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1 zhen 1.16 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.185 <!-- $Header$ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
5 swift 1.149 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
6 swift 1.177
7 swift 1.149 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.177 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Author">
11     Chris Houser
12     </author>
13     <author title="Author">
14     Jerry Alexandratos
15 swift 1.149 </author>
16 swift 1.158 <author title="Ghost, Reviewer">
17 swift 1.177 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
18 swift 1.149 </author>
19 swift 1.180 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
20     John P. Davis
21 swift 1.149 </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23 swift 1.177 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
24 swift 1.149 </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26 swift 1.177 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
27 swift 1.149 </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 swift 1.177 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
30 swift 1.149 </author>
31     <author title="Editor">
32 swift 1.177 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
33 swift 1.149 </author>
34     <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.177 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
36 swift 1.149 </author>
37     <author title="Editor">
38 swift 1.177 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
39 swift 1.149 </author>
40     <author title="Editor">
41 swift 1.177 Colin Morey
42 swift 1.149 </author>
43     <author title="Editor">
44 swift 1.177 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
45     </author>
46     <author title="Editor">
47     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
48 swift 1.149 </author>
49     <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
50 swift 1.177 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
51 swift 1.149 </author>
52     <author title="Editor">
53 swift 1.177 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
54 swift 1.149 </author>
55 antifa 1.150 <author title="Editor">
56 swift 1.177 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
57 antifa 1.150 </author>
58 erwin 1.175 <author title="Editor">
59 swift 1.177 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
60 erwin 1.175 </author>
61 swift 1.149 <author title="Reviewer">
62 swift 1.177 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
63 swift 1.149 </author>
64     <author title="Reviewer">
65 swift 1.177 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
66 swift 1.149 </author>
67 swift 1.154 <author title="Reviewer">
68 swift 1.177 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
69 swift 1.154 </author>
70 swift 1.164 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
71 swift 1.177 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
72 bennyc 1.162 </author>
73 swift 1.149
74     <abstract>
75     These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
76     Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
77     process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
78     the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
79     </abstract>
80    
81     <license/>
82 swift 1.141
83 swift 1.183 <version>2.6.24</version>
84     <date>November 1, 2003</date>
85 swift 1.149
86     <chapter>
87     <title>About the Install</title>
88     <section>
89 swift 1.176 <title>Introduction</title>
90 swift 1.149 <body>
91    
92     <p>
93 swift 1.176 Welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo Linux can be installed in many different ways.
94     Those who are looking for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while
95     those who want the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux
96     entirely from the original source code. The method you choose is up to you.
97 swift 1.149 </p>
98    
99     <p>
100     One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
101     our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
102     link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
103 swift 1.177 addition to being available on our <uri
104     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>.
105 bennyc 1.165 We currently have 2-CD installation sets for x86 (486 and above),
106     i686 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III,
107     Pentium 4 and Athlon XP. To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read
108     the detailed descriptions of each product in the <uri
109 swift 1.149 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
110     contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
111     </p>
112    
113 swift 1.167 <p>
114     You can find and download the ISOs for the LiveCDs from most of our
115 swift 1.176 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
116     LiveCDs for the x86 architecture are located inside the
117 swift 1.167 <path>releases/x86/1.4/livecd/</path> subdirectory.
118     </p>
119    
120 swift 1.176 </body>
121     </section>
122     <section>
123     <title>The Installation CDs</title>
124     <body>
125    
126 swift 1.177 <p>
127     So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
128 swift 1.149 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
129     meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
130     directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
131     Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
132     to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
133     contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
134     without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
135     pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
136     ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
137 swift 1.167 file for CD 1, its name will contain <path>-cd1</path>.
138 swift 1.149 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141     In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
142     lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
143     optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
144     Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
145     intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
146     Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
147     about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
148     single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
149 swift 1.167 2, its name will contain <path>-cd2</path>.
150 swift 1.149 </p>
151    
152     <note>
153     A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
154     Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
155     KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
156     was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
157     for those who need this capability. The "compile from
158     source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
159     will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
160     purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
161     users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
162     installation process in any way.
163     </note>
164    
165     <p>
166     In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
167     Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
168     booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
169     install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
170     that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
171     downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
172     the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
173     fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
174     have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
175 swift 1.167 contain <path>-basic</path>.
176 swift 1.149 </p>
177 swift 1.176
178     </body>
179     </section>
180     <section>
181     <title>Requirements</title>
182     <body>
183    
184 swift 1.149 <p>
185     To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
186     need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
187     RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
188     64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
189     those conditions.)
190     </p>
191    
192 swift 1.176 </body>
193     </section>
194     <section>
195     <title>Choosing an Installation Method</title>
196     <body>
197    
198 swift 1.149 <p>
199     Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
200     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
201     tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
202 swift 1.176 you want to compile yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you
203 swift 1.149 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
204 swift 1.176 <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for building the entire system from a
205     bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The <e>stage3</e> tarball already
206 swift 1.149 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
207     you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
208 swift 1.176 stage3 tarball must be used.
209 swift 1.149 </p>
210    
211     <p>
212     <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
213 swift 1.176 stage3 tarball?</b>
214     </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     Here is some information that should help you
218 swift 1.149 make this decision.
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
223     control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
224     functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
225     stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
226     It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
227     know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
228     </p>
229 swift 1.142
230 swift 1.149 <p>
231     Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
232     this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
233     chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
234     </p>
235 swift 1.142
236 swift 1.149 <p>
237     And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
238     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
239     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
240     carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
241     stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
242     specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
243     from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
244     and a system that is well-optimized.
245     </p>
246 swift 1.142
247 swift 1.149 <p>
248     <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
249     stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
250     </p>
251 antifa 1.106
252 swift 1.149 <note>
253     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
254     change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
255     to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
256     your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
257     typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
258     </note>
259 antifa 1.106
260 swift 1.149 <impo>
261     If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
262     report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
263     needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
264     team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
265     </impo>
266 antifa 1.106
267 swift 1.149 <note>
268     The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
269 swift 1.177 Web documentation at
270     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
271 swift 1.149 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
272     instructions.
273     </note>
274 antifa 1.106
275 swift 1.176 </body>
276     </section>
277     <section>
278     <title>The Installation Process</title>
279     <body>
280    
281 swift 1.149 <p>
282     Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
283     CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
284     partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
285     stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
286     the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
287     stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
288     loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
289     your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
290     our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
291     OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
292     </p>
293 antifa 1.105
294 swift 1.149 <p>
295     Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
296     what is required for installation:
297     </p>
298 antifa 1.106
299 swift 1.149 <table>
300 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="0.75in"/>
301     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
302     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
303     <tcolumn width="3.5in"/>
304 swift 1.149 <tr>
305 swift 1.177 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
306     <th>Internet Access Required</th>
307     <th>Media Required</th>
308     <th>Steps</th>
309 swift 1.149 </tr>
310     <tr>
311 swift 1.177 <ti>1</ti>
312     <ti>Yes</ti>
313     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
314     <ti>
315     Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final
316     config
317     </ti>
318 swift 1.149 </tr>
319     <tr>
320 swift 1.177 <ti>2</ti>
321     <ti>Yes</ti>
322     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
323     <ti>Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
324 swift 1.149 </tr>
325     <tr>
326 swift 1.177 <ti>3</ti>
327     <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
328     <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
329     <ti>
330     Partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>),
331     final config
332     </ti>
333 swift 1.149 </tr>
334     <tr>
335 swift 1.177 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
336     <ti>No</ti>
337     <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
338     <ti>
339     Partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages
340     (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME
341     (if using "CD 2")
342     </ti>
343 swift 1.149 </tr>
344     </table>
345 antifa 1.105
346 swift 1.149 <note>
347     Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
348     of this document before proceeding.
349     </note>
350 antifa 1.105
351 swift 1.149 </body>
352     </section>
353     </chapter>
354 antifa 1.105
355 swift 1.149 <chapter>
356     <title>Booting</title>
357     <section>
358     <body>
359 antifa 1.105
360 swift 1.149 <warn>
361     Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
362     options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
363     pcmcia services etc..
364     </warn>
365 antifa 1.105
366 swift 1.149 <p>
367     Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
368     boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
369     can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
370     custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
371     and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
372     If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
373     processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
374     <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
375     the processors in your system, not just the first one.
376     </p>
377 swift 1.177
378 swift 1.149 <p>
379     Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
380     options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
381     </p>
382 antifa 1.105
383 swift 1.149 <table>
384 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
385     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
386 swift 1.177 <tr>
387     <th>Available kernels</th>
388     <th>Description</th>
389     </tr>
390     <tr>
391     <ti>gentoo</ti>
392     <ti>Standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti>
393     </tr>
394     <tr>
395     <ti>nofb</ti>
396     <ti>Framebuffer mode disabled</ti>
397     </tr>
398     <tr>
399     <ti>smp</ti>
400     <ti>Loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti>
401     </tr>
402     <tr>
403     <ti>acpi</ti>
404     <ti>Enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti>
405     </tr>
406     <tr>
407     <ti>memtest</ti>
408     <ti>Boots the memory testing program</ti>
409     </tr>
410 swift 1.149 </table>
411 antifa 1.105
412 swift 1.149 <table>
413 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
414     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
415 swift 1.177 <tr>
416     <th>Available boot options</th>
417     <th>Description</th>
418     </tr>
419     <tr>
420     <ti>doataraid</ti>
421     <ti>Loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti>
422     </tr>
423     <tr>
424     <ti>dofirewire</ti>
425     <ti>Modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti>
426     </tr>
427     <tr>
428     <ti>dokeymap</ti>
429     <ti>Enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti>
430     </tr>
431     <tr>
432     <ti>dopcmcia</ti>
433     <ti>Starts pcmcia service</ti>
434     </tr>
435     <tr>
436     <ti>doscsi</ti>
437     <ti>Scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti>
438     </tr>
439     <tr>
440     <ti>noapm</ti>
441     <ti>Disables apm module load</ti>
442     </tr>
443     <tr>
444     <ti>nodetect</ti>
445     <ti>Causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti>
446     </tr>
447     <tr>
448     <ti>nodhcp</ti>
449     <ti>Dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti>
450     </tr>
451     <tr>
452     <ti>nohotplug</ti>
453     <ti>Disables loading hotplug service</ti>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456     <ti>noraid</ti>
457     <ti>Disables loading of evms modules</ti>
458     </tr>
459     <tr>
460     <ti>nousb</ti>
461     <ti>Disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti>
462     </tr>
463     <tr>
464     <ti>ide=nodma</ti>
465     <ti>Force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti>
466     </tr>
467     <tr>
468     <ti>cdcache</ti>
469     <ti>
470     Cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but
471     allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom.
472     </ti>
473     </tr>
474 swift 1.149 </table>
475 drobbins 1.70
476 swift 1.149 <p>
477     Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
478     screen and progress bar.
479     </p>
480 swift 1.176
481     <warn>
482     If your screen turns blank instead of giving you a fancy boot screen, try
483     booting with the <e>nofb</e> kernel. It is highly likely that our kernel
484     doesn't support your graphical adapter for framebuffer (grafical mode
485     without X server).
486     </warn>
487 swift 1.142
488 swift 1.149 <p>
489     Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
490     to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
491     have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
492     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
493     you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
494     </p>
495    
496     <note>
497     <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
498 swift 1.142 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
499     <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
500     CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
501     Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
502 swift 1.149 CD over the network.
503     </note>
504    
505     <p>
506     You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
507     help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
508     and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
509     on your CD.
510     </p>
511    
512     </body>
513     </section>
514     </chapter>
515    
516     <chapter>
517     <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
518     <section>
519     <body>
520    
521     <p>
522     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
523     devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
524     hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
525     However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
526     you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
527     will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
528     To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
529     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
530     type:
531     </p>
532 swift 1.142
533 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
534 swift 1.177 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
535 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
536 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
537 swift 1.149
538     <p>
539     Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
540     detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
541     load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
542     <c>modprobe</c>:
543     </p>
544    
545 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
546 swift 1.177 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
547 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
548 swift 1.177 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
549 swift 1.149 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
550 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
551 swift 1.149
552     <note>
553     Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
554     </note>
555    
556     <note>
557     <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
558     on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
559     <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
560     <pre caption="Setting DMA">
561     <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
562 swift 1.177 <comment>(Enables DMA:)</comment>
563 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
564 swift 1.177 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options:)</comment>
565 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
566 swift 1.177 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up:)</comment>
567 swift 1.149 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
568 jhhudso 1.75 </pre>
569 swift 1.149 </note>
570 swift 1.142
571 swift 1.177
572 swift 1.149 </body>
573     </section>
574     </chapter>
575     <chapter>
576     <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
577     <section>
578     <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
579     <body>
580    
581     <p>
582     If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
583     likely that your networking configuration has already been
584     set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
585     the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
586 swift 1.173 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>links</c>, among
587 swift 1.149 others.
588     </p>
589 swift 1.177
590 swift 1.149 <p>
591     If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
592     should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
593     </p>
594    
595 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
596 drobbins 1.70 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
597     inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
598     inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
599     UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
600     RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
601     TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
602     collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
603     RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
604 swift 1.149 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
605 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
606 swift 1.149
607     <p>
608     You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
609     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
610     that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
611     correctly, etc..
612     </p>
613    
614 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
615 swift 1.149 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
616 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
617 swift 1.149
618     <p>
619     Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
620     section.
621     </p>
622    
623     </body>
624     </section>
625     <section>
626     <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
627     <body>
628    
629     <p>
630     Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
631     has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
632     <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
633     for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
634     and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
635     or not.
636     </p>
637    
638 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
639 swift 1.149 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
640     # <i> adsl-start </i>
641 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
642 swift 1.149
643     <p>
644     If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
645     and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
646     <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
647     ethernet device.
648     </p>
649    
650     </body>
651     </section>
652     <section>
653     <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
654     <body>
655    
656     <p>
657     The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
658     automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
659     </p>
660    
661 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
662 swift 1.149 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
663 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
664 swift 1.149
665     <p>
666     Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
667     covered next.
668     </p>
669    
670     </body>
671     </section>
672     <section>
673     <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
674     <body>
675    
676     <p>
677     Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
678     DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
679     </p>
680    
681 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
682 swift 1.149 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
683 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
684 swift 1.149
685     <note>
686     Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
687     <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
688     </note>
689    
690     <p>
691     If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
692     likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
693     </p>
694    
695     </body>
696     </section>
697     <section>
698     <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
699     <body>
700    
701     <p>
702     We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
703     the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
704     information is explained in the next table.
705     </p>
706 swift 1.117
707     <table>
708 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
709     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
710     <tcolumn width="1.25in"/>
711 swift 1.177 <tr>
712     <th>Information</th>
713     <th>Description</th>
714     <th>Example value</th>
715     </tr>
716     <tr>
717     <ti>IP address</ti>
718     <ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti>
719     <ti>192.168.1.2</ti>
720     </tr>
721     <tr>
722     <ti>Broadcast address</ti>
723     <ti>
724     The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the
725     network
726     </ti>
727     <ti>192.168.1.255</ti>
728     </tr>
729     <tr>
730     <ti>Network mask</ti>
731     <ti>
732     The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the
733     address is for network-identification and host-identification
734     </ti>
735     <ti>255.255.255.0</ti>
736     </tr>
737     <tr>
738     <ti>Gateway</ti>
739     <ti>
740     The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not
741     meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the
742     internet connection)
743     </ti>
744     <ti>192.168.1.1</ti>
745     </tr>
746 swift 1.117 </table>
747 swift 1.149
748     <p>
749     Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
750     interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
751     <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
752     mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
753     gateway.
754     </p>
755    
756 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
757 swift 1.149 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
758     # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask 0.0.0.0 metric 1 $IFACE</i>
759 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
760 swift 1.149
761     <p>
762     Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
763     resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
764     will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
765     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
766     editor.
767     </p>
768    
769     <p>
770     Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
771     file:
772     </p>
773    
774 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
775 drobbins 1.1 domain mydomain.com
776     nameserver 10.0.0.1
777     nameserver 10.0.0.2
778 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
779 swift 1.149
780     <p>
781     Replace <c>10.0.0.1</c> and <c>10.0.0.2</c> with the IP addresses of your
782     primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
783     </p>
784    
785     </body>
786     </section>
787     <section>
788     <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
789     <body>
790    
791     <p>
792     If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
793     before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
794     accordingly.
795     </p>
796    
797 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
798 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:)</comment>
799 swift 1.158 # <i>export http_proxy="http://machine.company.com:1234"</i>
800 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:)</comment>
801 swift 1.158 # <i>export ftp_proxy="ftp://machine.company.com"</i>
802 swift 1.177 <comment>(If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:)</comment>
803 swift 1.158 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://machine.company.com"</i>
804 swift 1.149 </pre>
805 swift 1.178
806     <note>
807     If your proxy requires authentification, use a construct like
808     <c>http://username:password@machine.company.com</c> (note the added
809     &quot;username:password@&quot;).
810     </note>
811 swift 1.149
812     </body>
813     </section>
814     <section>
815     <title>Networking is go!</title>
816     <body>
817    
818     <p>
819     Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
820 swift 1.173 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>links</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
821 swift 1.149 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
822     </p>
823    
824     </body>
825     </section>
826     </chapter>
827    
828     <chapter>
829     <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
830     <section>
831     <body>
832    
833     <p>
834     Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
835     <c>date</c> command.
836     </p>
837    
838 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
839 swift 1.149 # <i>date</i>
840 jhhudso 1.81 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
841 swift 1.177 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command:)</comment>
842 swift 1.149 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
843 jhhudso 1.81 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
844     </pre>
845 swift 1.149
846     </body>
847     </section>
848     </chapter>
849    
850     <chapter>
851     <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
852     <section>
853     <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
854     <body>
855    
856     <p>
857     In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
858     Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
859     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
860     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
861     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
862 drobbins 1.86 </p>
863 swift 1.149
864 drobbins 1.86 <p>
865     To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
866     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
867     </p>
868 swift 1.149
869 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
870     /dev/hda
871     </pre>
872    
873     <p>
874     If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
875     </p>
876    
877     <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
878     /dev/sda
879     </pre>
880    
881 swift 1.149 <p>
882     The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
883 drobbins 1.86 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
884 swift 1.149 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
885 drobbins 1.86 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
886 swift 1.149 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
887     </p>
888    
889 drobbins 1.86 </body>
890     </section>
891     <section>
892     <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
893     <body>
894    
895 swift 1.149 <p>
896     Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
897     <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
898     block device as a command-line argument.
899     </p>
900    
901     <p>
902     However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
903     device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
904     or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
905     done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
906     more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
907     using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
908     partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
909     exactly how to split up the full disk.
910     </p>
911    
912     <p>
913     We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
914     specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
915     </p>
916 drobbins 1.86
917 swift 1.149 <note>
918     Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
919 swift 1.142 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
920 swift 1.149 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
921     </note>
922 drobbins 1.86
923     <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
924 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
925 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
926 swift 1.149
927 drobbins 1.86 <p>
928     or
929     </p>
930 swift 1.149
931 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
932 swift 1.149 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
933 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
934    
935     <impo>
936 swift 1.149 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
937 drobbins 1.86 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
938     contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
939 swift 1.149 lost.
940 drobbins 1.86 </impo>
941    
942     <p>
943 swift 1.149 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
944 drobbins 1.86 </p>
945    
946     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
947     Command (m for help):
948     </pre>
949    
950     <p>
951     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
952     </p>
953    
954     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
955 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
956 drobbins 1.86
957     Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
958     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
959    
960     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
961     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
962     /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
963     /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
964     /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
965     /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
966     /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
967     /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
968     /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
969     /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
970    
971     Command (m for help):
972     </pre>
973    
974 swift 1.149 <p>
975     This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
976 drobbins 1.86 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
977 swift 1.149 (listed as "Linux swap").
978     </p>
979 drobbins 1.86
980     <p>
981     Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
982 swift 1.149 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
983     up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
984     software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
985     partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
986     partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
987     primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
988     However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
989     partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
990     four partition limit.
991     </p>
992    
993     <p>
994     All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
995     The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
996 drobbins 1.86 </p>
997    
998     <p>
999 swift 1.149 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
1000     primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
1001     contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1002     <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
1003     <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
1004     acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
1005     <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
1006     </p>
1007 drobbins 1.86
1008 swift 1.149 <p>
1009     Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
1010 drobbins 1.86 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
1011     partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
1012 swift 1.115 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
1013     partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
1014     type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
1015 drobbins 1.86 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
1016 peesh 1.99 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
1017 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1018 swift 1.149
1019 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1020     </section>
1021     <section>
1022     <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
1023     <body>
1024    
1025 swift 1.149 <p>
1026     Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
1027 drobbins 1.86 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
1028     partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
1029     process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
1030 swift 1.149 look like this:
1031     </p>
1032 drobbins 1.86
1033     <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
1034     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1035     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1036     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1037    
1038 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1039 drobbins 1.86 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1040     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1041     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1042    
1043     Command (m for help):
1044     </pre>
1045    
1046 swift 1.149 <p>
1047     In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
1048     The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
1049 drobbins 1.86 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
1050     the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
1051     will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
1052     us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
1053     day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
1054 drobbins 1.87 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
1055 swift 1.149 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
1056     </p>
1057 drobbins 1.86
1058 swift 1.149 <p>
1059     It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
1060 drobbins 1.98 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
1061     required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
1062     loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
1063     cylinder 1024.
1064     </p>
1065    
1066 swift 1.149 <p>
1067     The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
1068 drobbins 1.86 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
1069     relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
1070 drobbins 1.87 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
1071 swift 1.149 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
1072     </p>
1073 drobbins 1.86
1074 swift 1.149 <p>
1075     The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
1076     rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
1077     used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
1078     system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
1079     </p>
1080 drobbins 1.86
1081 swift 1.149 <p>
1082     Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
1083 drobbins 1.86 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
1084 swift 1.149 Linux:
1085     </p>
1086 drobbins 1.86
1087     <table>
1088 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1.5in"/>
1089     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1090     <tcolumn width="2.5in"/>
1091     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
1092 swift 1.149 <tr>
1093 swift 1.177 <th>Partition</th>
1094     <th>Size</th>
1095     <th>Type</th>
1096     <th>Example device</th>
1097 swift 1.149 </tr>
1098     <tr>
1099 swift 1.177 <ti>Boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
1100     <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
1101     <ti>
1102     Ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o
1103     notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of
1104     the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is
1105     recommended.
1106     </ti>
1107     <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
1108 swift 1.149 </tr>
1109     <tr>
1110 swift 1.177 <ti>Swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
1111     <ti>
1112     Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the
1113     size of the physical RAM in your system
1114     </ti>
1115     <ti>Linux swap</ti>
1116     <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
1117 swift 1.149 </tr>
1118     <tr>
1119 swift 1.177 <ti>Root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
1120     <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
1121     <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
1122     <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
1123 swift 1.149 </tr>
1124 drobbins 1.86 </table>
1125    
1126 swift 1.149 <p>
1127     OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
1128 swift 1.95 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
1129 drobbins 1.86 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
1130     current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
1131     to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
1132 swift 1.149 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
1133     </p>
1134 drobbins 1.86
1135 swift 1.149 <impo>
1136     Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
1137 drobbins 1.86 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
1138     is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
1139     <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
1140 swift 1.149 from the wrong drive.
1141     </impo>
1142 drobbins 1.86
1143 swift 1.149 <p>
1144     Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
1145 drobbins 1.86 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
1146 swift 1.149 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
1147     </p>
1148 drobbins 1.86
1149     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
1150 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
1151     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1152 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1153 zhen 1.54
1154 swift 1.149 <p>
1155     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
1156 drobbins 1.86 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
1157     saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
1158     type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
1159 swift 1.149 deleted.
1160     </p>
1161    
1162     <p>
1163     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
1164 drobbins 1.86 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
1165     <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
1166 swift 1.149 with a partition table with nothing in it:
1167     </p>
1168 drobbins 1.86
1169     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
1170     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1171     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1172     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1173    
1174 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1175 drobbins 1.86
1176     Command (m for help):
1177     </pre>
1178    
1179 swift 1.149 <p>
1180     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1181 drobbins 1.86 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1182     <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1183     create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1184 swift 1.115 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1185 swift 1.149 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1186     </p>
1187 swift 1.115
1188     <note>
1189     Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1190 swift 1.142 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1191 swift 1.115 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1192     for the last cylinder.
1193     </note>
1194 drobbins 1.86
1195     <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1196 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1197 drobbins 1.86 Command action
1198 swift 1.177 e extended
1199     p primary partition (1-4)
1200 swift 1.149 <i>p</i>
1201     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1202     First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1203 drobbins 1.86 Using default value 1
1204 swift 1.149 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1205 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1206    
1207 swift 1.149 <p>
1208     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1209     printout:
1210     </p>
1211 drobbins 1.86
1212     <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1213 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1214 drobbins 1.86
1215     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1216     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1217     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1218    
1219 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1220     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1221 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1222    
1223 swift 1.149 <p>
1224     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1225     new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1226     Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1227     <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1228     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1229     a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1230     partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1231     type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1232     these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1233     similar to this:
1234     </p>
1235 drobbins 1.86
1236     <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1237 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1238 drobbins 1.86
1239     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1240     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1241     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1242    
1243 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1244     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1245     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1246 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1247    
1248 swift 1.149 <p>
1249     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1250 drobbins 1.86 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1251 carl 1.101 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1252 swift 1.149 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1253     hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1254     partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1255     completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1256     looks similar to this:
1257     </p>
1258 drobbins 1.86
1259     <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1260 swift 1.149 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1261 drobbins 1.86
1262     Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1263     240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1264     Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1265    
1266 swift 1.149 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1267     /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1268     /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1269     /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1270 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1271    
1272     <p>
1273     Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1274 swift 1.149 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1275     type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1276     If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1277     <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1278     this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1279     configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1280 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1281    
1282 swift 1.149 <note>
1283     If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1284     allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1285     </note>
1286    
1287 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1288     </section>
1289     <section>
1290     <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1291     <body>
1292 swift 1.149
1293     <p>
1294     Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1295     the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1296     data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1297 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1298    
1299 swift 1.149 <p>
1300     Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1301     its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1302     Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1303     filesystems.
1304     </p>
1305 drobbins 1.86
1306 swift 1.149 <p>
1307     ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1308 drobbins 1.86 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1309     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1310 swift 1.149 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1311 drobbins 1.86 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1312     Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1313 swift 1.149 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1314     </p>
1315 drobbins 1.86
1316 swift 1.149 <p>
1317     ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1318 drobbins 1.86 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1319     like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1320 drobbins 1.88 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1321     Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1322     design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1323     very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1324     files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1325 swift 1.149 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1326     </p>
1327 drobbins 1.86
1328 swift 1.149 <p>
1329     ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1330 drobbins 1.86 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1331     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1332     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1333     now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1334     filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1335 swift 1.149 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1336 drobbins 1.86 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1337 swift 1.149 non-boot partitions.
1338     </p>
1339 drobbins 1.86
1340 swift 1.149 <p>
1341     XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1342     Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1343 drobbins 1.86 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1344     filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1345     a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1346     in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1347 swift 1.149 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1348     deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1349     </p>
1350 drobbins 1.86
1351 swift 1.149 <p>
1352     JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1353     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1354 swift 1.142 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1355 swift 1.149 point.
1356     </p>
1357 drobbins 1.86
1358 swift 1.149 <p>
1359     If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1360 drobbins 1.86 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1361     journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1362 swift 1.149 refined and recommended for general use.
1363     </p>
1364 drobbins 1.86
1365 swift 1.149 <p>
1366     Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1367     all our partitions for use:
1368     </p>
1369 drobbins 1.86
1370     <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1371 swift 1.183 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1372 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1373     # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1374 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1375    
1376 swift 1.149 <p>
1377 swift 1.183 We choose ext2 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1378     robust filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1379 swift 1.149 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1380     obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1381     choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1382     performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1383     </p>
1384    
1385     <p>
1386     For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1387     during the installation process:
1388     </p>
1389 drobbins 1.98
1390 swift 1.149 <p>
1391     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1392     </p>
1393 drobbins 1.86
1394 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1395 swift 1.149 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1396 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1397 swift 1.149
1398     <p>
1399     You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1400     </p>
1401    
1402 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1403 drobbins 1.1 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1404 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1405 swift 1.149
1406     <p>
1407     If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1408     <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1409     </p>
1410    
1411 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1412 swift 1.149 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1413 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1414 swift 1.149
1415     <note>
1416     You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1417     <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1418     </note>
1419    
1420     <p>
1421     To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1422     </p>
1423    
1424 drobbins 1.86 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1425 swift 1.149 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1426 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1427 swift 1.149
1428     <p>
1429     To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1430     </p>
1431    
1432 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1433 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1434 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1435 drobbins 1.86
1436 swift 1.149 <note>
1437     You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1438     command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1439     will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1440     least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1441     you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1442     <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1443     performance.
1444     </note>
1445    
1446     <p>
1447     To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1448     </p>
1449    
1450 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1451 swift 1.149 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1452 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1453 swift 1.149
1454     </body>
1455     </section>
1456     </chapter>
1457    
1458     <chapter>
1459     <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1460     <section>
1461     <body>
1462    
1463     <p>
1464     Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1465     the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1466     </p>
1467    
1468 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1469 swift 1.149 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1470 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1471 drobbins 1.86
1472 swift 1.149 <p>
1473     Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1474     and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1475     root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1476     <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1477     Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1478     <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1479     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1480     </p>
1481    
1482     <impo>
1483     If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1484     be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1485     installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1486     <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1487     We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1488     then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1489     <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1490     </impo>
1491 drobbins 1.86
1492 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1493 swift 1.149 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1494     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1495     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1496 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1497 drobbins 1.86
1498 swift 1.149 <impo>
1499     If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1500     <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1501     </impo>
1502    
1503     </body>
1504     </section>
1505     </chapter>
1506    
1507     <chapter>
1508     <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1509     <section>
1510     <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1511     <body>
1512 zhen 1.55
1513 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1514     Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1515 swift 1.149 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1516     in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1517     /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1518     </p>
1519 drobbins 1.86
1520 swift 1.149 <p>
1521     <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1522     </p>
1523 drobbins 1.86
1524 swift 1.149 <p>
1525     If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1526     <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1527 swift 1.142 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1528 drobbins 1.86 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1529 swift 1.142 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1530 swift 1.149 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1531     </p>
1532 drobbins 1.86
1533 swift 1.163 <note>
1534 swift 1.173 If you want to use a proxy (say proxy.server.tld:8080), add
1535     <c>-http-proxy proxy.server.tld:8080</c> to the <c>links</c> command
1536     mentioned below.
1537 swift 1.163 </note>
1538    
1539 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1540 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1541 swift 1.173 <comment>Use links to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1542     # <i>links http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1543 zhware 1.47 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1544     Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1545     Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1546     Save the file and quit the browser
1547    
1548     <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1549 swift 1.149 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1550 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1551 drobbins 1.86
1552 swift 1.149 </body>
1553     </section>
1554     <section>
1555     <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1556     <body>
1557    
1558     <p>
1559     Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1560 drobbins 1.86 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1561     tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1562     stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1563 swift 1.149 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1564     </p>
1565 drobbins 1.86
1566 swift 1.149 <impo>
1567     Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1568     cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1569     </impo>
1570 drobbins 1.86
1571 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1572 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1573 drobbins 1.86 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1574     <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1575 swift 1.142 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1576 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1577 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1578    
1579 swift 1.149 <p>
1580     If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1581     delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1582     </p>
1583    
1584 drobbins 1.86 </body>
1585     </section>
1586 swift 1.149
1587 drobbins 1.86 <section>
1588 swift 1.142 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1589     <body>
1590 swift 1.149
1591     <impo>
1592 swift 1.172 The following instructions are for GRP users only. If you are not using
1593     GRP, continue with "Selecting Mirrors (Optional)".
1594 swift 1.149 </impo>
1595    
1596     <p>
1597     <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1598 swift 1.142 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1599     later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1600 swift 1.149 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1601     </p>
1602    
1603 swift 1.142 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1604     <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1605 swift 1.149 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1606 swift 1.142 </pre>
1607 swift 1.149
1608     <p>
1609     This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1610 swift 1.142 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1611     sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1612 swift 1.149 from the Live CD into place:
1613     </p>
1614 swift 1.142
1615     <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1616 swift 1.159 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1617     # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
1618 swift 1.142 </pre>
1619    
1620 swift 1.149 <p>
1621     All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1622 swift 1.142 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1623 swift 1.149 -- even without a network connection.
1624     </p>
1625 swift 1.142
1626     </body>
1627     </section>
1628 antifa 1.150 <section>
1629     <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1630     <body>
1631    
1632     <p>
1633     <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1634     mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1635     Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1636     </p>
1637    
1638     <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1639 swift 1.177 <comment>(To select a mirror automatically:)</comment>
1640 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1641 swift 1.177 <comment>(To select a mirror interactively:)</comment>
1642 swift 1.151 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1643 antifa 1.150 </pre>
1644    
1645     <p>
1646     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1647 swift 1.179 continue with this guide since no changes are made. One of the reasons why
1648     <c>mirrorselect</c> can fail is simply because it isn't there.
1649     <c>mirrorselect</c> isn't available from all installation media.
1650 antifa 1.150 </p>
1651    
1652     </body>
1653     </section>
1654 swift 1.142 <section>
1655 drobbins 1.86 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1656     <body>
1657 swift 1.149
1658 drobbins 1.86 <p>
1659 swift 1.149 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1660     "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1661 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1662 swift 1.112
1663     <note>
1664     You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1665 swift 1.113 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1666 swift 1.142 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1667 swift 1.112 the problem.
1668     </note>
1669 drobbins 1.86
1670     <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1671 swift 1.149 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1672     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1673     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1674     # <i>env-update</i>
1675 drobbins 1.1 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1676 swift 1.149 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1677     <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1678 swift 1.132 </pre>
1679 swift 1.133
1680 swift 1.149 <p>
1681     After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1682     environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1683     installation process inside the chroot.
1684     </p>
1685 swift 1.132
1686 swift 1.149 </body>
1687     </section>
1688     </chapter>
1689 swift 1.142
1690 swift 1.149 <chapter>
1691     <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1692     <section>
1693     <body>
1694 swift 1.142
1695 swift 1.149 <impo>
1696     If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1697     <c>emerge sync</c>.
1698     </impo>
1699 swift 1.142
1700 swift 1.149 <p>
1701     Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1702 swift 1.142 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1703 swift 1.149 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1704     you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1705 swift 1.142 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1706     we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1707     completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1708 swift 1.149 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1709     </p>
1710 drobbins 1.86
1711 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1712 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1713 drobbins 1.86 </pre>
1714    
1715 swift 1.149 </body>
1716     </section>
1717     </chapter>
1718    
1719     <chapter>
1720     <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1721     <section>
1722     <body>
1723    
1724     <p>
1725     Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1726 drobbins 1.86 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1727     Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1728     programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1729 swift 1.149 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1730 drobbins 1.86 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1731 swift 1.182 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are fine.
1732     More information on USE flags can be found in the <uri
1733     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">Gentoo Guide to USE
1734     flags</uri>. A complete list of current USE flags can be found in the <uri
1735     link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">Gentoo Linux Use Variable
1736     Descriptions</uri> document.
1737 swift 1.149 </p>
1738    
1739     <p>
1740     If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1741     CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1742 bennyc 1.184 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file).
1743 swift 1.149 </p>
1744 bennyc 1.184
1745     <warn>
1746     If you are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be
1747     configured optimally. The CHOST-setting <e>may not</e> be changed as this
1748     could lead to a broken system.
1749     </warn>
1750 drobbins 1.86
1751 swift 1.163 <warn>
1752     <b>Advanced users:</b> If you are planning on installing an
1753     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" Gentoo system, do not set ACCEPT_KEYWORDS until
1754     the bootstrap phase (stage1) is done.
1755     </warn>
1756    
1757 swift 1.149 <impo>
1758     <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1759     C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1760     It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1761     "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1762     packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1763     characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1764 swift 1.142 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1765     </impo>
1766    
1767     <!-- needs qa
1768 swift 1.149 <note>
1769     <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1770 swift 1.142 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1771     utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1772     Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1773 swift 1.149 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1774 swift 1.142 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1775 swift 1.149 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1776     </note>
1777 swift 1.142 -->
1778    
1779 swift 1.149 <p>
1780     If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1781     firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1782     using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1783 drobbins 1.86 </p>
1784 swift 1.149
1785 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1786 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1787 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
1788 drobbins 1.108
1789 swift 1.149 <note>
1790     <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1791     process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1792     file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1793     do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1794     as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1795     in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1796     settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1797     If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1798     <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1799     USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1800     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1801     </note>
1802    
1803     <warn>
1804     Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1805     stage1.
1806     </warn>
1807    
1808     </body>
1809     </section>
1810     </chapter>
1811    
1812     <chapter>
1813     <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1814     <section>
1815     <body>
1816    
1817     <note>
1818     If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1819     </note>
1820 swift 1.140
1821 swift 1.149 <p>
1822     The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1823     have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1824     uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1825     takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1826     from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1827     </p>
1828 avenj 1.146
1829 swift 1.149 <p>
1830     Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1831     about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1832     C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1833     the bootstrap as follows:
1834     </p>
1835 avenj 1.146
1836 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1837     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1838     # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1839 avenj 1.146 </pre>
1840 swift 1.142
1841 swift 1.149 <p>
1842     The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1843     </p>
1844 swift 1.142
1845 swift 1.149 <note>
1846     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1847     users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1848     files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1849     information.
1850     </note>
1851 swift 1.142
1852 swift 1.149 <note>
1853     Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1854     often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1855     like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1856     PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1857     <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1858     # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1859 swift 1.142 </pre>
1860 swift 1.149 </note>
1861    
1862     <p>
1863     <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1864     and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1865     say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1866     will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1867     the stage2 instructions.
1868     </p>
1869 swift 1.142
1870     </body>
1871     </section>
1872 swift 1.149 </chapter>
1873    
1874     <chapter>
1875     <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1876 swift 1.142 <section>
1877     <body>
1878    
1879 swift 1.149 <note>
1880     This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1881     this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1882     </note>
1883 swift 1.142
1884 swift 1.149 <warn>
1885     If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1886     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1887     broad compilation failures.
1888     </warn>
1889 swift 1.177
1890 swift 1.149 <p>
1891     The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1892     have to do is install the rest of the system:
1893     </p>
1894 swift 1.142
1895 swift 1.149 <note>
1896     If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1897     that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1898     option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1899     safe to skip this suggestion.
1900     </note>
1901 swift 1.142
1902 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1903     # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1904     <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1905     # <i>emerge system</i>
1906     </pre>
1907 swift 1.142
1908 swift 1.149 <p>
1909     It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1910     Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1911     The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1912     some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1913     for the PS2.
1914     </p>
1915 swift 1.142
1916 swift 1.149 <p>
1917     Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1918     your time zone" section.
1919     </p>
1920 swift 1.142
1921 swift 1.149 </body>
1922     </section>
1923     </chapter>
1924    
1925     <chapter>
1926     <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1927     <section>
1928     <body>
1929    
1930     <note>
1931     This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1932     have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1933     should skip ahead to the next section.
1934     </note>
1935    
1936     <warn>
1937     Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1938     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1939     </warn>
1940    
1941     <p>
1942     The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1943     so no building is required.
1944     </p>
1945 swift 1.177
1946 swift 1.149 <note>
1947     <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1948     may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1949     automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1950 swift 1.161 versions of all system packages by making a backup of
1951 erwin 1.175 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, then typing <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="-*"
1952 swift 1.161 emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection) and replacing
1953     the backup afterwards. Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is
1954     very old; otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you
1955     to benefit from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel
1956     free to skip these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1957 swift 1.149 </note>
1958 swift 1.177
1959 swift 1.149 </body>
1960     </section>
1961     </chapter>
1962    
1963     <chapter>
1964     <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1965     <section>
1966     <body>
1967    
1968     <p>
1969     Now you need to set your time zone.
1970     </p>
1971    
1972     <p>
1973     Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1974     in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1975     <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1976     </p>
1977 swift 1.142
1978 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1979     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1980     </pre>
1981    
1982     </body>
1983     </section>
1984     </chapter>
1985    
1986     <chapter>
1987     <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1988     <section>
1989     <body>
1990 swift 1.142
1991 swift 1.149 <impo>
1992     To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1993     </impo>
1994    
1995     <p>
1996     Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1997     configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1998     The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1999     that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
2000     you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
2001     <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
2002     </p>
2003    
2004 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2005 swift 1.149 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
2006 swift 1.163 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices (such
2007     as <c>hda1</c>, etc.) and "ext2" and "ext3" with the actual filesystems you
2008     are using:
2009 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2010 swift 1.149
2011     <pre caption="Editing fstab">
2012     <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
2013 swift 1.142 #
2014 swift 1.149 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
2015     # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
2016     # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
2017     # switch between notail and tail freely.
2018    
2019     # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
2020    
2021     # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
2022     </comment>
2023 swift 1.181 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
2024     /dev/ROOT / reiserfs noatime 0 1
2025     /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
2026     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user 0 0
2027 swift 1.183 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
2028 swift 1.149 </pre>
2029    
2030     <warn>
2031     Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
2032     is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
2033     access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
2034     </warn>
2035    
2036     </body>
2037     </section>
2038     </chapter>
2039    
2040     <chapter>
2041     <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
2042     <section>
2043     <title>Kernel selections</title>
2044     <body>
2045 swift 1.177
2046 swift 1.149 <p>
2047     There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
2048     own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
2049     kernel automatically.
2050     </p>
2051 swift 1.177
2052 swift 1.149 <p>
2053 swift 1.182 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>, you'll need
2054     to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use. Gentoo provides
2055     several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found in the <uri
2056     link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</uri>. If you are
2057     uncertain which kernel sources to choose, we advise using
2058     <c>gentoo-sources</c>. If you want XFS support, you should choose
2059     <c>xfs-sources</c> or <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses
2060     <c>gs-sources</c> and <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a
2061     <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized for game-playing responsiveness that
2062     works wonderfully for this purpose when the "Preemptible kernel" option is
2063     enabled.
2064 swift 1.149 </p>
2065    
2066     <p>
2067     Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
2068     </p>
2069    
2070     <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
2071     # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
2072     </pre>
2073    
2074     <p>
2075     The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
2076     newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
2077     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
2078     you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
2079     kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
2080     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
2081     source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
2082     link.
2083     </p>
2084    
2085     </body>
2086     </section>
2087     <section>
2088     <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
2089     <body>
2090    
2091     <p>
2092     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
2093     kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
2094     <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
2095     <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
2096     our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
2097     to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
2098     boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
2099     manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
2100     not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
2101     </p>
2102    
2103     <p>
2104     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
2105     </p>
2106    
2107     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
2108     # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
2109 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2110 swift 1.177
2111 swift 1.149 <p>
2112     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
2113     </p>
2114    
2115     <note>
2116     <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
2117     which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
2118     configuration before building begins.
2119     </note>
2120 swift 1.142
2121 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
2122     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
2123     # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
2124     <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
2125     # <i>genkernel</i>
2126     Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
2127     Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
2128     Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
2129    
2130     Settings:
2131     compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
2132     source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2133     config: gentoo (customized)
2134     config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2135     initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
2136    
2137     * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
2138     * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
2139     * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
2140     * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
2141     * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
2142     * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
2143     * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
2144     * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
2145     * Building busybox... [ ok ]
2146     * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
2147    
2148     * Build completed successfully!
2149    
2150     * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
2151     * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
2152     </pre>
2153    
2154     <p>
2155     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
2156     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
2157 swift 1.161 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
2158     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
2159     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
2160     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
2161     your "real" system starts up.
2162 swift 1.149 </p>
2163    
2164     <p>
2165     Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
2166     CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
2167     is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
2168     To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
2169     </p>
2170 swift 1.142
2171     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
2172 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
2173     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
2174 swift 1.142 </pre>
2175    
2176 swift 1.149 <p>
2177     Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2178     can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2179     </p>
2180    
2181 swift 1.142 </body>
2182     </section>
2183     <section>
2184     <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2185     <body>
2186    
2187 swift 1.149 <p>
2188     If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2189 swift 1.142 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2190     hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2191 swift 1.149 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2192 swift 1.142 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2193     set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2194 swift 1.149 proceeding.
2195     </p>
2196 swift 1.142
2197     <warn>
2198 swift 1.149 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2199     option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2200     programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2201 swift 1.142 </warn>
2202    
2203     <note>
2204 swift 1.149 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2205     your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2206     If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2207     about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2208     </note>
2209    
2210 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2211 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2212     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2213 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2214 swift 1.149
2215     <warn>
2216     For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2217     need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2218     and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2219     have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2220     using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2221     always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2222     </warn>
2223    
2224     <p>
2225     Below are some common options that you will need:
2226     </p>
2227    
2228 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2229     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2230 swift 1.149 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2231     <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2232     ...
2233 jhhudso 1.81
2234     File systems ---&gt;
2235 swift 1.149 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2236     <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2237     ...
2238     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2239     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2240     ...
2241     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2242     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2243     ...
2244     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2245     <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2246     ...
2247     [*] /proc file system support
2248     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2249     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2250     [*] Automatically mount at boot
2251     <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2252     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2253 swift 1.163 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is not needed unless you use a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
2254 swift 1.149 ...
2255     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2256     <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2257     ...
2258     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2259     <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2260     </pre>
2261    
2262     <p>
2263     If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2264     options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2265     (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2266     ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2267     options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2268     over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2269     configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2270     </p>
2271    
2272     <p>
2273     If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2274     kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2275     and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2276     (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2277     &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2278     generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2279     also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2280 swift 1.157 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</c> to have them automatically
2281     added at boot time.
2282 swift 1.149 </p>
2283    
2284     <p>
2285     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2286     ethernet card.
2287     </p>
2288    
2289     <note>
2290     For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2291     kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2292     features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2293     filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2294     patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2295     Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2296     kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2297     in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2298     <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2299     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2300     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2301     for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2302     <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2303     </note>
2304 swift 1.121
2305     <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2306 swift 1.149 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2307     # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2308 swift 1.121 </pre>
2309 swift 1.158
2310     </body>
2311     </section>
2312     <section>
2313     <title>Installing additional hardware-specific ebuilds</title>
2314     <body>
2315    
2316     <p>
2317     Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
2318     your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
2319     </p>
2320    
2321     <table>
2322 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
2323     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
2324     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
2325 swift 1.158 <tr>
2326 swift 1.177 <th>Ebuild</th>
2327     <th>Purpose</th>
2328     <th>Command</th>
2329 swift 1.158 </tr>
2330     <tr>
2331 swift 1.177 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
2332     <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
2333     <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
2334 swift 1.158 </tr>
2335     <tr>
2336 swift 1.177 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
2337     <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2338     <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2339 swift 1.158 </tr>
2340     <tr>
2341 swift 1.177 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2342     <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2343     <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2344 swift 1.158 </tr>
2345     <tr>
2346 swift 1.177 <ti>e100</ti>
2347     <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2348     <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2349 swift 1.158 </tr>
2350     <tr>
2351 swift 1.177 <ti>e1000</ti>
2352     <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2353     <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2354 swift 1.158 </tr>
2355     <tr>
2356 swift 1.177 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2357     <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2358     <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2359 swift 1.158 </tr>
2360     <tr>
2361 swift 1.177 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2362     <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2363     <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2364 swift 1.158 </tr>
2365     <tr>
2366 swift 1.177 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2367     <ti>
2368     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
2369     other cards for XFree86
2370     </ti>
2371     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2372 swift 1.158 </tr>
2373     </table>
2374    
2375     <p>
2376     The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2377     will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2378     above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package. If
2379     you are not using hotplug, be sure to add the appropriate modules to
2380     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path>.
2381     </p>
2382    
2383     <p>
2384     More information on <c>xfree-drm</c> can be found in our <uri
2385     link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">Direct Rendering Guide</uri>.
2386     </p>
2387    
2388 swift 1.149
2389 swift 1.142 </body>
2390     </section>
2391     <section>
2392     <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2393     <body>
2394 swift 1.149
2395     <p>
2396     Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2397     a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2398     the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2399 swift 1.173 syslog-ng as well as metalog. If in doubt, you may want to try
2400     syslog-ng, since it is very flexible and feature-rich. To merge your logger of
2401     choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command sets:
2402 swift 1.149 </p>
2403    
2404 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2405 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2406     # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2407 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2408 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2409     # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2410 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2411 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2412     # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2413 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2414 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2415     # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2416 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2417 swift 1.149
2418     <impo>
2419 swift 1.182 If you chose <c>metalogd</c>, please read <uri
2420     link="faq.xml#doc_chap6_sect3">Chapter 6, Section 3 of the Gentoo Linux
2421     FAQ</uri> on metalogd's buffering.
2422 swift 1.149 </impo>
2423    
2424     <p>
2425     Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2426     Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2427     choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2428     </p>
2429    
2430 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2431 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2432     # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2433     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2434 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2435 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2436     # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2437     # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2438 drobbins 1.1 <comment>or</comment>
2439 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2440     # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2441     <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2442     </pre>
2443    
2444     <p>
2445     For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2446 swift 1.182 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">Gentoo Linux Init System</uri> Guide.
2447 swift 1.149 </p>
2448    
2449     </body>
2450     </section>
2451     </chapter>
2452    
2453     <chapter>
2454     <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2455     <section>
2456     <body>
2457    
2458     <p>
2459     If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2460     it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2461     </p>
2462    
2463 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2464 swift 1.149 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2465 swift 1.177 <comment>(GRP users should type the following:)</comment>
2466 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2467 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2468 zhen 1.40
2469 swift 1.149 <note>
2470     The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2471     which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2472 swift 1.167 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later. The GRP version
2473 swift 1.177 of rp-pppoe has the optional X interface enabled. If you're not using GRP,
2474     compile from source as in the first example.
2475 swift 1.149 </note>
2476 swift 1.167 <!-- this pkg is a candidate for moving from .tbz2 to distfiles/ (source) -->
2477    
2478 swift 1.149
2479     <note>
2480     Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2481     do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2482     for the first time.
2483     </note>
2484    
2485     <p>
2486     You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2487     if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2488     using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2489     </p>
2490    
2491 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2492 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k xfsprogs</i>
2493 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2494 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k reiserfsprogs</i>
2495 jhhudso 1.75 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2496 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2497 drobbins 1.1 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2498 erwin 1.171 # <i>emerge -k lvm-user</i>
2499 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2500 swift 1.149
2501     <p>
2502     If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2503     real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2504     package.
2505     </p>
2506    
2507 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2508 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2509 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2510 swift 1.149
2511     <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2512 swift 1.142 (drobbins)
2513 swift 1.177 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2514     to work.
2515     </warn>
2516     -->
2517 swift 1.149
2518     </body>
2519     </section>
2520     </chapter>
2521    
2522     <chapter>
2523     <title>User Management</title>
2524     <section>
2525     <title>Setting a root password</title>
2526     <body>
2527    
2528     <p>
2529     Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2530     </p>
2531    
2532 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2533 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd</i>
2534 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2535 swift 1.149
2536     </body>
2537     </section>
2538     <section>
2539     <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2540     <body>
2541    
2542     <p>
2543     Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2544     should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2545     recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2546     </p>
2547    
2548     <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2549 swift 1.135 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2550 swift 1.149 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2551     </pre>
2552    
2553     <p>
2554     Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2555     </p>
2556    
2557     <p>
2558     Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2559     use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2560     a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2561     </p>
2562    
2563     </body>
2564     </section>
2565     </chapter>
2566    
2567     <chapter>
2568     <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2569     <section>
2570     <body>
2571    
2572     <p>
2573     Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2574     on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2575     </p>
2576    
2577 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2578 swift 1.121 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2579     </pre>
2580 swift 1.149
2581     <p>
2582     Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2583     domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2584     </p>
2585    
2586 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2587     # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2588     </pre>
2589 swift 1.149
2590     <p>
2591     If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2592     <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2593     </p>
2594    
2595 swift 1.121 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2596     # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2597 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2598 swift 1.149
2599     </body>
2600     </section>
2601     </chapter>
2602    
2603     <chapter>
2604     <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2605     <section>
2606     <body>
2607    
2608     <p>
2609     This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2610     It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2611     may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2612     </p>
2613    
2614 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2615 drobbins 1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
2616 swift 1.149 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2617 drobbins 1.1 192.168.1.1 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2618 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2619 swift 1.149
2620     <note>
2621     If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2622     machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2623     GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2624     </note>
2625    
2626     </body>
2627     </section>
2628     </chapter>
2629    
2630     <chapter>
2631     <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2632     <section>
2633 swift 1.174 <title>Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
2634 swift 1.149 <body>
2635    
2636     <p>
2637     Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2638 swift 1.157 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> file (you can
2639     also add any options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these
2640     modules will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your
2641     ethernet card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2642 swift 1.149 </p>
2643    
2644 swift 1.157 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
2645 swift 1.149 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2646 swift 1.174 Check /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/kernel/drivers/net for your card. </comment>
2647 drobbins 1.1 3c59x
2648 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2649 swift 1.149
2650 swift 1.174 </body>
2651     </section>
2652     <section>
2653     <title>Configuring the Network Interfaces</title>
2654     <body>
2655    
2656 swift 1.149 <p>
2657     Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2658 swift 1.174 for your first boot.
2659 swift 1.149 </p>
2660    
2661 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2662 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2663 swift 1.174 </pre>
2664    
2665     <p>
2666     If you want eth0 to automatically receive its IP, set <c>iface_eth0</c>
2667     to <e>dhcp</e>. Otherwise fill in your IP, broadcast address and
2668     netmask. If you have several interfaces, do the same for <c>iface_eth1</c>,
2669     <c>iface_eth2</c> etc.
2670     </p>
2671    
2672     <p>
2673     Now add the <c>net.eth0</c> initscript to the default runlevel <e>if</e>
2674     it isn't a PCMCIA network card:
2675     </p>
2676    
2677     <pre caption="Automatically start the network interfaces during boot">
2678 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2679 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2680 swift 1.149
2681     <p>
2682     If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2683 swift 1.174 additional <path>net.eth</path><comment>x</comment> or
2684     <path>net.tr</path><comment>x</comment> scripts respectively for each one
2685 swift 1.149 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2686     </p>
2687    
2688 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2689 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2690 swift 1.167 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2691 swift 1.174 </pre>
2692    
2693     <p>
2694     Now for each created initscript, add it to the default runlevel (again
2695     only if it isn't a PCMCIA network card):
2696     </p>
2697    
2698     <pre caption = "Adding net.ethx to the default runlevel">
2699 swift 1.149 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2700     </pre>
2701    
2702 swift 1.174 </body>
2703     </section>
2704     <section>
2705     <title>Only for PCMCIA Users</title>
2706     <body>
2707    
2708 swift 1.149 <p>
2709     If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2710 swift 1.174 <path>/etc/conf.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2711 swift 1.157 your setup, then run the following command:
2712 swift 1.149 </p>
2713    
2714 swift 1.157 <pre caption = "Have PCMCIA services start automatically">
2715     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
2716 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2717 swift 1.149
2718     <p>
2719     This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2720 swift 1.157 is loaded. The appropriate <path>/etc/init.d/net.eth*</path> services
2721     will be started by the pcmcia service automatically.
2722 swift 1.149 </p>
2723    
2724     </body>
2725     </section>
2726     </chapter>
2727    
2728     <chapter>
2729     <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2730     <section>
2731     <body>
2732    
2733 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2734 swift 1.149 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2735 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2736 swift 1.149
2737     <p>
2738     Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2739     will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2740     keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2741     <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2742     </p>
2743    
2744     </body>
2745     </section>
2746     </chapter>
2747    
2748     <chapter>
2749     <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2750     <section>
2751     <title>Notes</title>
2752     <body>
2753    
2754     <p>
2755     In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2756     from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2757     both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2758     </p>
2759    
2760     <p>
2761     Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2762     In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2763     </p>
2764    
2765     <p>
2766     In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2767     upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2768     kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2769     differences.
2770     </p>
2771    
2772     </body>
2773     </section>
2774     <section>
2775     <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2776     <body>
2777    
2778     <p>
2779     The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2780     GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2781     <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2782     parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2783     rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2784     that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2785     such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2786     scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2787     bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2788     on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2789     <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2790     SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2791     <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2792     we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2793     those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2794     lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2795     time to install GRUB.
2796     </p>
2797    
2798     <p>
2799     The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2800     shell prompt:
2801     </p>
2802    
2803 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2804 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2805     # <i>grub</i>
2806 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2807 swift 1.149
2808     <p>
2809     You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2810     Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2811     onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2812     boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2813     thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2814     commands I want to type are:
2815     </p>
2816 zhen 1.68
2817 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2818 swift 1.149 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2819     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2820 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2821 swift 1.177
2822 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2823 swift 1.149 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2824     grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2825     grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2826     grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2827     </pre>
2828    
2829     <p>
2830     Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2831     GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2832     <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2833     second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2834     it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2835     location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2836     of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2837     <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2838     GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2839     a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2840     rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2841     installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2842     </p>
2843    
2844     <note>
2845     The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2846     assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2847     be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2848     hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2849     available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2850     would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2851     Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2852     to make the right choice.
2853     </note>
2854 swift 1.177
2855 swift 1.149 <p>
2856     Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2857     <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2858     when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2859     </p>
2860    
2861     <impo>
2862     To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2863     <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2864     <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2865     </impo>
2866    
2867     <p>
2868     Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2869     /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2870     </p>
2871    
2872 swift 1.142 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2873 drobbins 1.1 default 0
2874     timeout 30
2875     splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2876    
2877 swift 1.149 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2878 drobbins 1.1 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2879     root (hd0,0)
2880 zhen 1.51 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2881 drobbins 1.1
2882 swift 1.149 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2883 swift 1.142 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2884     root (hd0,0)
2885     kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2886     initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2887    
2888 drobbins 1.1 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2889 jhhudso 1.81 title=Windows XP
2890 drobbins 1.1 root (hd0,5)
2891 zhen 1.67 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2892 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2893 swift 1.149
2894 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
2895 swift 1.152 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2896 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
2897 swift 1.152
2898 swift 1.149 <note>
2899     (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2900     </note>
2901    
2902     <impo>
2903     If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2904     actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2905     line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2906     burner).
2907     </impo>
2908    
2909     <p>
2910     After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2911     first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2912     part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2913     GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2914     </p>
2915    
2916     <note>
2917     Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2918     (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2919     should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2920     boot loader.
2921     </note>
2922    
2923     <note>
2924     The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2925     example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2926     partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2927     above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2928     </note>
2929    
2930     <p>
2931     If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2932     the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2933     (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2934     can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2935     doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2936     command.
2937     </p>
2938    
2939     <note>
2940     Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2941     <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2942     Now devfs is enabled by default.
2943     </note>
2944    
2945     </body>
2946     </section>
2947     <section>
2948     <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2949     <body>
2950    
2951     <p>
2952     While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2953     best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2954     bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2955     of GRUB.
2956     </p>
2957    
2958     <p>
2959     The first step is to emerge LILO:
2960     </p>
2961    
2962 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2963 swift 1.149 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2964 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2965 swift 1.149
2966     <p>
2967     Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2968     <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2969     </p>
2970    
2971 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2972 zhen 1.16 boot=/dev/hda
2973     map=/boot/map
2974     install=/boot/boot.b
2975     prompt
2976     timeout=50
2977     lba32
2978     default=linux
2979    
2980 swift 1.149 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2981 swift 1.111 image=/boot/bzImage
2982 swift 1.177 label=linux
2983     read-only
2984     root=/dev/hda3
2985 swift 1.142
2986 swift 1.149 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2987 swift 1.142 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2988 swift 1.177 label=gk_linux
2989     root=/dev/hda3
2990     initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2991     append="root=/dev/hda3 init=/linuxrc"
2992    
2993 swift 1.142
2994 swift 1.149 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2995 zhen 1.16 other=/dev/hda1
2996 swift 1.177 label=dos
2997 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
2998 swift 1.149
2999 bennyc 1.162 <warn>
3000 swift 1.155 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed, and
3001     make sure that <c>default=</c> points to your label (<c>gk_linux</c> if
3002     you used genkernel).
3003 bennyc 1.162 </warn>
3004 swift 1.152
3005 swift 1.149 <ul>
3006 swift 1.177 <li>
3007     <c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on
3008     the first IDE controller
3009     </li>
3010     <li>
3011     <c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be
3012     modified
3013     </li>
3014     <li>
3015     <c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the
3016     new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install
3017     line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as
3018     the file to be used.
3019     </li>
3020     <li>
3021     The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e>
3022     prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line,
3023     if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift]
3024     key while your machine starts to boot.
3025     </li>
3026     <li>
3027     <c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input
3028     before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in
3029     tenths of a second, with 50 as the default.
3030     </li>
3031     <li>
3032     <c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry
3033     here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of
3034     what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable
3035     state.
3036     </li>
3037     <li>
3038     <c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot
3039     from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label
3040     line below in each of the boot options.
3041     </li>
3042     <li>
3043     <c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this
3044     particular boot option
3045     </li>
3046     <li>
3047     <c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In
3048     this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line.
3049     </li>
3050     <li>
3051     <c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below)
3052     is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process.
3053     </li>
3054     <li>
3055     <c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root
3056     partition
3057     </li>
3058 swift 1.149 </ul>
3059    
3060     <p>
3061     After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
3062     to load the information into the MBR:
3063     </p>
3064    
3065 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Running LILO">
3066 swift 1.149 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
3067 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3068 swift 1.149
3069     <p>
3070     LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
3071     </p>
3072    
3073     </body>
3074     </section>
3075    
3076     <section>
3077     <title>Using framebuffer</title>
3078     <body>
3079    
3080     <p>
3081     People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
3082     to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
3083     following table:
3084     </p>
3085    
3086 swift 1.142 <table>
3087 swift 1.167 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3088     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3089     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3090     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
3091 swift 1.177 <tr>
3092     <ti></ti>
3093     <th>640x480</th>
3094     <th>800x600</th>
3095     <th>1024x768</th>
3096     <th>1280x1024</th>
3097     </tr>
3098     <tr>
3099     <th>8 bpp</th>
3100     <ti>769</ti>
3101     <ti>771</ti>
3102     <ti>773</ti>
3103     <ti>775</ti>
3104     </tr>
3105     <tr>
3106     <th>16 bpp</th>
3107     <ti>785</ti>
3108     <ti>788</ti>
3109     <ti>791</ti>
3110     <ti>794</ti>
3111     </tr>
3112     <tr>
3113     <th>32 bpp</th>
3114     <ti>786</ti>
3115     <ti>789</ti>
3116     <ti>792</ti>
3117     <ti>795</ti>
3118     </tr>
3119 swift 1.142 </table>
3120 swift 1.149
3121 swift 1.142 <p>
3122     LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
3123     file.
3124     </p>
3125 swift 1.149
3126 swift 1.142 <p>
3127     GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
3128     (hd0,0)...</c> line.
3129     </p>
3130 swift 1.149
3131 swift 1.142 </body>
3132     </section>
3133 swift 1.149 </chapter>
3134    
3135     <chapter>
3136     <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
3137     <section>
3138     <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
3139     <body>
3140    
3141     <impo>
3142     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3143     </impo>
3144    
3145     <p>
3146     It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
3147     time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
3148     blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
3149     let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
3150     you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
3151     If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
3152     the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
3153     like this:
3154     </p>
3155    
3156 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
3157 swift 1.149 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
3158 swift 1.177 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 &gt; /dev/fd0</i>
3159 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3160 swift 1.142
3161 swift 1.149 <p>
3162     Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
3163     can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
3164     </p>
3165    
3166     </body>
3167     </section>
3168     <section>
3169     <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
3170     <body>
3171    
3172     <impo>
3173     Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
3174     </impo>
3175    
3176     <p>
3177     If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
3178     </p>
3179    
3180 peesh 1.126 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
3181 swift 1.177 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
3182 swift 1.149 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
3183 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3184 swift 1.142
3185 swift 1.149 </body>
3186     </section>
3187     </chapter>
3188    
3189     <chapter>
3190     <title>Using GRP</title>
3191     <section>
3192     <body>
3193    
3194     <p>
3195     GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
3196     </p>
3197 swift 1.142
3198     <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
3199 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k xfree</i>
3200 swift 1.142 </pre>
3201    
3202 swift 1.149 <p>
3203     CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
3204     Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
3205     KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
3206     reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
3207     complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
3208     basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
3209     files:
3210     </p>
3211 swift 1.142
3212 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
3213     # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
3214 swift 1.156 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/* /usr/portage/packages/</i>
3215 swift 1.142 </pre>
3216    
3217 swift 1.149 <p>
3218     Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
3219     </p>
3220 swift 1.142
3221 swift 1.149 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
3222 swift 1.167 # <i>emerge -k kde</i>
3223 swift 1.142 </pre>
3224    
3225 swift 1.149 </body>
3226     </section>
3227     </chapter>
3228    
3229     <chapter>
3230     <title>Installation Complete!</title>
3231     <section>
3232     <body>
3233    
3234     <p>
3235     Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
3236     configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
3237     and reboot the system:
3238     </p>
3239 jhhudso 1.75
3240 swift 1.142 <warn>
3241     <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
3242     that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
3243     configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
3244     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
3245     files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
3246     others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
3247     </warn>
3248 swift 1.149
3249 jhhudso 1.81 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
3250 swift 1.149 # <i>etc-update</i>
3251     # <i>exit</i>
3252     <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
3253     # <i>cd / </i>
3254     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
3255     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
3256     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
3257     # <i>reboot</i>
3258 swift 1.142 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
3259 jhhudso 1.81 </pre>
3260 swift 1.149
3261     <note>
3262 swift 1.164 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>modules-update</c> command to
3263 swift 1.149 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
3264     file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
3265     <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
3266     </note>
3267    
3268     <p>
3269 swift 1.182 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
3270     development, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
3271     (more information on our <uri
3272 swift 1.149 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
3273 swift 1.182 We also have a handy <uri
3274     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop Configuration
3275     Guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
3276     system and a useful <uri
3277     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User
3278     Guide</uri> to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the
3279     rest of the Gentoo Documentation on our <uri
3280     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">Gentoo Linux User
3281     Documentation Resources</uri> page. If you have any other questions
3282     involving installation or anything for that matter, please check the