 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2299     # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2300     <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2301     </pre>
2302    
2303     <p>
2304     For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2305     <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2306     </p>
2307    
2308     </body>
2309     </section>
2310     </chapter>
2311    
2312     <chapter>
2313     <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2314     <section>
2315     <body>
2316    
2317     <p>
2318     If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2319     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2320     </p>
2321    
2322 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2323 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2324 swift 1.142 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2325 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2326 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2327 zhen 1.40
2328 swift 1.149 <note>
2329     The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2330     which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2331 swift 1.167 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later. The GRP version
2332     of rp-pppoe has the optional X interface enabled. If you're not using GRP, compile from
2333     source as in the first example.
2334 swift 1.149 </note>
2335 swift 1.167 <!-- this pkg is a candidate for moving from .tbz2 to distfiles/ (source) -->
2336    
2337 swift 1.149
2338     <note>
2339     Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2340     do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2341     for the first time.
2342     </note>
2343    
2344     <p>
2345     You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2346     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2347     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2348     </p>
2349    
2350 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2351 swift 1.168 # <i>emerge -k sys-fs/xfsprogs</i>
2352 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2353 swift 1.168 # <i>emerge -k sys-fs/reiserfsprogs</i>
2354 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2355 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2356 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2357 swift 1.168 # <i>emerge -k sys-fs/lvm-user</i>
2358 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2359 swift 1.149
2360     <p>
2361     If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2362     real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2363     package.
2364     </p>
2365    
2366 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2367 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2368 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2369 swift 1.149
2370     <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2371 swift 1.142 (drobbins)
2372     <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2373 zhen 1.10 to work.
2374     </warn>
2375 swift 1.149 -->
2376    
2377     </body>
2378     </section>
2379     </chapter>
2380    
2381     <chapter>
2382     <title>User Management</title>
2383     <section>
2384     <title>Setting a root password</title>
2385     <body>
2386    
2387     <p>
2388     Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2389     </p>
2390    
2391 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2392 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd</i>
2393 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2394 swift 1.149
2395     </body>
2396     </section>
2397     <section>
2398     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2399     <body>
2400    
2401     <p>
2402     Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2403     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2404     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2405     </p>
2406    
2407     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2408 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2409 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2410     </pre>
2411    
2412     <p>
2413     Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2414     </p>
2415    
2416     <p>
2417     Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2418     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2419     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2420     </p>
2421    
2422     </body>
2423     </section>
2424     </chapter>
2425    
2426     <chapter>
2427     <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2428     <section>
2429     <body>
2430    
2431     <p>
2432     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2433     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2434     </p>
2435    
2436 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2437 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2438     </pre>
2439 swift 1.149
2440     <p>
2441     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2442     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2443     </p>
2444    
2445 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2446     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2447     </pre>
2448 swift 1.149
2449     <p>
2450     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2451     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2452     </p>
2453    
2454 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2455     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2456 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2457 swift 1.149
2458     </body>
2459     </section>
2460     </chapter>
2461    
2462    
2463     <chapter>
2464     <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2465     <section>
2466     <body>
2467    
2468     <p>
2469     This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2470     It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2471     may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2472     </p>
2473    
2474 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2475 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
2476 swift 1.149 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2477 drobbins 1.1 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2478 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2479 swift 1.149
2480     <note>
2481     If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2482     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2483     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2484     </note>
2485    
2486     </body>
2487     </section>
2488     </chapter>
2489    
2490    
2491     <chapter>
2492     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2493     <section>
2494     <body>
2495    
2496     <p>
2497     Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2498 swift 1.157 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2499     also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2500     modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2501     ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2502 swift 1.149 </p>
2503    
2504 swift 1.157 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2505 swift 1.149 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2506 swift 1.170 Check <path>/lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2507 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
2508 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2509 swift 1.149
2510     <p>
2511     Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2512     for your first boot:
2513     </p>
2514    
2515 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2516 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2517 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2518 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2519 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2520 swift 1.149
2521     <p>
2522     If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2523     additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2524     <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2525     (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2526     </p>
2527    
2528 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2529 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2530 swift 1.167 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2531 swift 1.157 <comment>Only for non-PCMCIA network cards:</comment>
2532 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2533     </pre>
2534    
2535     <p>
2536     If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2537     <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2538 swift 1.157 your setup, then run the following command:
2539 swift 1.149 </p>
2540    
2541 swift 1.157 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2542     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2543 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2544 swift 1.149
2545     <p>
2546     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2547 swift 1.157 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2548     will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2549 swift 1.149 </p>
2550    
2551     </body>
2552     </section>
2553     </chapter>
2554    
2555     <chapter>
2556     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2557     <section>
2558     <body>
2559    
2560 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2561 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2562 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2563 swift 1.149
2564     <p>
2565     Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2566     will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2567     keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2568     <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2569     </p>
2570    
2571     </body>
2572     </section>
2573     </chapter>
2574    
2575     <chapter>
2576     <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2577     <section>
2578     <title>Notes</title>
2579     <body>
2580    
2581     <p>
2582     In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2583     from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2584     both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2585     </p>
2586    
2587     <p>
2588     Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2589     In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2590     </p>
2591    
2592     <p>
2593     In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2594     upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2595     kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2596     differences.
2597     </p>
2598    
2599     <impo>
2600     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2601     nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2602     LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2603     RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2604     it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2605     or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2606     off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2607     card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2608     </impo>
2609    
2610     </body>
2611     </section>
2612     <section>
2613     <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2614     <body>
2615    
2616     <p>
2617     The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2618     GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2619     <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2620     parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2621     rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2622     that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2623     such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2624     scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2625     bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2626     on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2627     <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2628     SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2629     <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2630     we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2631     those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2632     lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2633     time to install GRUB.
2634     </p>
2635    
2636     <p>
2637     The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2638     shell prompt:
2639     </p>
2640    
2641 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2642 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2643     # <i>grub</i>
2644 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2645 swift 1.149
2646     <p>
2647     You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2648     Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2649     onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2650     boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2651     thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2652     commands I want to type are:
2653     </p>
2654 zhen 1.68
2655 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2656 swift 1.149 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2657     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2658 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2659 zhen 1.68
2660 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2661 swift 1.149 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2662     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2663     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2664     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2665     </pre>
2666    
2667     <p>
2668     Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2669     GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2670     <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2671     second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2672     it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2673     location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2674     of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2675     <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2676     GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2677     a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2678     rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2679     installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2680     </p>
2681    
2682     <note>
2683     The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2684     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2685     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2686     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2687     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2688     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2689     Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2690     to make the right choice.
2691     </note>
2692 zhen 1.6
2693 swift 1.149 <p>
2694     Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2695     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2696     when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2697     </p>
2698    
2699     <impo>
2700     To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2701     <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2702     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2703     </impo>
2704    
2705     <p>
2706     Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2707     /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2708     </p>
2709    
2710 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2711 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2712     timeout 30
2713     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2714    
2715 swift 1.149 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2716 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2717     root (hd0,0)
2718 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2719 drobbins 1.1
2720 swift 1.149 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2721 swift 1.142 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2722     root (hd0,0)
2723     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2724     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2725    
2726 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2727 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2728 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2729 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2730 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2731 swift 1.149
2732 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2733 swift 1.152 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2734 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2735 swift 1.152
2736 swift 1.149 <note>
2737     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2738     </note>
2739    
2740     <impo>
2741     If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2742     actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2743     line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2744     burner).
2745     </impo>
2746    
2747     <p>
2748     After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2749     first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2750     part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2751     GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2752     </p>
2753    
2754     <note>
2755     Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2756     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2757     should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2758     boot loader.
2759     </note>
2760    
2761     <note>
2762     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2763     example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2764     partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2765     above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2766     </note>
2767    
2768     <p>
2769     If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2770     the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2771     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2772     can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2773     doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2774     command.
2775     </p>
2776    
2777     <note>
2778     Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2779     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2780     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2781     </note>
2782    
2783     </body>
2784     </section>
2785     <section>
2786     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2787     <body>
2788    
2789     <p>
2790     While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2791     best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2792     bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2793     of GRUB.
2794     </p>
2795    
2796     <p>
2797     The first step is to emerge LILO:
2798     </p>
2799    
2800 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2801 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2802 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2803 swift 1.149
2804     <p>
2805     Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2806     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2807     </p>
2808    
2809 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2810 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2811     map=/boot/map
2812     install=/boot/boot.b
2813     prompt
2814     timeout=50
2815     lba32
2816     default=linux
2817    
2818 swift 1.149 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2819 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2820 zhen 1.16 label=linux
2821     read-only
2822 zhen 1.82 root=/dev/hda3
2823 swift 1.142
2824 swift 1.149 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2825 swift 1.142 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2826     label=gk_linux
2827     root=/dev/hda3
2828     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2829 swift 1.166 append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
2830 swift 1.142
2831 zhen 1.16
2832 swift 1.149 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2833 zhen 1.16 other=/dev/hda1
2834     label=dos
2835 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2836 swift 1.149
2837 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2838 swift 1.155 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
2839     make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
2840     you used genkernel).
2841 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2842 swift 1.152
2843 swift 1.149 <ul>
2844     <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2845     <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2846     <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2847     <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2848     <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2849     <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2850     <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2851     <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2852     <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2853     <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2854     <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2855     </ul>
2856    
2857     <p>
2858     After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2859     to load the information into the MBR:
2860     </p>
2861    
2862 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2863 swift 1.149 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2864 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2865 swift 1.149
2866     <p>
2867     LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2868     </p>
2869    
2870     </body>
2871     </section>
2872    
2873     <section>
2874     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2875     <body>
2876    
2877     <p>
2878     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2879     to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2880     following table:
2881     </p>
2882    
2883 swift 1.142 <table>
2884 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2885     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2886     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2887     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2888 swift 1.142 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2889     <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2890     <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2891     <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2892     </table>
2893 swift 1.149
2894 swift 1.142 <p>
2895     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2896     file.
2897     </p>
2898 swift 1.149
2899 swift 1.142 <p>
2900     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2901     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2902     </p>
2903 swift 1.149
2904 swift 1.142 </body>
2905     </section>
2906 swift 1.149 </chapter>
2907    
2908     <chapter>
2909     <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2910     <section>
2911     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2912     <body>
2913    
2914     <impo>
2915     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2916     </impo>
2917    
2918     <p>
2919     It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2920     time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2921     blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2922     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2923     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2924     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2925     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2926     like this:
2927     </p>
2928    
2929 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2930 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2931     # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2932 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2933 swift 1.142
2934 swift 1.149 <p>
2935     Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2936     can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2937     </p>
2938    
2939     </body>
2940     </section>
2941     <section>
2942     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2943     <body>
2944    
2945     <impo>
2946     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2947     </impo>
2948    
2949     <p>
2950     If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2951     </p>
2952    
2953 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2954 swift 1.149 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2955     <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2956 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2957 swift 1.142
2958 swift 1.149 </body>
2959     </section>
2960     </chapter>
2961    
2962     <chapter>
2963     <title>Using GRP</title>
2964     <section>
2965     <body>
2966    
2967     <p>
2968     GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2969     </p>
2970 swift 1.142
2971     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2972 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k xfree</i>
2973 swift 1.142 </pre>
2974    
2975 swift 1.149 <p>
2976     CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2977     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2978     KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2979     reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2980     complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2981     basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2982     files:
2983     </p>
2984 swift 1.142
2985 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2986     # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2987 swift 1.156 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
2988 swift 1.142 </pre>
2989    
2990 swift 1.149 <p>
2991     Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2992     </p>
2993 swift 1.142
2994 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2995 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k kde</i>
2996 swift 1.142 </pre>
2997    
2998 swift 1.149 </body>
2999     </section>
3000     </chapter>
3001    
3002     <chapter>
3003     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
3004     <section>
3005     <body>
3006    
3007     <p>
3008     Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
3009     configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
3010     and reboot the system:
3011     </p>
3012 jhhudso 1.75
3013 swift 1.142 <warn>
3014     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
3015     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
3016     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
3017     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
3018     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
3019     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
3020     </warn>
3021 swift 1.149
3022 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
3023 swift 1.149 # <i>etc-update</i>
3024     # <i>exit</i>
3025     <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
3026     # <i>cd / </i>
3027     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
3028     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
3029     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
3030     # <i>reboot</i>
3031 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3032 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3033 swift 1.149
3034     <note>
3035 swift 1.164 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
3036 swift 1.149 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
3037     file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3038     <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3039     </note>
3040    
3041     <p>
3042     If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3043     evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3044     (more information on our <uri
3045     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3046     We also have a handy <uri
3047     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
3048     guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3049     system and a useful <uri
3050     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
3051     to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
3052     Gentoo Documentation <uri
3053     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
3054     other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
3055     check the Gentoo Linux <uri
3056     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
3057     Gentoo Linux!
3058     </p>
3059    
3060     </body>
3061     </section>
3062     </chapter>
3063    
3064 swift 1.169 <!--
3065     Gentoo Stats is down currently. Commenting out for the
3066     time being. I've also changed double-dash to dash-space-dash
3067     because otherwise commenting fails.
3068 swift 1.149 <chapter>
3069     <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
3070     <section>
3071     <body>
3072    
3073     <p>
3074     The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3075     the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3076     about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3077     Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3078     you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3079     <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3080     </p>
3081    
3082     <p>
3083     The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3084     This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3085     will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3086     against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3087     taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3088     are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3089     program:
3090     </p>
3091    
3092     <ul>
3093     <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3094     <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3095     <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3096     <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3097     <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3098     </ul>
3099    
3100     <p>
3101     We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3102     Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3103     </p>
3104    
3105     <ul>
3106     <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3107     <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3108     <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3109     </ul>
3110    
3111     <p>
3112     The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3113     </p>
3114    
3115 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3116 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3117 swift 1.169 # <i>gentoo-stats - -new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3118 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3119 swift 1.149
3120     <p>
3121     The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3122     <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3123     this file to see additional configuration options.
3124     </p>
3125    
3126     <p>
3127     After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3128     not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3129     </p>
3130    
3131 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3132 swift 1.169 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats - -update &gt; /dev/null
3133 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3134 swift 1.149
3135     <p>
3136     The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3137     viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3138     </p>
3139    
3140     </body>
3141     </section>
3142     </chapter>
3143 swift 1.169
3144     -->
3145 swift 1.149
3146     <chapter>
3147     <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3148     <section>
3149     <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3150     <body>
3151    
3152     <p>
3153     Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3154     attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3155     install Gentoo Linux:
3156     </p>
3157    
3158     <ul>
3159     <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3160     <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3161     <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3162 swift 1.137 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3163     <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3164     # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3165     <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3166 swift 1.138 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3167 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3168     <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3169     <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3170     <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3171 swift 1.137 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3172 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3173     <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3174     <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3175 swift 1.137 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3176     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3177 swift 1.149 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3178     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3179     [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3180 swift 1.137 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3181     ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3182 swift 1.149 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3183     <comment>and/or</comment>
3184     [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3185     [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3186     [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3187     </pre></li>
3188     <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3189     <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3190 swift 1.137 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3191     grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3192     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3193 swift 1.149 </pre>
3194     Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3195     to the appropriate RAID device:
3196     <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3197 swift 1.137 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3198     root (hd0,0)
3199     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3200 swift 1.149 </pre></li>
3201     <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3202     <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3203 swift 1.137 image=/boot/bzImage
3204 swift 1.149 label=linux
3205     read-only
3206     root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3207     </pre></li>
3208     </ul>
3209    
3210 swift 1.153 <p>
3211     If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3212     RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3213     </p>
3214    
3215     <p>
3216     Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3217     </p>
3218    
3219    
3220 swift 1.149 </body>
3221     </section>
3222 swift 1.137 </chapter>
3223 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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